Style Guides

This repository is used to store localization style guides for Mozilla communities. All style guides and related documents are listed in the menu on the left of the page.

Updating the documentation

We use a GitHub repository to store all documents. Simply open a pull request adding the new file or updating an existing document. Make sure to follow these style guidelines, and note that all pull requests need to be reviewed before merging. The instructions for creating new community style guides are part of the guidelines for community style guides.

If you want content to appear on GitBook, it needs to be listed in docs/SUMMARY.md.

Guidelines for creating community style guides

This document provides step-by-step instructions for creating a community style guide. Community style guides are to be used in coordination with the Mozilla general localization style guide but provide additional information that is vital to producing a high-quality translation in the community locale.

For creating new style guides, we have prepared a template you can use. Each heading in the template represents a common style topic in localization. Each topic features one or more questions that pertain to the information of the topic. Below each question is a description of how to answer the question and some examples of relevant information.

Note: All style guides use Markdown, which you may know from GitHub already. If not, Mastering Markdown or Basic writing and formatting syntax will give you a good introduction.

How to use these guidelines

  1. Create a folder for your locale in the /docs folder.
  2. Copy the file with the style guide template to your locale folder.
  3. Fill out each section of the template, using the questions and directions from the guidelines below. Refer to the example style guide as necessary.
  4. Submit a pull request to the repository administrators.
  5. Request a review of your style guide from another member of your community (if there are no other members of your community, include a note in your pull request).

If your community already has a style guide, you can follow these steps, using your style guide as a resource for relevant information, or you can use these guidelines to review and update your style guide.

The language you use in your style guide is up to your community. It is recommended that you use your language or English (or your source language if you don’t translate from English).

As you follow these steps, only include information that is relevant to your locale. If you are using the style guide template, remove sections of the template that do not apply to your language or locale and remove the included template comments as you complete sections.

Once you have updated or create your community style guide, submit a pull request to the repository managers.

Style guide Language (ab-CD)

Insert your locale name into the line below and leave it in your style guide unless it does not apply to your locale. You may translate it if your style guide is in your language

This style guide provides instruction for translating to the [Your locale name] locale. This style guide is to be used in coordination with the General Mozilla L10n Style Guide.

Include other relevant introductory information here, such as a community webpage or contact information.

Formality and tone

Who is the target user for this project and what is their background?

Describe briefly the users from your locale. If the type of user from one project to another will vary, indicate so here.

How would a target user for this project expect to interact with this project?

Describe the type of interaction users from your locale expect. Interactions could range from authoritative and formal to friendly and casual. Indicate what kind of tone is preferred in your locale.

Describe the features that create the right tone. For example, Spanish has multiple forms of the second person pronoun you. Generally, tu is considered informal and personal and usted is considered formal and impersonal. Mozilla’s Photon guidelines prefer an informal and personal interaction; however, if the culture of your locale prefers a formal interaction, that should be declared in your community style guide.

Is formal language or informal language appropriate for all of your language’s Mozilla l10n projects, or only some of them? Which ones?

If the tone varies from project to project, indicate what tone is best for which projects.

Natural expression

What kind of expression sounds natural in your locale?

Describe the features of a natural sounding localization.

Does your locale allow for many borrowed words and phrases or few?

List any important specific cases or include a link to any relevant resources. For example, the Spanish phrase, En ocho días could be translated as in eight days. However, a natural expression in English would be in seven days or even in a week. All three are correct translations, but the last two are more natural in English.

Cultural references, idioms, and slang

How are cultural references, idioms, and slang handled in your locale?

Define a policy for handling these cultural references, idioms, and slang that you can make standard across all projects.

An example of a cultural reference in English would be the phrase, kick-off meeting. This is a reference that uses an American football term. It means a meeting to begin a project. To translate it, you can follow one of two approaches:

  1. Find an equivalent reference phrase in your language.
  2. Remove the cultural reference and translate the core meaning (e.g., a commencement meeting)

Are there resources for cultural references, idioms, and slang in your language?

List resources you can use to find cultural equivalents (e.g., a slang dictionary in your language).

Units and unit conversion

Does your locale use the metric system or the imperial system?

State which measurement system is used in your locale for weight, distance, etc. State any other measurement system information or units of measurement that are relevant to your locale.

Date format

How are the date formats for weeks and months expressed?

Declare whether dates are fully spelled out, abbreviated, or represented in another way and the order of year, month and day. This can be represented with a table. Erase the blockquote markers around the example template or show the format with your own example.

NameFormatExample
Shortmm/dd/yy12/31/99
Abbreviatedmmm ddDec 31
LongMonth Date, YearDecember 31, 1999

Calendar view

Which date is considered the first day of the week, Sunday or Monday?

Is Lunar calendar observed? Other regional calendar observed?

Time format

How is time expressed in your language?

State how time is expressed including 0-24 hr expression, hour, minute and second if relevant.

Numerals

How are numerals and percentages expressed in your language?

Declare what the separators are for your number system and any other relevant information. This can be represented with a table. Erase the blockquote markers around the example template or show the format with your own example.

SeparatorCharacter NameSymbolExample
DecimalPeriod.1.23
ThousandsComma,1,234
PercentagePercent sign%99.95%

Currency

What currency and symbols are used in your country/language?

State what currency symbols are used in your locale. If your language covers different countries or currencies or common currency symbols vary depending on the project-by-project basis, declare the different types and uses.

Units of measurement

Do you use the imperial, metric or nautical system for measuring weight, distance, etc.?

Address and postal code format

What is the address format in your language?

Show the postal address format for your locale. Erase the blockquote markers around one of the examples or show the format with your own example.

Example: Most Asian countries start from big to small:

[Country]
[postal code][state/province][city][district]
[street number and name][building and suite numbers]
[addressee]

Countries of European languages start from small to big:

[addressee]
[street number and name][building and suite numbers]
[district][city][state/province][postal code]
[Country]

Telephone number format

How are telephone numbers expressed in your language?

Show the telephone number format. Does the format change for mobile and landline numbers? Adapt the example template or show the format with your own examples.

(###) ###-####

Grammar

Spelling and grammar checks

Does your language have standard spelling or grammar checks?

List and explain any spelling or grammar references for your language and how regularly they should be used.

Punctuation

Do you use different punctuation rules in your Mozilla localization than what your language standard defines?

Describe any variation in punctuation for Mozilla projects from language standards. If punctuation varies from project to project, list the projects that use variant punctuation.

Whitespace

Does your language require the use of white space around words, sentences, paragraphs, etc.?

Describe the relevant whitespace rules in your language as they pertain to Mozilla localization. If whitespace varies from project to project or depending on the interface element, describe how.

Copy rules

Please leave the following line in your style guide unless it does not apply to your locale. You may translate it if your style guide is in your language

Read about copy rules styles in the General Mozilla L10n Style Guide.

Is there an international/national standard for capitalization in your language?

Indicate whether your language uses title case, sentence case, all caps, or some other capitalization structure. If the style changes for different textual elements such as titles of movies, books, brand names, or userface elements (Save, File, etc.).

Is the capitalization standard appropriate for all of your language's Mozilla l10n projects or only some of them? Which ones?

If copy rules in your language change from project to project, list the copy rules for each project.

Is the capitalization standard appropriate for all user interface elements in your language or only some of them? Which ones?

Are there other typographical conventions regarding quotes, quotation marks, apostrophes, use of bold or italic text, all caps text, etc.

Example Style Guide English, USA (en-US)

This style guide provides instruction for translating to the American English locale. This style guide is to be used in coordination with the General Mozilla L10n Style Guide.

Formality and tone

In English, the tone of Mozilla’s language should be adaptable to anyone. From new users to seasoned Mozillians, the tone should be approachable, welcoming, and inclusive.

Mozilla is fun and should delight the user in expected and unexpected ways. The level of formality should express a sense of familiarity and friendliness while maintaining a voice of authenticity.

In general, use the second person (you) to address the user in Firefox products. Firefox is a user agent, and this point of view reinforces the message that "Firefox works for you."

Avoid using the first person (my, I) as it can create confusion about who is being addressed.

In some projects (like Desktop, Android, iOS, Focus), the language will be direct as it belongs to a software string. This language should be maintained as direct, yet respectful, and remain casual as with all other projects. Casual language should never be used at the expense of sounding disrespectful, regardless of the project.

Natural expression

Translations should sound as natural as possible. Borrowed words should never be used (with the exception of branded names).

Cultural references, idioms, and slang

When dealing with cultural references, idioms, and slang in English, references to American pop culture (music, movies), sports (basketball, baseball, football), sayings, and some proverbs will be generally recognized. If a cultural reference is difficult to express in English, use the meaning to find a good equivalent. Refer to sources and databases of common expressions to help find an adequate equivalent.

Units and unit conversion

Date format

FormatExample
Shortmm/dd/yy12/31/99
Abbreviatedmmm ddDec 31
LongMonth Date, YearDecember 31, 1999

It is acceptable to use any of the date formats; however, always coordinate the translated date format with the source text unless the specifications for a project indicate otherwise.

Calendar view

In the United States, the 12-month Gregorian calendar is used with the week starting on Monday.

Time format

Generally, a 12-hour clock is used in the United States. 24-hour clocks are used in the military and it is possible that 24-hour time could be used to make reference or allusion to military.

Numerals

Symbol PurposeCharacter NameSymbolExample
DecimalPeriod.1.23
ThousandsComma,1,234
PercentagePercent sign%99.95%

Currency

The currency of the United States is the dollar (USD). The monetary symbols are $ and rarely ¢.

Units of measurement

The imperial system is used for measurement in the United States.

Address and postal code format

[addressee]
[street number and name][building and suite numbers]
[district][city][state/province][postal code]
[Country]

Mozilla
331 East Evelyn Ave.
Mountain View, CA 94041
USA

Telephone number format

Area codes are surrounded by parentheses and separated by a space. The Phone number is separated by a dash.

(###) ###-####

Copy rules

Read about copy rules styles in the General Mozilla L10n Style Guide.

Firefox for desktop

Use title case for labels for items in the menu, navigation and section headings, page titles, and buttons.

Use sentence case for headlines, which are the more conversational titles and subtitles that appear in instructional text screens, tours and form pages, and text links without terminal punctuation unless the phrase is a question or exclamation or if the link is embedded in running text.

Note, include the terminal punctuation in hyperlink if the entire phrase is linked, and do not include the terminal punctuation in the hyperlink if the link is within running text.

Firefox for Android

Use sentence case in almost all instances – for screen titles, navigation, labels – except for buttons.

Use all caps for all buttons that contain text.

Firefox for iOS and Focus

Use title case for screen titles, navigation and section headings, labels, and buttons.

Use sentence case for headlines, which are the more conversational titles and subtitles that appear in instructional text screens, tours and form pages.

Firefox localization copy guide

This document is intended to facilitate the creation and localization of copy, and to support optimal preparation and consistency. This is a living document and it reflects our current state. As our brand expression continues to evolve, we’ll make updates to this doc.

Why is this guide important for the localization of Firefox marketing copy?

This guide is intended to help you better understand Firefox as a brand to get a better sense of how to approach translating in your language. In addition, we’ll share fixed, company-specific word choices and spelling to facilitate the localization process.

Our copy should not be translated literally one to one, but should reflect our brand personality and tone and be optimized for the appropriate cultural and linguistic perspective. The emotional and figurative intention of the source text should be adapted for the target language.

About Firefox — Who we are

Firefox is more than just the browser. Firefox is a challenger brand that challenges the status quo and advocates for users’ online rights.

In everything we do, we put the rights and needs of users first. And as a tech company, we always put people before profit.

Firefox as a brand combines the Firefox ethos and the expanding range of products.

(Mozilla is the not-for-profit organization behind Firefox.)

Brand promise:

Firefox fights for you

What are we fighting for:

Firefox fights for our users by creating products that give people control and agency over their online lives.

Firefox Products:

Personality and tonality

Who are we talking to?

We describe our target audience as Conscious Choosers. This refers to people who make or want to make conscious decisions, online and offline.

Conscious Choosers:

  • Develop preferences and make consumer choices carefully and consciously
  • Strive to reconcile their actions with their values and ideals
  • Are demanding customers
  • Often do their own research to fully understand all options

Our Brand Attributes and the Firefox Brand Personality

AttributeFirefox Brand Personality
OpinionatedFirefox acts out of conviction and takes clear positions with confidence.

Our products show that our motivation derives from our brand vision. Our brand ethos is at the root of everything we do. And that’s what we want to communicate to our users and partners.
OpenFirefox thinks that the internet should be open, accessible and safe for everyone.

We strive for open conversation and collaboration. We are: Open minded. Open-hearted. Open source. A global perspective is an integral part of our brand. We speak many languages and try to take different perspectives.
KindFirefox anticipates needs, offering solutions and alternatives where users’ freedom and rights are threatened or abused.

We want the best for our users and the world, so we lead by example. We develop better products, we start dialogues, we work openly and with others, we educate ourselves and others, and we inform our users. In doing so, we act empathically toward all people.
RadicalFirefox questions the status quo and common practices of tech giants and struggles with confidence for a better internet.

Looking optimistically into the future of the internet is a radical act. Bringing users’ needs before our own is just as radical. We challenge the status quo because we think it’s the right thing to do.

The Firefox Brand Personality is defined by the interaction of these attributes. Depending on the context, an attribute may be more forward or less forward.

Firefox Personality Matrix

Tone

Our tone of voice and language choices are:

Tone
Direct, clear, easy to understandWe want users to feel welcome, and we use words and concepts that everyone understands.
ConciseWe like short headlines, phrases and clear calls-to-action. We try to avoid complicated sentence structure or sentences without added value.
AuthenticOur copy — like our products — is made by humans for humans. We talk to our users as equals and use natural language.
NaturalWe write in active voice and use passive voice sparingly. Avoid nominal style. We prefer two short sentences to one long one.
RespectfulBe respectful without sounding too formal.
HumorousBe fun without becoming too flippant or cheesy.
RelevantWe meet our users where they are. They should be able to quickly grasp our content and feel a personal connection. Cultural allusions must make sense and fit the market rather than be literally translated without appropriate cultural context.
Optimistic and motivatingWe believe in a positive future for the internet. Although we sometimes talk about things that are not going so well, we prefer to take a positive outlook.
CreativeWhile information and clarity come first, we like to use creative and interesting language in our copy. We never want to sound bland and boring. We try to avoid marketing stereotypes.

Glossary of term / Recurring terms (WORK IN PROGRESS)

In case of uncertainties, the transvision search can also be consulted. However, as the search often shows older versions of translations in the result list (often with the formal address), this tool serves as a guide.

Mozilla general localization style guide

This style guide provides the basic guidelines for translating Mozilla products. This guide should be used in coordination with a locale-specific style guide for your language.

Fluency

To produce a fluent translation, not only should the translation follow the language’s standard grammar, punctuation, and spelling rules, but it should avoid being ambiguous, incoherent, inconsistent or unintelligible.

To avoid ambiguity, the translator must thoroughly understand the meaning behind the source text, including any references that text might include. For example, if the English source text uses the word it, the translator must know what it is to avoid an ambiguous translation. Clearly understanding the source text will also allow a translator to make the source text’s logical connections in their own translation. This helps to keep the translation coherent.

Inconsistency can pop up in many forms. A translator must be consistent in their use of abbreviations, references, and links within each localization project. They must also be consistent with Mozilla and the localization communities’ style guides and approved terminology.

Finally, there are times that a translation simply doesn’t make sense. It’s hard to put your finger on what exactly is wrong with it, but you know it is unintelligible and not fluent. While this is uncommon, it’s important to report these unintelligible translations and offer suggestions to correct them.

Meaning-based translation

When it comes to translation, meaning is everything. A translator needs to understand the source text’s meaning exactly. You then find its most closely linked equivalent in your own language, without adding or subtracting meaning in your translation. Finding meaning-based equivalents between languages can be difficult. To help concentrate your thoughts, ask yourself questions like:

  • What does this word/sentence/string mean in English?
  • What is the message the author is trying to send?
  • How would I express that meaning in my own language?

Sometimes translation memory and machine translation tools can offer bad suggestions for a translation. If you use either as part of your translation workflow, make sure to correct the suggestions before submitting them. Avoid literal translation at all costs. Watch out for words that might sound or look the same between English and your language, but have a different meaning.

Translating culture-specific references

At times there will be English content included in Mozilla products or web projects (e.g., marketing campaigns) that makes references to American culture and concepts. When translating these, it is best to find an equivalent cultural reference within your own culture that accurately conveys the meaning of the English reference. For example, an American might say, Good job, home run! A home run is a baseball reference for a successful outcome. An appropriate translation would be an equivalent metaphor within your culture. Using soccer as an example, you might translate Good job, home run! into Good job, nice goal! in your language.

Units and measurement

The translation should strive to achieve proper unit conversions for currency, measurements, etc. for the target audience. Source strings will use the imperial system (e.g., miles, pounds, feet, gallons, etc.). Target translations should convert imperial metrics to their measurement system when the measurement is provided as a number. If the measurement is provided as a variable, use the translation for the imperial system unit.

ExampleSourceTranslation
Number as string320 miles500 meters
Number as variable%d miles%d miles

Terminology

You should be consistent in the use of terminology in your language. These term bases could be developed and approved by the community, or leveraged from another party that adhere to national, international or local standards for software and internet terminology. Avoid inconsistent use of terminology within the project, within term base, or across all of your projects and using terminology from another subject matter (e.g., don’t use medical terminology in Firefox).

Here are a few things to keep in mind when managing your team’s terminology:

  • Avoid overly borrowing English expressions.
  • Referencing another language from the same language family may inspire you to come up with your own terms.
  • Consider the product target audience (age, level of literacy, education, social and economic status).
  • Will you use loan words from another language or coin new terms in your language to maintain language purity? Is there government requirement or policy to encourage creating new terms for new concepts, or will loan words be sufficient to reach broader masses and expedite new technology adoption?
  • If there are two acceptable scripts commonly used by the general public, what is the commonly used script on the web or government sites? What is the script used by major web technology companies?

Abbreviations and acronyms

Abbreviations and acronyms, should come from either a standard reference (like a dictionary of abbreviations) or should follow your language’s rules for creating abbreviations and acronyms. Once used, abbreviations and acronyms must remain consistent every place that it is used in the translation.

Text that should not be translated

Shortcuts and accesskeys

In Firefox and other software it’s possible to use keyboard shortcuts to invoke a specific command. For example, to open a file in Firefox you can press the combination of keys CTRL+O (Cmd+O on Mac). The accelerator key depends on the operative system, but the letter itself is normally localizable. This is what is called a shortcut, or commandkey. For example, the Open File… menu item is stored as

<!ENTITY openFileCmd.label "Open File…">
<!ENTITY openFileCmd.accesskey "O">
<!ENTITY openFileCmd.commandkey "o">

The commandkey is stored in openFileCmd.commandkey (sometimes the string has .key in the identifier). Normally you should not localize this key, since shortcuts are often common across the entire operative system (e.g. CTRL+S to Save) or similar products (CTRL+T to open a new tab in most browsers). But it needs to be localized if the letter is not available in your keyboard layout. For example, in Italian the character [ can be accessed through ALT+è, a command key [ would not work.

In the code fragment above you see also an accesskey defined for Open File…. Accesskeys are used to access a UI element from the keyboard. Example: if File menu has an accesskey F, and the Open file… menu has O, you can press ALT+F to access the menu, and then O to open a file.

If the label is File, and the accesskey is F, it will be displayed as File on Windows and Linux, with an underscored F. If the accesskey was O, so a character not available in the original label, it will be displayed underlined between parenthesis: File (O).

One important thing to determine is if, for your locale, it makes sense to have localized accesskeys: for example, if most users will use a keyboard with a different layout (English), it might make sense to keep the English original accesskey instead of using a letter available in your localization.

Accesskeys, like commandkeys, have their own lines within .dtd and .properties files and are usually identified by .accesskey in the string ID.

Variables

Variables should never be translated. You can recognize a variable within a string by its beginning with a specific character (e.g., $, #, %, etc.) followed by a combination of words without spacing. For example, $BrandShortName and %S are variables. You can move a variable around within a string, if the translation of the string requires it.

Cross-references and links

Cross-references (or links) must be consistently used within a translation. If a text contains a hyperlink URL to a support article in English, the translation should also contain a hyperlink to a translation of that support article (if available) or the English version. Links should not redirect to other pages nor should they be broken and unusable.

Brands, copyright, and trademark

Trademarks present a special case for localization as they have legal as well as semantic significance. To ensure that localization does not undermine Mozilla’s trademarks rights, please follow these rules when translating content that includes trademarks.

This page has a list of Mozilla trademarks.

Use in local languages with non-Latin script / permissible transcriptions

When your local language is not written in the Latin alphabet and you use a Mozilla trademark in a headline, a prominent position, or for the first time on a site, you should always use it in its original form in Latin script (e.g. Mozilla, Firefox, Thunderbird). Mozilla trademarks should therefore not be altered in prominent UI elements. For example, do not alter “Firefox” in the first-run menus, or for the first use of the term in landing pages and legal notices.

If you use the trademarks in a referential context after that, within continuous text, you may use a transcribed local language version. If a transcribed local version is used, each community must take care to select a single version and use it consistently. This should be in the form that is the most used and accepted expression in digital/print media.

Correct example:

Finally released: the Firefox Quantum Update! In November 2017, Mozilla has released the latest version of its Firefox software. […]

Наконец выпущен: обновление квантового Firefox Quantum! В ноябре 2017 года Mozilla выпустила последнюю версию своего программного обеспечения для Файрфокс. […]

Incorrect example:

Finally released: the Firefox Quantum Update! In November 2017, Mozilla has released the latest version of its Firefox software. […]

Наконец выпущен: обновление квантового Файрфокс квантум! В ноябре 2017 года Моцилла выпустила последнюю версию своего программного обеспечения для Файрфокс. […]

Use in local languages with Latin script

When your local language is written in the Latin alphabet, you should always use Mozilla’s trademarks in their original Latin script form. This also applies if the respective terms should be pronounced differently in your local language. You should therefore not modify the original Mozilla trademarks in order to reflect or facilitate local pronunciation.

Correct example:

In November 2017, Mozilla has released the latest version of its Firefox software. […]

W listopadzie 2017 roku Mozilla wydała najnowszą wersję swojego oprogramowania Firefox. […]

Incorrect example:

In November 2017, Mozilla has released the latest version of its Firefox software. […]

W listopadzie 2017 roku Mozilla wydała najnowszą wersję swojego oprogramowania Firefoks, […]

Translations of trademarks

Always use Mozilla’s trademarks in their original wording, even if you are transcribing them into your local non-Latin alphabet (per the guidance under point 1 above). For example, do not translate Firefox into another language by using words that have the meaning of “fire” and “fox” in that language.[1]

If you want to explain how a Mozilla trademark is pronounced in your local language or what it means if translated literally, you may do so in a referential context only. When doing so, you should also state expressly that you want to explain the meaning or pronunciation of the term.

Correct example:

The newest version of the Mozilla Firefox software – which literally means “fire fox” – outpaces its opponents and lives up to its name. […]

Die neueste Version der Firefox Software – was wörtlich übersetzt “Feuerfuchs” bedeutet – überholt all ihre Konkurrenten und macht ihrem Namen alle Ehre. […]

Incorrect example:

The newest version of Mozilla’s Firefox software outpaces its opponents and lives up to its name.

Die neueste Version von Mozillas Feuerfuchs Software überholt all ihre Konkurrenten und macht ihrem Namen alle Ehre.

[1] The only exception to this rule is the Chinese characters for “Fire” and “Fox” together. Mozilla has a registered trademark on these characters (China Reg. No. 16199671A).

Declensions

As noted above, when you use a Mozilla trademark in a headline, a prominent page position or UI element (such as first-run application menus or the first use of the term in landing pages and legal notices), or for the first time on a site, you should always use it in its original, unaltered form.

If your language requires declension of proper nouns and adjectives, try to limit their use to the following cases:

  • Grammatical unintelligibility requirements.
  • The contextual meaning of the proper noun requires the declension.
  • The UI cannot accommodate a large enough translation to avoid it.

In other cases, avoid using declension on trademarks.

Never use Mozilla trademarks as verbs and do not coin verbs out of Mozilla trademarks.

Copy rules

Title Case

Title case is a capitalization style that includes the following rules:

  • Always capitalize the first and last word in the text element, regardless of part of speech or other rules below.
  • For words in between the first and last, capitalize all nouns, verbs, adverbs and pronouns.
  • Capitalize conjunctions of four or more letters, but also capitalize if.
  • Capitalize prepositions for four or more letters.
  • Do not capitalize articles, prepositions of three or fewer letters, and conjunctions of three or fewer letters (but not if).
  • A note about hyphens: capitalize the second word in a hyphenated compound if it would normally be capitalized as a single word according to title case rules. So, capitalize the S in Quick-Search Options, lowercase the o in Add-on Choices.

Example: All Your Activity.

Sentence Case

Sentence case is a capitalization style where the first word of the text element is capitalized as well as any words that are normally capitalized.

Example: Sign in to continue to Firefox Sync.

All Caps

All Caps is a style where every letter is capitalized.

Example: CANCEL.

User interface elements

  • Titles: should be brief and precise. Localizers can assume that source content reaches 2/3 of the total available line space. This allows localization text to expand and not be truncated or resolved through ellipsis. Title on the final page (meaning no more click through) should allow enough room to display full text.
  • Headlines: which are the more conversational titles and subtitles that appear in instructional text screens, tours and form pages
  • Buttons: capitalize the first letter of each word. Limit to one or two words. Use verbs that precisely describe the button’s action. For example, Cancel, Clear History, Add Email, Select All, etc.
  • Value Selector Lists: capitalize the first letter of the first word and the first letter of any proper nouns. Limit to one or two words.
  • Articles: avoid them where possible. Articles (such as the word the in English) should be avoided wherever possible. User interface elements have limited space available for text. Avoiding articles will help ensure that your translations will be accommodated within the user interface.
  • Ellipsis: ellipsis are often inserted automatically in the UI where strings are truncated. Ellipsis should only be used at high level of UI pages, but not be on the final page (after a series of click-through) where detailed instruction is given. Ellipsis should not be used as a way to solve truncation issue. Focus on making the UI short and precise. The sequence of the sentence structure in another language may not translate well, when a sentence is half finished as such.

Style Guide Africaans (af)

Introduction

This style guide is intended for translators working on Mozilla projects. It provides in-depth information about the quality standards expected by Mozilla for the translation of all product components. All translators should read this guide before commencing any translation work.

This guide addresses general translation issues and specifies certain rules of style and usage specific to your language. It should be used as a guideline to avoid common typographic errors, and to maintain consistent terminology and writing style across a project’s components and indeed a product range. The guide should be used in conjunction with the current and previous product-specific glossaries, glossaries of other products of a product range, and the industry standard platform-specific glossaries, such as those provided by Mozilla.

This document may be updated or completed in the course of translation. Where no specific instruction or recommendation is specified, translators should use the phrasing and style that comply with industry standards.

General Style Considerations

Style guidelines

Follow these basic rules:

  • Original American English text tends to be rather casual. For Afrikaans, use a neutral style, with the informal form of address.
  • Try to avoid long, nested sentence constructions. If necessary, break up the original sentence and regroup it syntactically.
  • Use wording that is brief and unambiguous.
  • Use a consistent style throughout all product components and across a product range, to ensure that all Mozilla products can be linguistically identified as part of a group of products.

Style guidelines specific to Mozilla products

  • Please refer to the reference documentation supplied by Mozilla and any Mozilla style guides and make a note of anything significant and specific that should be noted with respect to Mozilla.
  • Please ensure to use a recently published dictionary (recommended source: Pharos 5-1 CD-ROM / Pharos Online list of technical dictionaries).
  • Before returning any files, please be sure to run a recent Afrikaans spellchecker (in case of disagreements, the HAT spelling will be followed).

Reference terminology

The following terminology sources should be used as reference in the translation:

  • Product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency across all product components.
  • Previous version product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency between versions.
  • Glossaries of other Mozilla products, to ensure cross-product consistency.
  • Microsoft glossaries, to ensure adherence to some of the industry standards. The glossaries can be found at: http://www.microsoft.com/Language.

Terminology not found in the glossary or style guide

  • Please make a log of any terms not found in the glossary or style guide that are used frequently in the materials. Return this log to Rubric so that the terms can be incorporated into the glossary. This increases consistency in large projects.

Abbreviations

General Abbreviations

  • Avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations. Where no appropriate abbreviation exists, rather use the whole word.
  • Where there are space restrictions in the UI, abbreviations can be used. These must be entered into the glossary with the full translation, and should be approved by the customer.
  • This matter is dealt with in detail and is cross-referenced in AWS10 under 3.14, 3.20, 7.1, 7.2, 12.8–12.12, 14.5 and 14.9–14.12. These rules should be followed closely.
  • The compounds below contain either an abbreviation or a numeral followed by a component name. The abbreviation or numeral is marked in red in the English example. The Afrikaans example below show how such constructions should be translated.
English exampleAfrikaans example
CD-ROM driveCD-ROM-aandrywer
2-D gridlines2D roosterlyne (See AWS10, 3.14(e))
24 bit color value24-bis-kleurwaarde
3.5 Floppy3.5-disket
51/4-inch Floppy5¼-duim-disket
35mm slides35 mm-skyfies

Note the difference between the styling of “5¼-duim-disket” and “35 mm-skyfies”, which results from the fact that "mm" is regarded a symbol and not an abbreviation. South Africa, and therefore Afrikaans, officially use the metric (SI) system, which requires as space between a figure and the accompanying symbol – see AWS10, 7.10–7.17.

Measurements and Numerals

In addition to common measurements such as km, m, cm, mm, etc., the following abbreviations are used in technical documentation:

MeasurementAbbreviationComment/Example
GigagreepGBDo not use Gbyte
KilogreepKBDo not use Kbyte
MegagreepMBDo not use Mbyte

Important: The old rule that all numerals up to 12 must be spelled out is no longer valid. Use your best judgment given the at hand, especially when a combination of numbers is involved.

Example: Twee 1-GB-hardeskywe.

Filename Extensions

  • Filename extensions and graphic formats referenced by filename extensions such as BMP, GIF, HTML, PNG, TIFF must not be translated.

Acronyms

Acronyms are made up of the initial letters of several words that are represented by these letters. Some well-known examples are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory).

If an acronymn has an official or commonly recognised translation in Afrikaans (e.g. if it is present in a general dictionary), use the Afrikaans acronymn. Otherwise, use the English acronymn. If the acronymn is followed in English by a full form, retain the acronymn in English and translate the full form into Afrikaans.

IMPORTANT: Do not translate an abbreviation or acronym that is a trademark, unless it is the official translation of that trademark.

Use recognised translations of acronyms where these exist, but avoid creating new, non-standard acronyms.

**Examples:**
Data Access Objects (DAO) = Datatoegangsvoorwerpe (DAO)
ActiveX data objects (ADO) = ActiveX-datavoorwerpe (ADO)

Articles

Product Names

Mozilla product names are used without definite or indefinite articles. Product names and non-translated feature names are considered proper nouns and are used without definite or indefinite articles in English.

Note that the product and feature names are regarded as proper nouns. When these form part of a compound noun in Afrikaans, the preferred style is to hyphenate and not to write the common-noun part of the compound separately, e.g. (+) Windows Mail-kieslys, (+) Internet Explorer-opsies. No hyphens should be inserted between parts of the product and feature names when that proper noun forms part of an Afrikaans compound noun, e.g. () Windows-Mail-kieslys, (-) Internet-Explorer-opsies. See in particular AWS10, rules 14.6 (including pp. 118 & 119) to 14.12.

English exampleAfrikaans example
Windows Mail shares your Internet Connection settings with Internet Explorer(+) Windows Mail deel jou internetverbinding-instellings met Internet Explorer
Website addresses will be sent to Microsoft(+) Webwerfadresse sal aan Microsoft gestuur word

By contrast, translated feature names are used with a definite or indefinite article as they are not treated as proper names.

English exampleAfrikaans example
Hide the Task Manager when it is minimized(+) Versteek die taakbestuurder wanneer dit geminimeer word
Check for updates in your installed Media Player's language(+) Kyk of daar bywerkings in die taal van jou geïnstalleerde mediaspeler is

Copyrights and Trademarks

Product names should not be translated unless the client requests it. |

Copyright protection is granted to any original work of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression from which it can be perceived, reproduced, or communicated.

English textAfrikaans translation
Copyright(+) Kopiereg
All rights reserved(+) Alle regte voorbehou

Translation of Version Strings

  • Please use the following guidelines when localizing version strings:
    • Version strings that contain copyright information should always be translated.
    • (Example: Kopiereg © 2005 xyz. Alle regte voorbehou.)
  • In version strings containing feature names that are trademarked, the feature names that are trademarked should not be translated.

Gender-neutral Translation

In cases where a noun that denotes a male person or animal has a counterpart that denotes the female by means of a suffix, use the male form, unless the male form normally indicates to Afrikaans readers that female is excluded.

Instead of stressing gender differences or reinforcing stereotypical distinctions between men and women, use language that is as neutral as possible. The neutral approach also applies to the localization of scenarios, comparisons, examples, illustrations, and metaphors.

When assigning roles and functions to men and women (active vs. passive roles, leading vs. secondary roles, technical vs. non-technical professions, and so on), follow the English source text. Scenarios, pictures, metaphors, and comparisons should be based on areas and attributes common to both genders.

Instead of using phrases which mention the two genders separately, use a general term that includes both genders such as “mense”, “gebruikers” or “persone”.

Avoid writing sentences that refer to a single person whose gender is unknown. You can often avoid this situation by rewriting the sentence to make the subject plural. In cases where a reference to a single person is impossible to avoid, use “hy/sy”, “sy/haar” or “hom/haar”. The language in Mozilla products should, however, sound natural, as if part of a spoken conversation.

Use the following strategies to avoid the use of overtly gender-biased expressions:

Linguistic methodExampleContext
Use a neutral nounpersoon, leier, spanleier, deskundige, werknemer, gebruikerConcept descriptions, explanations
Combine both genders by means of a slashhy/sy, sy/haar, hom/haarEverywhere

Special Afrikaans notes:

  1. For Mozilla translations, it is NOT acceptable in Afrikaans to use a plural pronoun if the antecedent is singular, e.g. “Die gebruiker moet hulle vergewis van die inhoud van die lisensiekontrak” is not acceptable, even though this is increasingly done in English. (The only exception to this rule may occur when the antecedent is nominally singular but notionally plural, e.g. some collective nouns.) Therefore, the use of a plural pronoun with a singular antecedent is not an acceptable way of avoiding gender-specific language.
  2. Afrikaans uses the masculine pronoun (hy/sy/hom) to refer to non-human objects, and not the non-personal (neuter) pronoun dit, e.g.
  • (+) Die rekenaar werk nie want sy hardeskyf is stukkend. (The PC doesn’t work because its hard disk is broken)
  • (+) Die motor kan nie ry nie want hy het nie ’n battery nie.(The car won’t go because it doesn’t have a battery.)
  • (+) Die hond het vir hom ’n skaduplekkie gesoek. (The dog found itself a patch of shade.)

The non-personal pronoun “dit” can be used, of course, but mostly as sentence or clause subject or object.

In cases where a noun that denotes a male person or animal has a counterpart that denotes the female by means of a suffix, use the male form, unless the male form normally indicates to Afrikaans readers that female is excluded, or restructure the text to avoid any overt mentioning of gender on the noun.

  • A custom dictionary can only be used by the user who created it.
    • (+) ’n Pasgemaakte woordeboek kan slegs gebruik word deur die gebruiker wat dit geskep het.
  • A custom dictionary can only be used by the person who created it.
    • (+) ’n Pasgemaakte woordeboek kan slegs gebruik word deur die persoon wat dit geskep het.
  • All users who use this feature.
    • (+) Alle gebruikers wat hierdie stelsel gebruik.
  • All who use this feature.
    • (+) Almal wat hierdie stelsel gebruik.
  • Even if you are not a statistician, Microsoft Excel offers you...
    • (+) Selfs al is jy nie ’n statistiekkenner nie, kan Microsoft Excel jou help om ...
  • Even if you understand little about statistics, Microsoft Excel offers you...
    • (+) Selfs al verstaan jy nie veel van statistiek nie, kan Microsoft Excel jou help om ...
  • Some of the best snapshots could be made because the photographer...
    • (+) ’n Mens kry soms die beste foto’s omdat die fotograaf ...
  • Some of the best snapshots could be made because the person who took the photo...
    • (+) ’n Mens kry soms die beste foto’s omdat die persoon wat die foto’s geneem het, ...
  • If you have fun, your friends and relatives will be...
    • (?) As jy pret het, sal jou vriende en familie...
  • If one is having fun, friends and relatives will be...
    • (+) As ’n mens iets geniet, sal vriende en familie.
  • Create an appealing and secure shopping environment for your customers.
    • (+) Skep ’n aangename en veilige koopomgewing vir jou klante.
  • Create an appealing and secure shopping environment for your clientele.
    • (?) Skep ’n aangename en veilige koopomgewing vir jou kliënte.

Genitive

The relative pronoun “who” is translated as “wat” [= ‘that, which’] irrespective of whether its antecedent is human or non-human, except when the relative pronoun is accompanied by a preposition or the particle “se” (the possessive particle), in which case “wie” [= ‘who, whose’] is used, e.g.

  • (+) Die program wat gebruik word, is verouderd. (The program that is used is obsolete.)
  • (+) Iemand wat die lisensievoorwaardes oortree, sal… (Someone who does not comply with …)
  • (+) ’n Gebruiker wat sukkel, kan die hulplyn gebruik. (A user experiencing problems may use the help line.)
  • (+) ’n Gebruiker wie se rekenaar te klein is, gaan sukkel. (A user whose PC is too small …)
  • (+) Die mense na wie jy soek, is … (The people you’re looking for are …)

Localized term vs. English term

The most common language of terminology in the computer world is English. However, it is quite unnatural in Afrikaans to use English words in an Afrikaans sentence (except for product names and acronyms). Resist the temptation to borrow an English word as-is. Find out what the word means, and create a term that a reasonably intelligent Afrikaans reader will understand.

Gender

Many terms in circulation in the high tech industry have been adopted from English. They must follow Afrikaans grammar and syntax rules.

Inflections

The examples below show how English loanwords inflect for number in Afrikaans.

English exampleAfrikaans example + plural
CDCD – CD’s
CD-ROMCD-ROM – CD-ROM’e of CD-ROM’s
HTMLHTML – HTML’e
HTTPHTTP – HTTP’s
SIMSIM – SIM’s

Verbs and Verb Forms

Do not use an English verb as loan word in Afrikaans.

Headings

Headings should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly. If in English the heading begins with a gerund, use the nominalized verb (without article) whenever possible.

Capitalization

  • In English headings, all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions (such as “that,” “until,” and “which”) are capitalized. Please do not apply the same principle to Afrikaans headings. Instead, follow the normal Afrikaans capitalization rules. The same rule applies to software strings.

  • Normal syntactical capitalization should be used in Afrikaans, bearing in mind that buttons, tags, etc. should be clearly identifiable as such “Klik op Hulp” or “Gaan na die Tuis-strook”. The use of capital letters is dealt with in Chapter 9 of AWS10. If a heading or label uses multiple words and is not in a different format, enclose it in double quotes in Afrikaans.

English exampleAfrikaans example
Click Help to proceedKlik Hulp om voort te gaan
Click Help Me Choose to proceedKlik "Help my besluit" om voort te gaan
Switching Between Windows(+) Spring tussen vensters

In Lists and Tables

Whenever possible, headings of lists and tables should consist of one or two words, preferably active nouns. They should be concise, even if the source uses a longer phrase.

In English, lists may be headed in two ways, namely (a) an introductory phrase that is completed syntactically by every item in the list and (b) an “independent” introductory phrase followed by syntactically independent items.

In English, the syntax of the items are typically not affected by the phrasing of the introductory phrase, if it is one sentence. However, in Afrikaans, the word order of the introductory phrase can affect the word order of the individual items. When translating the introductory phrase, try to translate it in such a way that the items can be translated as an independent phrases.

Either way, care should be taken to ensure that every individual item is not an incorrect syntactical completion of the heading and makes sense in terms of meaning (semantics) and subject matter. Note that the position of the (main) verb may require a structure that differs significantly from the English.

(In the examples below, “How to use” would require the infinitive form of the verb in Afrikaans, which requires the object to be placed before the main verb, for example “How to use a mouse” would become “Hoe om ’n muis te gebruik”, and therefore translating the heading as “Hoe om te gebruik” would result in incorrect syntax. The heading “First do this” may, depending on what follows, be translated as simply “Doen eers”, for instance in “Doen eers … die berekening”. The context will be the determining factor. The context would also determine whether a heading like “Walkthrough” represents a verb or a noun; in this case the verb would be “Loop deur” and the items should then follow on that verb correctly.)

US headingAfrikaans heading
In order to(+) Om die volgende te doen:
Do this(+) Doen die volgende:
How to use(+) Hoe om die volgende te gebruik:
First do this(+) Doen eers die volgende:
Then do this(+) Doen daarna die volgende:
How to:(+) Hoe om die volgende te doen:
Walkthrough(+) Loop deur (verb)

Hyphenation and Compound formation

General Hyphenation Rules

In Afrikaans, hyphens are more common and more acceptable than in English. In fact, hyphens can be used in long compound nouns to make its meaning clearer. When faced with a highly complex compound, resolve it by clarifying the relationships among the various compound components. Ways of doing this include shifting the word order or using prepositions.

Examples:

the Windows 2000 operating systemdie Windows 2000-bedryfstelsel
the Windows 2000 user magazine subscription registration formdie registrasievorm vir intekening op die Windows 2000-gebruikertydskrif
the software user license conditionsdie sagteware se gebruikerlisensie-voorwaardes

The explanatory orientation on pp. 118–120, as well as rules 14.6–14.12 in AWS10 should be studied and followed closely. Note that while AWS10 allows various possibilities in compounds containing proper nouns (14.6–14.12) the hyphenated variant (i.e. proper noun + hyphen + lower-case common noun) is the preferred form for Windows 7.

This applies in particular to Mozilla product and component names that appear as the proper-noun element in compounds that are either proper nouns again, or common nouns (Examples below include Microsoft/Windows product names).

English exampleAfrikaans example
Windows passwordWindows-wagwoord
Microsoft Word documentMicrosoft Word-dokument
Microsoft SQL Server DatabaseMicrosoft SQL Server-databasis
Microsoft BackOffice product familyMicrosoft BackOffice-produkfamilie

English Compounds

We do not automatically hyphenate purely English compounds. Use the following steps in handling US compounds:

  • If the compound consists of no more than 3 components write it as one word in Afrikaans, unless there is serious risk of misunderstanding.
  • If the compound is more complex, resolve it by:
    • inserting a hyphen at the appropriate point in the word (try to avoid using more than one hyphen in a single word, unless one of the hyphens is required and the other is optional).
    • adjusting the word order and applying the rules of Afrikaans syntax,
    • using prepositions,
    • reducing complexity by writing related components as one word.

Product Names

Product names must not be hyphenated. However, in order to offset the actual product name from the word that follows in a compound, the hyphen is placed right between the product name and the following term. Please note that this rule applies even if the word that follows is a US term.

Compounds with Acronyms, Abbreviations or Numerals

This matter is dealt with in detail and is cross-referenced in AWS10 under 3.14, 3.20, 7.1, 7.2, 12.8–12.12, 14.5 and 14.9–14.12. These rules should be followed closely.

The compounds below contain either an abbreviation or a numeral followed by a component name. The abbreviation or numeral is marked in red in the English example. The Afrikaans example below show how such constructions should be translated.

English exampleAfrikaans example
CD-ROM driveCD-ROM-aandrywer
2-D gridlines2D roosterlyne (See AWS10, 3.14(e))
24 bit color value24-bis-kleurwaarde
3.5 Floppy3.5-disket
51/4-inch Floppy5¼-duim-disket
35mm slides35 mm-skyfies

Note the difference between the styling of “5¼-duim-disket” and “35 mm-skyfies”, which results from the fact that "mm" is regarded a symbol and not an abbreviation. South Africa, and therefore Afrikaans, officially use the metric (SI) system, which requires as space between a figure and the accompanying symbol – see AWS10, 7.10–7.17.

Indexes

Capitalization, Prepositions and Articles

For first level entries (main index level), always capitalize the first letter of the first word. Write the remaining words according to existing Afrikaans capitalization rules.

Subentries: capitalize nouns, use lowercase for other entries.

In English headings, all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions (such as “that,” “until,” and “which”) are capitalized. Please do not apply the same principle to Afrikaans headings. Instead, follow the normal Afrikaans capitalization rules. The same rule applies to software strings.

Normal syntactical capitalization should be used in Afrikaans, bearing in mind that buttons, tags, etc. should be clearly identifiable as such “Klik op Hulp” or “Gaan na die Tuis-strook”. The use of capital letters is dealt with in Chapter 9 of AWS10. If a heading or label uses multiple words and is not in a different format, enclose it in double quotes in Afrikaans.

English exampleAfrikaans example
Click Help to proceedKlik Hulp om voort te gaan
Click Help Me Choose to proceedKlik "Help my besluit" om voort te gaan
Switching Between Windows(+) Spring tussen vensters

All parts of a name use initial capitals. For use of capitals in certain surnames (often used as middle names) consisting of more than one element (mostly of French and Dutch origin), see rules 9.7 – 9.10 of AWS9.

Prepositional phrases in English need to be translated according to their context; anglicisms should be avoided. The table below contains frequently used verbs and the prepositions that follow them. Please use this table as a reference.

This is a particularly problematic area, because some verbs used transitively in English cannot be so used in Afrikaans, and then something needs to be added or changed in translation, for instance migrate cannot be used transitively in Afrikaans, and so a link verb like laat needs to be added: laat migreer (or a similar translational solution used). Also, Afrikaans phrasal verbs will change (be “split”) depending on the particular syntactical environment. This matter should be dealt with extremely carefully.

Generally speaking, Afrikaans uses only one definite article, namely “die”, and one indefinite article, namely “ ’n”. There is no grammatical gender. Most past-tense verbs are formed by the addition of “ge-” to the verb. A very typical Afrikaans word is “baie” [= ‘many; much; numerous’]. There is a strong presence of Romance languages in Afrikaans (as in Dutch and English), and many words found in for instance French or English will be recognisable in Afrikaans, albeit in a spelling-adapted form.

Prepositions

Translate English prepositions according to their context and not too literally.

Prepositional phrases in English need to be translated according to their context; anglicisms should be avoided. The table below contains frequently used verbs and the prepositions that follow them. Please use this table as a reference.

This is a particularly problematic area, because some verbs used transitively in English cannot be so used in Afrikaans, and then something needs to be added or changed in translation, for instance migrate cannot be used transitively in Afrikaans, and so a link verb like laat needs to be added: laat migreer (or a similar translational solution used). Also, Afrikaans phrasal verbs will change (be “split”) depending on the particular syntactical environment. This matter should be dealt with extremely carefully.

US-English expressionAfrikaans expressionComment
migrate to(+) migreer naNote that this is not a transitive verb in Afrikaans
Migrate from(+) migreer vanafThe preposition “vanaf” should not be used in conjunction with “na”.
import to(+) voer in naDepending on the context, the preposition may also be “in”.
import from(+) voer in vanafPreposition may also be “uit”, and vanaf” should not be used in conjunction with “na”.
export to(+) voer uit na
export from(+) voer uit vanafPreposition may also be “uit”, and vanaf” should not be used in conjunction with “na”.
update to(+) werk by tot“Opdateer” is NOT to be used.
upgrade to(+) gradeer op na
change to(+) verander naContext may require “in”; there is a distinct difference in meaning.
click on(+) klik op
connect to(+) koppel aan
welcome to ...(+) welkom by

The examples below contain frequently occurring noun phrases that are preceded by a preposition. Please use this table as a reference.

US-English expressionAfrikaans expression
in the toolbar(+) op die nutsbalk
on the tab(+) op die oortjie
on the menu(+) op die kieslys
on the net(+) op die netwerk
on the Internet(+) op die internet
on the Web(+) op die web
on a web site(+) op ’n webwerf
on a web page(+) op ’n webblad

Procedures and Syntax

In procedural text, which tells the user to perform certain actions in a certain number of steps, the order in which interface terms are to appear in the translation is usually top to bottom (for example, “menu,” “command,” “dialog box,” “dialog box controls”). This order reflects the sequence in which the action needs to be performed, and it should be maintained unless there are technical reasons preventing it.

This convention is less important in normal body text, which is sometimes written in a more personal tone and less formal style, thus allowing the translator to be more creative.

See also sections 4.5.5 and 4.6.2.2.

English exampleAfrikaans example (possible body text)
On the View menu, click Filter(+) Klik Filter op die Aansig-kieslys
On the Tools menu, click Internet Options, and click the Security tab(+) Klik Internetopsies en dan die Sekuriteit-duimgids op die Nutsmiddels-kieslys

Descriptors

Use the descriptor (“menu,” “button,” “command,” and so on) only if the original text uses it or if it is needed for clarifying the position of a term in the interface.

Procedural Syntax

In procedural text, which tells the user to perform certain actions in a certain number of steps, the order in which interface terms are to appear in the translation is usually top to bottom (i.e. menu, command, dialog box, dialog box controls). Maintain this sequence unless there are technical reasons preventing it.

Example:

In the "Extras" menu, click "Settings" and then "Music files".

You may come across procedural instructions of the type "To do this and that, click on ...". In body text, you may rearrange such sentences to first mention the action the user needs to do and then the purpose.

English exampleAfrikaans example
To open the shortcut menu, click View Source(+) Klik "Beskou bron" op die kortpadkieslys oop te maak
To end the install, click Cancel(+) Klik Kanselleer om die installering te beëindig

Procedural Headings

Procedural headings are very important because they tell users exactly what they are going to do in the steps that follow. Headings should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly. If in English the heading begins with a gerund, try to use a nominalized form in Afrikaans.

Status Bar Messages

Please make sure you adequately capture the meaning of messages when translating.

If you think a source status bar message is ambiguous, query it to make sure you provide the reader with the right information: if you cannot understand it, they are also not certain to. There is nothing more annoying than "help" that doesn't!

A status bar message is information about the active document, a selected command, or any active selected interface item. The messages are shown in the status bar at the bottom of the window when the user has chosen a menu, a command or any other item, or has started a function. Some status bar messages refer to actions being performed or already completed (for example in Microsoft Internet Explorer). Refer to

status bar

Figure 1. Example of a typical status bar and status bar message.

Messages reporting that a process is executing usually use a verb in the “-ing” form plus three dots after the text. In Afrikaans you should choose a verb tense and/or aspect that expresses the ongoing nature of the action.

Difficulties can arise if this convention is not kept in the US text and the status or progress message is not immediately recognizable as such (although sometimes the Resource ID will tell). The standard syntax should be applied to status bar messages wherever possible.

Examples:

English exampleAfrikaans example (status bar message)Afrikaans example (dialog heading)
Scanning files(+) Deursoek van lêers
Opening message(+) Oopmaak van boodskap
Scanning files...(+) Deursoek tans lêers...
Opening message…(+) Maak tans boodskap oop...

Usage of "Select"

ItemUS exampleAfrikaans exampleComments
ListsIn the drop-down list, select an option.In die aftreklys, kies ’n opsie.select = kies The user chooses a pre-existing entry, e.g. in a list.
Check BoxesSelect the check box.Aktiveer die merkblokkie.select = aktiveer

Usage of "Click"

ItemExampleUSAfrikaans
MenusOn the ____ menu, click _____.On the File menu, click Open.Op die Lêer-kieslys, klik "Maak oop".
Cascading MenusOn the ___ menu, click ___, and then click ___.On the Tools menu, click Preferences, and then click Music Files.Op die Nutsgoed-kieslys, klik Voorkeure, en klik dan Musieklêers.
Click the arrow next to _____ and then click ____ .Click the arrow next to , and then click the file type you want.Klik die pyltjie langs en klik dan die lêertipe wat jy wil hê.

Punctuation

Commas and Other Common Punctuation Marks

Please follow the following basic rules for the use of punctuation marks in Afrikaans. Make sure to include a space after commas, and after periods if it is followed by another sentence. Use one space between sentences.

There are a few important punctuation conventions that need to be observed:

  1. The predicates of complex sentences are separated by a comma, whether or not they occur next to each other in the sentence. After the infinitive (om te + verb) as a noun clause no comma is needed.
  2. A defining adjectival clause is terminated by a comma, unless two equivalent clauses are linked by “en” or “of”, or, of course, unless it is the final clause of the complex sentence.
  3. A non-defining adjectival clause is preceded by a comma before the relative pronoun and is terminated by a comma.
  4. A dash (en dash) between words should be preceded and followed by a single space.

omma vs. Period in Numerals

English uses a period as decimal separator, Afrikaans usually uses a comma.

Example:

English:    5.25 cm
Afrikaans:     5,25 cm

English:  Letter Landscape 11 x 8.5 in
Afrikaans: Letter Querformat 11 x 8.5 in

English:    1,526
Afrikaans:    1 526

In bullet lists, instruction lists, captions and callouts:

  • If your translation is longer than the US text, or if you split your translation into several independent sentences, use common sense and insert a period if it improves the Afrikaans style.

US English uses a period as the decimal separator, while many other languages use a comma. In Afrikaans a comma is used.

In paper sizes (the last example in the table below) the decimal separator and the abbreviation "in" for inches are kept, since the sizes are US norms and should be represented accordingly.

The “in” as abbreviation for “inch” is not acceptable in Afrikaans, and should be changed to “dm.” – note the full stop! – which has been the recognized abbreviation for decades. Before independence, South Africa as part of the British Empire used the imperial measurement system in which “inch = duim” and “in = dm.”.

English exampleAfrikaans example
5.25 cm5,25 cm
5 x 7.2 inches5 x 7,2 duim
Letter Landscape 11 x 8.5 inLetter Landskap 11 x 8.5 dm.

For thousands, English uses a comma while many other languages use a period (at Mozilla we normally do not use a space for this purpose, but we use a period instead to avoid wrapping problems).

Note that neither a full stop nor a comma may be used for thousands, because both may be interpreted as a decimal separator. A space should be used for thousands and preferably a hard space to avoid wrapping problems.

English exampleAfrikaans example
1,5261 526
$ 1,526.75$1 526,75

Note that there should be NO SPACE between the currency symbol and the first digit!

Version Numbers

Version numbers always contain a period (Version 4.2, for example). Please note the following punctuation examples of “Version x.x”:

Examples:

English exampleAfrikaans example
If you are using Word version 7.0 or later...(+) Indien jy Word 7.0 of ’n latere weergawe gebruik, ...
If you are using Microsoft Excel version 6.0 for Windows...(+) Indien jy Microsoft Excel 6.0 vir Windows gebruik, ...

Version numbers are usually also part of version strings, but technically they are not the same. Where possible in Afrikaans, leave out “weergawe” because it would in most cases require a hyphen to link it to the product name, which will only complicate matters.

Access Keys (also known as Hot Keys)

“Hot keys” are a combination of keys such as ALT+F or Ctrl+S that move the focus to a menu, command, or control, without using the mouse.

The following table lists special options for hot keys in US-English interfaces and describes whether each option is allowed in Afrikaans:

Hot key special optionsUsage: is it allowed?Notes
"Slim characters", such as i, l, t, r, f can be used as hot key Example: OptionYes
Characters with downstrokes, such as g, j, y, p and q can be used as hotkeys Note that it can be difficult to see the hotkey underline for these characters Example: OptionYesAvoid using g as a hot key.
Extended characters can be used as hotkeys Example: OptiónNoIt would be very difficult to insert a vowel with diacritics and use Ctrl, Alt, etc. at the same time.
An additional letter, appearing (between brackets or not) after item name, can be used as hotkeys Example: Option w / Option (w)Yes
A number, appearing (between brackets or not) after item name, can be used as hotkey Example: Option 3 / Option (3)Yes
A symbol, appearing (between brackets or not) after item name, can be used as hotkey Example: Option > / Option (>)YesIn principle it would be acceptable, but it would more likely be confusing. If used, restrict to @, #, %, &, =

Typographic Conventions

Consistent use of typographic conventions in documentation helps users locate and interpret information easily. Generally speaking, the source format should be followed as closely as possible, i.e. terms with a particular formatting in the source should have the same formatting in the translation.

If menu, command, option, etc. names are highlighted by bold print in the source, use bold print for the corresponding translated terms. If menu, command, option, etc. names are put in quotes in the source, use quotes for the corresponding terms in the translation.

Note that in software strings, you must use two double quotes (""xxx"") to denote names within a string. If you only use a single double quotes ("xxx"), this will cause problems with the compilation, as strings are generally denoted by double quotes.

Wizard Names

Abbreviations: N = Noun, A = Adjective (incl. participle used as A), Nv = Verb used as Noun

SourceTargetRulePattern
Configuration Wizard, Installation WizardOpstelling-assistent, Installeer-assistentRule 1: One noun is followed by a hyphen and “assistent”.N-assistent

Appendix

Guidelines for the Localization of Error Messages

The following guidelines do not apply to the translation of FirefoxOS because brevity is more important in FirefoxOS than using long, pleasant sounding idiomatic expressions.

Articles and Pronouns

SourceTargetGuidelines
File already exists The file already exists This file already existsDie lêer bestaan reeds.In complete sentences, use articles consistently even if the US string does not.
Not enough memory to complete this operation.Nie genoegsame geheue om die aksie te voltooi nie.Use the definite article instead of the demonstrative pronoun unless it is important in context.
The network is down./ Network is down.Die netwerk is afgeskakel.
Metaphorically used prepositions usually require rephrasing.

Verbs

SourceTargetGuidelines
The document is too large. Document too large.Die dokument is te groot.Use is/dis/die/hierdie, etc. + V consistently even if source message does not.
An unknown error has occurred./ No error occurred.’n Onbekende fout. / Geen fout.Shorten this construction where possible.
Cannot locate file.Die lêer kan nie opgespoor word nie.Locate, find = vind/opspoor
To try copying files again, click OK.Klik Goed en kopieer weer die lêers.Omit the translation of try when there is a simple alternative.

Negation

SourceTargetGuidelines
Wrong file type.Verkeerde lêersoort.Wrong, incorrect = verkeerd/inkorrek
File not found. / File was not found. / The file was not found.Die lêer word vermis.Use this basic syntax for negative sentences.

Style Guide Arabic (ar)

Introduction

This style guide is intended for translators working on Arabic Mozilla projects. It provides in-depth information about the quality standards expected by Mozilla for the translation of all product components. All translators should read this guide before commencing any translation work.

This guide addresses general translation issues and specifies certain rules of style and usage specific to your language. It should be used as a guideline to avoid common typographic errors, and to maintain consistent terminology and writing style across a project’s components and indeed a product range. The guide should be used in conjunction with the current and previous product-specific glossaries, glossaries of other products of a product range, and the industry standard platform-specific glossaries, such as those provided by Microsoft.

This document may be updated or completed in the course of translation. Where no specific instruction or recommendation is specified, translators should use the phrasing and style that comply with industry standards.

General Style Considerations

Style guidelines

Follow these basic rules:

  • Original American English text tends to be rather casual. For Arabic language the general style should be clear, friendly and concise. Being friendly does not mean using overly colloquial language – it is crucial to consistently maintain a professional tone, but use contemporary, up-to-date style and common words. Use language that resembles conversation observed in everyday settings as opposed to the formal, technical language that is often used for technical and commercial content.
  • Try to avoid long, nested sentence constructions. If necessary, break up the original sentence and regroup it syntactically.
  • Use wording that is succinct, unambiguous, and free of jargon.
  • Produce a translation that sounds as it if was originally written in your language, i.e. avoid following the original source sentence structure too closely.
  • Always bear in mind who your target audience is (i.e. an experienced computer user, a beginner, or a combination of both groups).
  • Use a consistent style throughout all product components and across a product range, to ensure that all Mozilla products can be linguistically identified as part of a group of products.

Style guidelines specific to Mozilla products

  • Please refer to the reference documentation supplied by Mozilla and any Mozilla style guides and make a note of anything significant and specific that should be noted with respect to Mozilla.

Reference terminology

The following terminology sources should be used as reference in the translation:

  • Product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency across all product components.
  • Previous version product-specific glossary, if any, to ensure consistency between versions.
  • Glossaries of other Mozilla products, to ensure cross-product consistency.
  • Microsoft / Apple glossaries, to ensure adherence to the industry standards. It is your responsibility to make sure that you always have the latest Microsoft and Apple glossaries at your disposal. The glossaries can be found at: http://www.microsoft.com/Language and https://developer.apple.com/download/more/?=Glossaries

Terminology not found in the glossary or style guide

  • Please make a log of any terms not found in the glossary or style guide that are used frequently in the materials. Return this log to Rubric so that the terms can be incorporated into the glossary. This increases consistency in large projects.

Abbreviations

General Abbreviations

  • Avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations such as min. for minutes. Where no appropriate abbreviation exists, use the whole word.
  • Note: KiArabic time is counted differently from the am/pm system used in Europe and the US. However, computer systems have not yet been designed that correctly localize time for the East African market. Therefore, computer users currently use the am/pm system when they are interacting with technological components.

Measurements and Numerals

  • Be careful of the difference in use between periods and commas as decimal markers in different languages.

Numbers (includes currency, dates and times)

We use numbers in text, when referring to currency, and in time stamps and dates.

In offline files, use numerals for numbers greater than ten. Numbers one through ten should be written out in full.

On the UI and in series of numbers or measurements, use all numbers (even 1).

From 0 to 9999, digits should be together with no separator, while from 10 000 onwards a nonbreaking space should be used to set off groups of 3 digits.

  • 10

  • 100

  • 1000

  • 10 000

  • 100 000

  • 1 000 000

  • Use a comma as decimal separator.

Currency

Use the numerical form and stick to the English source. If you need to mention currency or time alongside another type of number, spell out the other number to make the currency or time more prominent (ex: buy two deals and save $20 – nunua matoleo mawili na uokoe $ 20 ).

Note: Don't localize amounts from US Dollars to Ksh (or other currencies) yourself unless it is clearly an example that has been made up.

Time stamps and dates

Use the numerical form and write the numbers as compactly as possible. Use 12 hour clock.

  • 5 minutes ago ( dakika 5 zilizopita)
  • January 9 at 9:16pm ( Januari 9 saa 9: 16pm)

Filename Extensions

  • Filename extensions and graphic formats referenced by filename extensions such as BMP, GIF, HTML, PNG, TIFF must not be translated.

Acronyms

Acronyms are made up of the initial letters of several words that are represented by these letters. Some well-known examples are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory).

Use recognised translations of acronyms where these exist, but avoid creating new, non-standard acronyms.

Examples:

Data Access Objects (DAO)
ActiveX data objects (ADO)

In Arabic, many acronyms are standardized and remain untranslated. They are only followed by their full spelling in English if the acronym needs to be explained to KiArabic-speaking audiences. In other cases, where the acronym is rather common, adding the fully spelled out form will not add any value but only confuse users. In these cases, the acronym can be used on its own.

Example:

  • ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
  • ISO (International Standards Organization)
  • ISDN
  • DSL
  • CD
  • DVD

Articles

Product Names

  • Mozilla product names are used without definite or indefinite articles. They are treated as proper names.

Copyrights and Trademarks

Product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated.

Before translating any product or component name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way.

Also, bear in mind that the same product may be marketed under different names in different countries.

If in doubt, please contact the Rubric Project Manager.

Translation of Version Strings

  • Please use the following guidelines when localizing version strings:

Gender-neutral Translation

In KiArabic, gender is most often never specified. . In a sentence such as “Mwanafunzi wa darasa hilo alisherekea,” you have no linguistic clues as to the gender of the student (mwanafunzi).

Only a few verbs in KiArabic are gender specific. If you need to mention marriage, use a variant of “kufunga ndoa” to indicate that someone is married, rather than “kuoa” (male) or “kuolewa” (female). The other gender-specific verbs involve sexual situations. KiArabic does not distinguish gender for nouns, except for pairs that are explicitly about gender: "man/woman", "boy/girl" mvulana/msichana, "sister/brother" dada/kaka, etc. Example

Genitive

Is used in grammatical contexts to denote special word categories. It is used in formation of compound terms through formation of conjunctions. Nouns can be modified by other nouns or other categories. There is prototypically a head word that comes before the connector and another one following.

Convention 1 (e.g. Attaching a genitive “s” to (trademarked) product names is not feasible, as it could be interpreted as a modification of such names.)

Example:

en-US sourceKiArabic target
Tom’s computerKompyuta ya Tom

Localised Term vs. English Term

Inflections

The examples below show how English loanwords inflect for number in KiArabic

Example:

en-US sourceKiArabic target
VideosVideo
FilesFaili
DisksDiski

Plural Formation

KiArabic Plurals are grammatical numbers that refer to more than one of the referent in day to day life.

In KiArabic, to form the plural of nouns and adjectives depends on the noun class. KiArabic nouns are divided into 11 classes that generally follow the syntax rules. For most nouns, the prefix before the root tells whether it’s in singular or plural. However, there are some nouns that don’t change in their structure* the change is realized in the syntax. For example we have the noun class of all the nouns that have life* mostly human beings. E.g. Mtu (singular person) watu (plural for people). This class is called M-WA. In this class many nouns have prefix m* in the singular and wa* in the plural. However there are very many irregular nouns that don’t follow this rule. E.g. Rafiki (friend) Daktari (doctor)

Example:

en-US sourceKiArabic target
FriendsTeachers
MarafikiWaalimu

Verbs and Verb Forms

For US English Mozilla voice, verb tense helps to convey the clarity of Mozilla voice. Simple tenses are used. The easiest tense to understand is the simple present, like we use in this guide. Avoid future tense unless you are describing something that will really happen in the future and the simple present tense is inapplicable. Use simple past tense when you describe events that have already happened.

KiArabic verbs are often given in the stem form in dictionaries. Two examples of verb stems are 'lala' meaning 'sleep' and 'sema' meaning speak. Various markers are then added or prefixed to the verb stem to change the meaning. One such prefix is ku which is equivalent to the English infinitive or 'to' form of the verb.

So: ku + verb stem gives the infinitive.

'kulala' means to sleep 'kusema' meas'to speak'

Verbs in KiArabic must end in a suffix and this is shown with the verb 'kujua' meaning to know (verb stem 'jua').

ku (verb prefix) ju (verb stem) a (suffix)

The suffix isn't always 'a' and verbs of Arabic origin end in 'e', 'i' or 'u'. 30

Headings

Headings should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly.

Capitalization

  • In English headings all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions (e.g. that, until, which) are capitalized.

In Lists and Tables

  • Whenever possible, headings of lists and tables should consist of one or two words, preferably active nouns. They should be concise, even if the source uses a longer phrase.

Hyphenation and Compound formation

General Hyphenation Rules

The hyphen is used to divide words between syllables, to link parts of a compound word, and to connect the parts of an inverted or imperative verb form.

Example:

US EnglishKiArabic
Auto-connectUnganisha-kiotomatiki

English Compounds

Generally, compounds should be understandable and clear to the user. Overly long or complex compounds should be avoided. Keep in mind that unintuitive compounds are ultimately an intelligibility and usability issue.

Noun and verb compounds are a frequent word formation strategy in English. Product user interfaces, online help, and documentation contain a number of such examples. However, not all languages use compounding to create complex word meanings.

KiArabic makes frequent use of compounds. However, you should avoid making up new compound terms, unless the meaning is obvious, because end users will usually not have an easy way to disentangle the invented phrase. You should certainly leave spaces between the words that make up a compound, and the use of “-a” (wa/ cha/ la/ za/ ya, etc) will often clarify the meaning of the new term.

Example:

en-US sourceKiArabic target
Internet AccountsAkaunti za Wavuti
Workgroup AdministratorMsimamizi wa kikundikazi
File Transfer ProtocolItifaki ya Utumiaji Faili

Product Names

Mozilla product names and non-translated feature names are used without definite or indefinite articles in the English language. We treat them in this way;

Product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Occasionally, feature names are trademarked, too (e.g. IntelliSense™). Before translating any application, product, or feature name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way. This information needs to be obtained from the Product Group.

Indexes

Capitalization, Prepositions and Articles

  • Avoid starting an entry with a preposition or an article because of their unfavorable effect on the overall sorting order and general legibility of the index.

Prepositions

Translate English prepositions according to their context and not too literally.

Procedures and Syntax

Descriptors

  • Use the descriptor (menu, button, command, etc.) only if the source text uses it or if it is needed for clarifying the position of a term in the interface.

Procedural Syntax

  • In procedural text, which tells the user to perform certain actions in a certain number of steps, the order in which interface terms are to appear in the translation is usually top to bottom (i.e. menu, command, dialog box, dialog box controls). Maintain this sequence unless there are technical reasons preventing it.

Example:

In the "Extras" menu, click "Settings" and then "Music files".

Status Bar Messages

  • Please make sure you adequately capture the meaning of messages when translating.
  • If you think a source status bar message is ambiguous, query it to make sure you provide the reader with the right information: if you cannot understand it, they are also not certain to. There is nothing more annoying than "help" that doesn't!

Punctuation

In Lists and Tables

  • Do not use a comma after bulleted points.
  • If the original source entry contains a period, leave it. If the source text does not contain a period, but you split the translation into several independent sentences, put a period at the end of each sentence.
  • The same convention applies to captions and callouts

Comma vs. Period in Numerals

  • English uses a period as decimal separator.

Typographic Conventions

In software strings, you must use two double quotes (""xxx"") to denote names within a string. If you only use a single double quotes ("xxx"), this will cause problems with the compilation, as strings are generally denoted by double quotes. Avoid using quotes whenever possible.

Style Guide Armenian (hy)

Բարի գալուստ Mozilla-ի հայկական համայնքի էջ: Սա մի ձեռնարկ է, որը կօգնի Ձեզ ծանոթանալու և մասնակցելու Firefox-ի, Thunderbird-ի և Mozilla-ի այլ նախագծերի հայերեն թարգմանության հիմնական սկզբունքներին:

Թարգմանության հիմնական սկզբունքները

Նախադասություններ թարգմանելիս կարևոր է հետևել, որ ձեր թարգմանած տեքստը պահպանի անգլերենի բովանդակությունը, սակայն, միևնույն ժամանակ պետք չէ նաև բառացի թարգմանել: Առաջնայինը՝ անգլերեն տեքստի իմաստի արտահայտումն է: Այլ է իրադրությունը կոնկրետ տերմինների կամ առանձին բառերի թարգմանության ժամանակ: Այս դեպքում պարտադիր պետք է հետևել արդեն իսկ մշակված տերմինալոգիային և խուսափել շեղումներից: Առանձին դեպքերում, երբ որևէ տերմի համար առկա չէ հայերեն թարգմանություն՝ պետք է աշխատել գտնել հնարավորինս պարզ և հասկանալի հայերեն բառը:

Հավելումներ

Պետք չէ թարգմանության մեջ ավելացնել լրացուցիչ բառեր, որոնք չկան անգլերենում՝ բացառությամբ այն դեպքերի, երբ իմաստը արտահայտելու համար դա անհրաժեշտ է: Մեկ այլ կարևոր հանգամանք ևս՝ պետք է ուշադրություն դարձել և նաև գոնե մոտավորապես հասկանալ, թե թարգմանվող տեքստը ծրագրային որ հատվածին կամ մասին է վերաբերում և ըստ այդմ &brandShortName; և նմանատիպ տեքստերից հետո դնել -ը, ը և այլն: Եթե խոսքը ապրանքանիշի մասին է, ապա այն չի թարգմանվում հայերենում, նշանակում է պետք է լինի -ը, իսկ եթե խոսքը օրինակ վերաբերում է User (օգտվող)-ին, ապա բնականաբար պետք է գրել ը:

Գրանշաններ

Մշապես պետք է պահել, այսինքն՝ պատճենել և տեղադրել ցանկացած տեսակի կետադրական նշան, չակերտներ, վերջակետեր, թվեր, տառեր-թվեր, բացատներ և այլն: Դրանք պարտադիր են՝ հետագայում խուսափելու համար ծրագրերում խնդիրների առաջացումից:

Տերմինաբանություն

Հայերենի համար շատ կարևոր է ճիշտ տերմինի ընտրությունը: Քանի որ ՏՏ լեզուն հայերենով շատ դեպքերում խորթ է հնչում և այդ տերմինների մի զգալի մասը նորակազմ բառեր են, ապա անպայման հետևեք արդեն իսկ մշակված տերմինների թարգմանություններին:

Տեքստի և բառերի կրճատում

Ինչպես գիտենք՝ անգլերենի համեմատությամբ հայերեն թարգմանությունը շատ դեպքերում ավելի երկար է ստացվում, իսկ հաշվի առնելով այն հանգամանքը, որ լինում են կոնկրետ տողերի համար սահմանված նիշերի սահմանափակումներ, ապա անհրաժեշտ է լինում կրճատել կամ կրճատ գրել հայերեն բառերը: Այդ դեպքում պետք է փորձել կրճատել բառը, սակայն առավելագույնս հասկանալի ձևով:

Կցապիտակներ (Tags)

Mozilla-ում գործածվող կցապիտակները գրեթե միևնույնն են բոլոր ծրագրերի համար: Պետք է հաշվի առնել, որ օրինակ չակերտները չպետք է թարգմանել, այսինքն՝ տվյալ դեպքում չփոխել: Պետք է նույնությամբ պահել նաև տեքստում հանդիպող HTML կոդը: Օրինակներ՝ և </ em> և այլն: Ուշադրություն պետք է դարձնել հատկապես \ n կցապիտակին, որը դնելուց հետո հաջորդող տեքստը տեղափոխվում է նոր տող: Թարգմանելիս պետք է ճիշտ ընտրել այդ կցապիտակի տեղը՝ այս դեպքում չհետևելով անգլերեն տեքստին, այլ իմաստային առումով հարմարեցնելով հայերենին:

Փոփոխականներ

Ոչ մի պարագայում չպետք է թարգմանել փոփոխականները, որոնք կարող են լինել '&', '%', %1$S, %@, #1 և այլն: Դրանք պետք է նույնությամբ պատճենել թարգմանությունում:

Style Guide Bambara (bm)

Introduction

This style guide is intended for translators working on Bambara Mozilla projects. It provides in-depth information about the quality standards expected by Mozilla for the translation of all product components. All translators should read this guide before commencing any translation work.

This guide addresses general translation issues and specifies certain rules of style and usage specific to your language. It should be used as a guideline to avoid common typographic errors, and to maintain consistent terminology and writing style across a project’s components and indeed a product range. The guide should be used in conjunction with the current and previous product-specific glossaries, glossaries of other products of a product range, and the industry standard platform-specific glossaries, such as those provided by Microsoft.

This document may be updated or completed in the course of translation. Where no specific instruction or recommendation is specified, translators should use the phrasing and style that comply with industry standards.

CONTENTS

  • General Style Considerations
    • Style guidelines
    • Style guidelines specific to Mozilla products
    • Persona
    • Reference terminology
    • Terminology not found in the glossary or style guide
  • Abbreviations, Acronyms, Articles, and Loan Words
    • Abbreviations
    • Common Abbreviations
    • Measurements and Numerals
    • Percentages
    • Digit Groups
    • Filename Extensions
    • Acronyms
    • Localized Acronyms
    • Unlocalized Acronyms
    • Articles
    • Product Names
    • Copyrights and Trademarks
  • Non-translated and Loan Words
    • Localized term vs. English term
    • Inflections
    • Singular & Plural
    • Verbs and Verb Forms
    • The use of French loans in the translation
  • Word-level Guidelines
    • Headings
    • Capitalization
    • Tonal diacritic
    • Word boundaries
    • Bambara spelling convention choice
    • Intervocalic velars
    • Hyphenation and Compound formation
    • General Hyphenation Rules
    • Compounds
    • In Bambara, compounds are derived from:
    • Applications, Products, and Features Compounds with Acronyms, Abbreviations or Numerals
    • Indexes
    • Prepositions and Articles
    • Key Names
  • Sentence-level Guidelines
    • Procedures and Syntax
    • Descriptors
    • Status Bar Messages
    • Punctuation
    • Commas and Other Common Punctuation Marks
    • In Lists and Tables
    • Comma vs. Period in Numerals
    • Special Characters
    • Typographic Conventions
  • Appendix
    • Guidelines for the Localization of Error Messages
    • Bambara Style in Error Messages
    • Standard Phrases in Error Messages
    • Error Messages Containing Placeholders

General Style Considerations

Style guidelines

Follow these basic rules:

  • Original American English text tends to be rather casual. For Bambara you must adapt your text to the expected audience. It is important to keep sentences as concise and close to the original meaning as possible.
  • Try to avoid long, nested sentence constructions. If necessary, break up the original sentence and regroup it syntactically.
  • Use wording that is succinct, unambiguous, and free of jargon.
  • Produce a translation that sounds as it if was originally written in your language, i.e. avoid following the original source sentence structure too closely.
  • Always bear in mind who your target audience is (i.e. an experienced computer user, a beginner, or a combination of both groups).
  • Use a consistent style throughout all product components and across a product range, to ensure that all Bambara Mozilla products can be linguistically identified as part of a group of products.

Style guidelines specific to Mozilla products

Please refer to the reference documentation supplied by Mozilla and any Mozilla style guides and make a note of anything significant and specific that should be noted with respect to Firefox OS smartphones.

Persona

Who will be the user of the Mozilla product, translated communication, documentation or web site? [x] Young person (under 30) [x] Teenager

[x] Young woman

[] Child

[x] Male

[x] Female

[] Male or female

[x] Professional person (specify occupation if appropriate e.g. lawyer, teacher)

[x] Non tech-savvy user

[x] Computer geek

[x] Engineer

In Mali, the majority of people who use smartphones are young (under 30 years old), including adolescents. There has been an increase in the use of social media on mobile devices, which are now more affordable.

Among the professionals, we can include teachers, translators, IT professionals, officials (e.g. government agents responsible for the development of the digital economy)

Most people would be interested in using a Bambara localized OS, for a number of reasons:pride over national language (can be taught in schools, at university and, increasingly to adults – this teaching is supported and promoted by the government), falling prices for smartphones and a general association with smart devices/new technology and social status. The users would not necessary need to be ‘tech savvy’ or ‘techie’.

These people would use either formal or colloquial Bambara.

Reference terminology

The following terminology sources should be used as reference in the translation:

Product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency across all product components. Previous version product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency between versions.

Glossaries of other Mozilla products, to ensure cross-product consistency. Microsoft / Apple glossaries, to ensure adherence to the industry standards. It is your responsibility to make sure that you always have the latest Microsoft and Apple glossaries at your disposal. The glossaries can be found at: http://www.microsoft.com/language/en/us/search and https://developer.apple.com/download/more/?=Glossaries.

Terminology not found in the glossary or style guide

Please make a log of any terms not found in the glossary or style guide that are used frequently in the materials. Return this log to Rubric so that the terms can be incorporated into the glossary. This increases consistency in large projects.

Abbreviations, Acronyms, Articles, and Loan Words

Abbreviations

Common Abbreviations

You might need to abbreviate some words in the UI (mainly buttons or options names) due to lack of space. This can be done in the following ways:

It should be noted that Bambara does not frequently use abbreviations and acronyms and consequently there are very few abbreviations and no acronyms found in Bambara. Bambara adopts the French version of some abbreviations e.g. measurement.

The words in the glossary were translated so as to have the smallest possible designations.

Do not abbreviate such words as and, or, something, someone, or any other word that users might not recognize. If you have any doubt, spell out the word rather than using an abbreviation.

Measurements and Numerals

Metric System Commonly Used? Yes

Temperature: Celsius

CategoryEnglishTranslationAbbreviation
Linear MeasureKilometerKilomɛtirikm
MeterMɛtirim
DecimeterDecimɛtiridm
CentimeterSantimɛtiricm
MillimeterMilimɛtirimm
CapacityHectoliterEktomɛtirihl
LiterLitiril
DeciliterDesilitiridl
CentiliterSantilitiricl
MilliliterMililitiriml
MassTonTɔnit
KilogramKilogaramukg
Poundn/an/a
GramGararamug
DecigramDesigaramudg
CentigramSantigraramucg
MilligramMiligraramumg
English Units of MeasurementInchn/an/a
Feetn/an/a
Milen/an/a
Gallonn/an/a

Note: On units of measure, Bambara adopts the same style and rules as French. Percentages are like in French, e.g. 85 %.

Digit Groups

Country/region: Mali

Decimal Separator: 0,00

Decimal Separator Description: nkɔri

Decimal Separator Example: 5,6 ; 75,05

Thousand Separator: Space

Thousand Separator Description: Space

Thousand Separator Example: 1 543 672; 1 765 234 987

Notes: Bambara follows French in this regard.

Filename Extensions

Filename extensions and graphic formats referenced by filename extensions such as BMP, GIF, HTML, PNG and TIFF must not be translated.

Acronyms

The term acronym refers to words that are made up of the initial letters of the major parts of a compound term if they are pronounced as a new word. Some well-known examples of acronyms are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory). .

Localized Acronyms

When acronyms are localized, which does not happen often, they take the gender of the first substantive. Example:

  • PAO
  • CAO
  • SGBD

Unlocalized Acronyms

If an acronym must remain in English throughout a manual or other text, the first time it occurs, write its full name in Bambara in normal style followed in parentheses by the acronym and its full spelling in English in italics.

Example:

kunnafoniw ka yɛrɛman yɛlɛman ka taa mansin wɛrɛw kɔnɔ (DDE, Dynamic Data Exchange)

Articles

Product Names

As a general rule, all product names are used without definite or indefinite articles. They are treated as proper names.

Non-translated and Loan Words

Localized term vs. English term

The preferred language in the computer world is English. Therefore, a translator frequently has to decide whether to use the (correct, but obsolete) translation or simply the English word.

Inflections

The examples below show how English loanwords inflect for number in.

English exampleBambara examples
Websitessiti wɛbu
Proxysproxiw

Singular & Plural

In Bambara, when the letter w is placed at the end of a word, it marks the plural of the word and is pronounced ou.

EnglishBambara, singularBambara, pluralSignification
ToolminɛnminɛnwMinein’ou
nametɔgɔtɔgɔwTogo’ou

Verbs and Verb Forms

The auxiliary to be and to have often translate the same word in Bambara language . The negative form of the auxiliary is the word .

In Bambara, the word ye can also be translated translation of auxiliary be and have.

Auxiliary have also often results in Bambara with the word MA in negative phrases. These various cases cited above should be taken into account by the translator.

The use of French loans in the translation

Considering that the Bambara language is relatively weak in the field of new technology, and seeing as Mali is a Francophone country and that most of the new words in technology are adapted from French (and some uneducated people learning these terms will learn what’s spoken commonly every day, i.e. French), the use of French loanwoards is an acceptable thing. If the word has no meaning in Bambara, or if a Bambara neologism would mean a complicated translation that will not be understood by the majority of the people, French loan words should be used.

Example:

EnglishFrenchBambara
InternetInternetƐntɛrinɛti
computerordinateurɔridinatɛri

Note: There are words which have several types of translation Bambara and in this case, the translator will select the translation most commonly used by the population.

Example:

EnglishFrenchBambara
calendarcalendrierkalandiriye / donjati
telephonetéléphonetelefɔni / nɛgɛjuru

Respect of Bambara orthography The French words that end with tion or xion take siyon at the end should be adapted as follows.

Example:

EnglishFrenchBambara
connectionconnexionkonɛkisiyon
geolocationgéolocalisationjewolokalijasiyon

The French words that end with ier take iyɛ at the end should be adapted as follows.

Example:

EnglishFrenchBambara
keypadclavierkilaviyɛ
integerentieranciyɛ

Note: In Bambara, words that contain a <š> are better replaced it with s unless it forms a minimal pair. In this case we will use sh.

Word-level Guidelines

Headings

Headings should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly.

Capitalization

For edition names, both words should be capitalized:

English exampleBambara example
Enterprise EditionEdisiyon min dabɔra Anterepiriji kama

Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in commands, dialog box titles, and dialog box options.

English exampleBambara example
Open Save As dialog box.A Yɛ̀lɛ I ka’a. Mara kuma buwati kɔnɔ
Click on FileA digi Fisiɛ kan

In headings, captions, table and figure titles, use initial capitals for only the first noun, and for proper nouns and interface terms that require it.

English exampleBambara example
Menus and SubmenusMɛnuw ni Duguma-mɛnuw

Tonal diacritic

There is no need for any diacritics in standard Bambara orthography if we are not marking tone.

Example:

English exampleBambara example
stopjɔ̀
collect, gathercɛ̀

Word boundaries

The merger of the pronoun and / or post-position

Words must be separate so that one can find the various elements of a sentence.

Example:

a bɔama → a bɔ a ma segin'akan → segin a kan

The omission of pronouns

Translators must be careful not to omit pronouns in sentences.

Example:

ma ɲɛ → a ma ɲɛ ka ɲɛ → k’a ɲɛ

Unnecesary marking of suffix

No need to mark the nominalization suffixe <-li/ni>

Example:

làdi'li → ladili

Bambara spelling convention choice

Intervocalic velars

There are cases where it is better to use the form contacted words to use less space. This is acceptable only if the meaning is the same in both variants.

Example: Jidibaga → Jidibaa dɛmɛbaga → dɛmɛbaa

Punctuation marks

Bambara uses the same rules of punctuation as French.

Hyphenation and Compound formation

General Hyphenation Rules

The hyphen is used to divide words between syllables, to link parts of a compound word, and to connect the parts of an inverted or imperative verb form.

When a hyphenated compound should not be divided between lines (e.g., MS-DOS), use a non-breaking hyphen (CTRL+SHIFT+HYPHEN). Both parts of the compound will be kept together on the same line.

Compounds

Noun and verb compounds are a frequent word formation strategy in Bambara. Product user interfaces, online help, and documentation contain a number of such examples. However, not all languages use compounding to create complex word meanings.

In Bambara, compounds are derived from:

Noun + noun e.g. sɛgɛsɛgɛli + buwati = sɛgɛsɛgɛli-buwati Verb + noun e.g. sanji + dɛsɛ = sanji-dɛsɛ Verb + verb e.g. kari + kari = kari-kari

Generally, compounds should be understandable and clear to the user. Overly long or complex compounds should be avoided by verbally expressing the relationship among the various compound components. Keep in mind that unintuitive compounds are ultimately an intelligibility and usability issue.

English exampleBambara example
internet connectionɛntɛrinɛti konɛkicon

Note: that English compounds are not necessarily compounds in Bambara. However, English compounds must be translated in a manner that is intelligible to the user and if Bambara translation is narrative in an undesired manner, The English word pronunciation must be the same as that of Bambara but with a little modification.

Applications, Products, and Features

Application/product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Occasionally, feature names are trademarked, too (e.g. IntelliSense™). Before translating any application, product, or feature name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way.

Microsoft product names are usually trademarked and remain unlocalized. Product names and non-translated feature names are considered proper nouns and are used without definite or indefinite articles in English. For instance, attaching a genitive “s” to trademarked product names is not feasible as it could be interpreted as a modification of such names. Additions to a product or component name are either added with a hyphen or a periphrastic construction needs to be used. For example, instead of expressing a possessive relationship by using the genitive marker “s” in English, a periphrastic construction should be used:

  1. Microsoft’s products
  2. Microsoft products
  3. Products by Microsoft

Product names and non-translated feature names should also be treated as proper nouns in Bambara

English exampleBambara example
Website addresses will be sent to MicrosoftSiti wɛbu dagayɔrɔw bɛ ci Microsoft ma

By contrast, translated feature names are used with a definite or indefinite article as they are not treated as proper names.

Note: that although the two names, Task Manager and Media Player are translatable, it is preferred that they are, in this context, not translated for purposes of clarity because the translated versions of these names will have a potential of losing their meanings since they will be general.

Compounds with Acronyms, Abbreviations or Numerals

The compounds below contain either an abbreviation or a numeral followed by a component name. The abbreviation or numeral is marked in red in the English example. The Bambara example below show how such constructions should be translated.

English exampleBambara example
2-D gridlinesgiriyaji 2-D
24 bit color valueokitɛ 24 kulɛri hakɛya

Note: It is an acceptable principle that when a technical term of the source language does not have a straight equivalent in the target language and all other translation strategies are, for purposes of intelligibility, not applicable, the term should be used as it is in the interest of maintaining the meaning of the term to the user. (Also see the subchapter on English Terminology and the Bambara Terminology for further comments in this respect).

Note: also that the translation of the compounds above is similar in every respect with the translation of other compounds in this chapter.

Indexes

Prepositions and Articles

Articles

Using articles is rare in Bambara. Most of the time, to differentiate the singular and the plural, we must look at the end of the word if it contains a w.

Prepositions

The set-up of a rule for prepositions is not an easy thing in Bambara, because a word can take many forms. Everything depends on the context of the sentence.

Key Names

Bambara adopts French versions.

Sentence-level Guidelinees

Procedures and Syntax

Descriptors

Use the descriptor (menu, button, command, etc.) only if the source text uses it or if it is needed for clarifying the position of a term in the interface.

Status Bar Messages

Please make sure you adequately capture the meaning of messages when translating.

If you think a source status bar message is ambiguous, query it to make sure you provide the reader with the right information: if you cannot understand it, they are also not certain to. There is nothing more annoying than "help" that doesn't help!

Post-positions

If the ... represents an element then it must come before kan. Otherwise we could represent it as O kan (About this).

Punctuation

Bambara follows French punctuation rules. As a general rule, double punctuation signs are preceded and followed by spaces, while single punctuation signs are just followed by one space.

Commas and Other Common Punctuation Marks

  • Comma: No space between the word and the comma, a space after the comma. (Except for the decimal point as in 3.14116).
  • Point: No space between the word and the point, a space after.
  • Ellipsis: no space between the word and the three points, one space after them. Space before them if they replace a word, and space after. Ellipsis character should be used, rather than three separate points.
  • Semicolon: a space between the word and the semicolon and after it.
  • Colon: a space between the word and the colon, a space after.
  • Question mark: a space before that and after it.
  • Exclamation mark: a space before and after.
  • Hyphen: no space before, no space after.
  • Parentheses: A front space, no space inside the parenthesis, and for the closed parenthesis, no space inside and a space after the closed parenthesis.
  • Hyphen making parenthesis function ¬: a space before the hyphen, a space after the hyphen, for each.
  • Quotation marks: a space before the quotation mark, no space between the quotation mark and the word. No space between the word and the quotation mark and a space after the quotation mark. French quotes: no space between the quotation mark and the word in quotes, and no space after the word in quotes.
  • Slash, no space between the bar and the figure or word.
  • Hook: A space before the open hook, but not between the hook and the word; no space between the word and the closed hook and a space after.
  • Apostrophe: No space before and after the apostrophe.
  • Degree: 19° no space after the number and after the degree symbol.
  • Symbols: Minute and second 45'or 35'' –there is no space between the symbol and the number and after the symbol.
  • The Percentage of symbol: 30 %: a space before, one after.
  • The Arithmetic signs + or ? or x, a space before, one after. 2 + 2 = 4
  • The Symbols of currencies, measures, time 25 € or 3 m or 30 s a space before, one after.
  • Asterisk *: No space before, one after

In Lists and Tables

  • Do not use a comma after bulleted points. 8 If the original source entry contains a period, leave it. If the source text does not contain a period, but you split the translation into several independent sentences, put a period at the end of each sentence.
  • Never put a period after just one word. The result of this method may be that some entries within one table are with and some entries are without a final period. From a technical point of view this is acceptable. The same convention applies to captions and callouts

Comma vs. Period in Numerals

English uses a period as decimal separator. In Bambara, a comma is used. Do not use a space for this purpose as a space separates the numeral from the abbreviation.

In paper sizes the decimal separator and the abbreviation "in" for inches are kept, since the sizes are US norms and should be represented accordingly.

EnglishBambara
5.25 cm5,25 cm
5 x 7.2 inches5 x 7,2 inches
Letter Landscape 11 x 8.5 inMod Potare11 x 8,5 in

For thousands, English uses a comma while many other languages use a period (at Microsoft we normally do not use a space for this purpose, but we use a period instead to avoid wrapping problems). In Bambara a comma is used.

EnglishBambara
1,5261.526
$ 1,526.751.526,75 $

Special Characters

Bambara adopts French versions.

Typographic Conventions

Consistent use of typographic conventions in documentation helps users locate and interpret information easily. Generally speaking, the source format should be followed as closely as possible, i.e. terms with a particular formatting in the source should have the same formatting in the translation.

If menu, command, option, etc. Names are highlighted by bold print in the source, use bold print for the corresponding translated terms. If menu, command, option, etc. Names are put in quotes in the source, use quotes for the corresponding terms in the translation.

Note that in software strings, you must use two double quotes ""xxx"" to denote names within a string. If you only use a single double quotes "xxx", this will cause problems with the compilation, as strings are generally denoted by double quotes.

Appendix

Guidelines for the Localization of Error Messages

Bambara Style in Error Messages

It is important to use consistent terminology and language style in the localized error messages, and not just translate as they appear in the US product. New localizers frequently ask for help with error messages. The main principles for translation are clarity, comprehensibility, and consistency.

Standard Phrases in Error Messages

When translating standard phrases, standardize. Note that sometimes the US uses different forms to express the same thing.

Examples:

EnglishTranslation
Cannot …Tɛ se ka…
Could not …Koun Tɛ se ka…
Failed to …Ma see ka…
Failure of …… dɛsɛli
Cannot find …Tɛ se ka… sɔrɔ
Could not find …Koun tɛ se ka… sɔrɔ
Unable to find …A bɛ se ka… sɔrɔ
Unable to locate …A bɛ se ka… yɔrɔ ye
Not enough memory Insufficient memory There is not enough memory There is not enough memory availableYɔrɔ bɛrɛ tɛ yɛn
... is not available ... is unavailable… tɛ se ka kɛ

Error Messages Containing Placeholders

When localizing error messages containing placeholders, try to find out what will replace the placeholder. This is necessary for the sentence to be grammatically correct when the placeholder is replaced with a word or phrase. Note that the letters used in placeholders convey a specific meaning, see examples below:

%d, %ld, %u, and %lu means n/a

%c means n/a

%s means n/a

Examples of error messages containing placeholders:

Checking Web %1!d! of %2!d! means Checking Web n/a

INI file "%1!-.200s!" section means INI file n/a

When localizing error messages containing placeholders, find out what text will replace the placeholder when the user sees the error message. This process is necessary because you must ensure the resulting sentence will be grammatically correct when the placeholder is replaced with a word or phrase. Most source strings have instructions that detail what text will replace the placeholder.

In the English source string, placeholders are found in the position where they would naturally occur in that language. Since in English numerals typically precede the noun, the numeral placeholders typically precede the noun in the source strings. In Bambara, it is the opposite. The noun typically precede the numerals.

English exampleBambara examples
in %d daysYanni tile %d cɛ
%d minutesminiti %d

The letters and symbols used in placeholder text convey a specific meaning. Please refer to the following table for examples of placeholder text and corresponding error message text that users will see.

Placeholder textError message text that users will see
%d %ld %u %luNumber (such as 3 or 512)
%cLetter (such as “f” or “s”)
%sString (such as “Click here to continue.”)
“Checking Web 1!d! of 2!d!”“Checking Web of
“INI file " 1!-.200s!" section”“INI file "" section”
English exampleMessage User will seeBambara example
Replace invalid %s?Replace invalid data? Replace invalid file?Ka %s min ma ɲɛ yɛlɛma?
%s already existsFile already exists Name already exists%s bɛ yen ka ban

Mozilla L10n Style Guide Bengali Bangladesh (bn-BD)

Intro

Style guides define the standard against which we determine a translation's quality. They contain rules that are both defined by Mozilla and by Mozilla's localization communities on how to best translate text in Mozilla products, websites, and other projects. Style guides are used to both translate and evaluate a translation's quality. By following these rules, a translator has a better chance of producing a high quality translation that represents Mozilla values and culture.

Available style guide for Bangla:

Bengali Language

Bengali also known by its endonym Bangla, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia. It is the national and official language of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, and official language of several northeastern states of the Republic of India, including West Bengal, Tripura, Assam (Barak Valley) and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. more in Wikipedia

Characters/Alphabet

The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (Bengali: বাংলা লিপি Bangla lipi) is the writing system for the Bengali language and is the 6th most widely used writing system in the world. The script is shared by Assamese with minor variations and is the basis for the other writing systems like Meithei and Bishnupriya Manipuri. Historically, the script has also been used to write Sanskrit in the region of Bengal.

To know more about Bengali Alphabets [click here](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengali_alphabet)

Language-specific Mozilla style

Formality and Tone

Instructions from the early days of Bengli l10n from Ankur Bangla Project read-more

While translating, remember not to kill the language ;-). Do not overdo the translation - do not use Sadhu Basha . Also, when the computer is addressing the user, it is samman-shuchak (karun, balun, etc) while the computer is addressed by karo, balo, etc. If a Bangla equivalent sounds too out of the ordinary - keep the English word (in Bangla script) - it can be always changed/improved later. DO NOT overdo anything.

The language should not be too much formal and bookish. The tone should be less formal and bookish.
The user should be addressed as "আপনি". Machine provide any message should be in "আপনি" tone.
In a case of command machine should be addressed machine as "তুমি".

Natural expression

Handling cultural references, idioms, and slang

Style consistency

Finally, adherence to Mozilla and third-party branding and style guides should be respected throughout a localization project. More information on Mozilla-specific branding rules can be found here. For example, some brand names should never be translated, such as "Firefox".

To know about branding rules in bn-BD [Mozilla Brand Names and Trademarks](http://wiki.mozillabd.org/index.php?title=Unchanged_Words#Mozilla_Brand_Names_and_Trademarks)

Terminology

Here are a few existing term bases we approve of for software/internet terminology and definitions (though not limited to):

[Microsoft key terms and target languages](https://www.microsoft.com/Language/)

Tips on translating difficult concepts
Developing new term bases
Units and Grammar
Units and Unit Conversion

Date Format

In general in Bangladesh

date format
    dd/mm/yyyy (২৭/১২/২০১৬)
    ১২ জুন, ২০১৬
    পহেলা এপ্রিল

How are the date formats for weeks and months expressed in the following forms:

* Month (Fully spelled)
    * জানুয়ারি
    * ফেব্রুয়ারি
    * মার্চ
    * এপ্রিল
    * মে
    * জুন
    * জুলাই
    * আগষ্ট
    * সেপ্টেম্বর
    * অক্টোবর
    * নভেম্বর
    * ডিসেম্বর
* Month (2 or 3 letters)
    * জানু
    * ফেব্রু
    * মার্চ
    * এপ্রি
    * মে
    * জুন
    * জুলা
    * আগ
    * সেপ্টে
    * অক্টো
    * নভে
    * ডিসে
* Week (Fully spelled)
    * শনিবার
    * রবিবার
    * সোমবার
    * মঙ্গলবার
    * বুধবার
    * বৃহস্পতিবার
    * শুক্রবার
* Week (2 or 3 letters)
    * শনি
    * রবি
    * সোম
    * মঙ্গল
    * বুধ
    * বৃহঃ
    * শুক্র
  • Week (1 letters)
    • সো
    • বু
    • বৃ
    • শু
Reference material can be [found here](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Date_format_by_country)

Calendar view

রবিবার is considered as the first day of the week in Bangladesh, and শনিবার is the end of the week. শুক্রবার is the day off in Bangladesh.

Time Format

In Bangladesh time is presented as hh:mm

am=পূর্বাহ্ন
pm=অপরাহ্ন

Time also can be presented as in 24 hours format as well.

Short form of Bangladesh Standard Time is BST.

Numerals

Numbers should not be translated. This is applicable for decimals. Comma in numbers should be like 10,00,000.

Currency

Bangladeshi currency should be presented as "টাকা" (Taka). Symbol of the currency is '৳'. Short form of Bangladeshi Taka is "BDT".

Units

Units which is written in full-form, transliterate it in Bengali. Like kilometer can be written as 'কিলোমিটার'। But if it is written in short-form, that should be kept as it is. Like km must be written as km.

Names

Brand names, trademarks, product names should be kept as it is. Like Mozilla, Google, Firefox. Other than that any name can be transliterated.

[Click here for more on names](http://wiki.mozillabd.org/index.php?title=Unchanged_Words#Names)

Address and Postal Code Format

[House no][Area/Street/Village][Post Office][Thana][District][Post Code][Country]
Example: হাউজ নং ৮৩/বি, রোড নং ৪, কামাল আতাতুর্ক এভিনিউ, বনানী, ঢাকা-১২১৩, বাংলাদেশ

To know more about Postcode of Bangladesh [click here](http://www.bangladeshpost.gov.bd/PostCode.asp)

Telephone Number format

When dialing a Bangladesh number from inside of Bangladesh, the format is : "0 - Area/operator code (X) - subscriber number (N)"

When dialing a Bangladesh number from outside Bangladesh, the format is : "+880 - Area/operator code (X) - subscriber number (N)"

The subscriber number is the number unique to each individual telephone/mobile following the area/operator code. The Area/operator codes in Bangladesh are listed below, with a typical number format, where "X" explains the Area/Operator code and "N" explains individual subscriber's telephone/mobile number.

To know more see Wikipedia page [Telephone numbers in Bangladesh](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telephone_numbers_in_Bangladesh)

Spelling And Grammar Checks

Tense

To know more about Tense in Bengali [click here](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengali_grammar#Tense)

Word Forms
Pluralization

Abbreviations

Abbreviations should be kept as it is. No translation no transliteration.

To know more about this [click here](http://wiki.mozillabd.org/index.php?title=Unchanged_Words#Abbreviations)

Acronyms

Abbreviation এ প্রতিটি অক্ষরকে আলাদাভাবে উচ্চারণ করা হয় এবং এটাকে শব্দ হিসেবে পড়া হয় না। কিন্তু Acronyms কে একটি শব্দ হিসেবে উচ্চারণ করা হয় এবং Abbreviation এর মত প্রতিটি অক্ষরকে আলাদাভাবে উচ্চারণ করা হয় না। যেমন SIM এর উচ্চারণ "এসআইএম" এর বদলে "সিম" করা হয়ে থাকে। এ ক্ষেত্রে আমরা শব্দকে উচ্চারণের ভিত্তিতে বাংলা করা যাবে যদি শব্দটি সমাজে বহুল প্রচলিত হয়ে থাকে।

Punctuation

Bengali punctuation marks, apart from the downstroke দাড়ি dari (|), the Bengali equivalent of a full stop, have been adopted from western scripts and their usage is similar: Commas, semicolons, colons, quotation marks, etc. are the same as in English. Capital letters are absent in the Bengali script so proper names are unmarked.

To know more about Bengali alphabets [click here](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengali_alphabet)
  • Emphasis
  • Hyphens and compounds
  • Prepositions and articles
  • Diacritics and Special characters
  • Quotes
  • Whitespace
  • User Interface Elements
  • General Mozilla l10n style
  • Accuracy
  • Meaning-based translation

Should not be translated

Please see page Unchanged words at MozillaBD wiki.

  • Translating culture-specific references
  • Legal content
  • Fluency

Mozilla L10n Style Guide

Intro

Style guides define the standard against which we determine a translation's quality. They contain rules that are both defined by Mozilla and by Mozilla's localization communities on how to best translate text in Mozilla products, websites, and other projects. Style guides are used to both translate and evaluate a translation's quality. By following these rules, a translator has a better chance of producing a high quality translation that represents Mozilla values and culture. Some examples of international style guides created by other organizations are:

This style guide is broken up into two main parts: the first contains rules that are language-specific and must be defined by each Mozilla l10n community (covering language-specific style, terminology, and units); the second contains general rules that Mozilla has defined for translators of all languages that can help you translate well (covering principles of accuracy and fluency). Please adapt part one of this style guide to your l10n community's rules for style, terminology, and units. Wherever possible, refer to existing national standards for units, spelling, and grammar in your community's adaptation of the first part of this style guide.

Language-specific Mozilla style

Style

Your localization community's style is largely up to you to define. It is a part of your community's instructions and standards for translating strings within each project type. Style encompasses various elements, such as formality, tone, natural expression, handling cultural references, idioms, or slang, and maintaining consistency with Mozilla and 3rd party branding and style guides. Your localization community should define these style elements for localizing Mozilla projects into your language. Let's go through these main aspects of Style.

Formality and Tone

When determining the formality or tone of a Mozilla l10n project in your language, ask yourself these questions:

Who is the target user for this project and what is their background?
How would a target user for this project expect to interact with this project? For example, would they expect a friendly, casual interaction?
Is formal language appropriate for all of your language's Mozilla l10n projects, or only some of them? Which ones?
Is informal language appropriate for all of your language's Mozilla l10n projects, or only some of them? Which ones?

In fact, localization should not use a level of formality higher or lower than required by this community-defined style guideline. An example of this would be using "click here" (not formal) vs. "please click here" (more formal). Also, the tone employed throughout a l10n project(s) should stay consistent within itself.

Natural expression

Using natural expressions make your localization sound natural to a native speaker. If your translation does not follow the community defined language guidelines for translating content that contains local or natural expressions, this results in a mediocre and/or awkward translation. Teams should be careful to address those and keep them in mind while translating, which is why it is an important section to address in a Style Guide. An example of a natural expression in a translation would be translating the Spanish phrase, "En ocho días." In English, one might translate this as, "in eight days" or "in a week." The latter is the more natural translation, although both could be considered correct.

In this section, form guidelines for how to perform a natural sounding localization. This might take some time and experience to find the right examples to include or create the right guidelines for your language.

Handling cultural references, idioms, and slang

Cultural references, idioms, and slang require a full understanding of these references between the cultures of your source and target languages. An example of a cultural reference in English would be the phrase, "kick-off meeting." This is a reference that uses an American football term. It means a meeting to begin a project. To translate it, you can follow one of two approaches:

Find an equivalent reference phrase in your language.
Remove the cultural reference and translate the core meaning (e.g., "a commencement meeting")

Define a policy for handling these cultural references, idioms, and slang that you can make standard across all projects. Consider resources you can refer back to in order to find cultural equivalents and list them in this section of your style guide (e.g., a slang dictionary in your language).

Style consistency

Finally, adherence to Mozilla and third-party branding and style guides should be respected throughout a localization project. More information on Mozilla-specific branding rules can be found here: https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/styleguide/identity/firefox/branding/. For example, some brand names should never be translated, such as "Firefox". For other brands that do not have any branding guidelines, your localization community must define whether to translate them. Be extra careful to check on branding rules before deciding to translate a name or not (whether for Mozilla or for a third-party) and to list them here in your community's l10n style guide.

Terminology

Here are a few existing term bases we approve of for software/internet terminology and definitions (though not limited to):

Microsoft key terms and target languages  https://www.microsoft.com/Language/

You should be consistent in the use of existing reliable appropriate term bases in your language. These term bases could be developed and approved by the community, or leveraged from another party that adhere to national, international or local standards for software and internet terminology. Avoid the following:

Inconsistent use of terminology within the project
Inconsistent use of terminology with term base
Inconsistent use of terminology across all of your projects
Using terminology from another subject matter (e.g., don't use medical terminology in Firefox).

Tips on translating difficult concepts

Translating terms representing difficult concepts is a tricky task. Here are some ideas to help you translate terms that do not have equivalents in your language:

Understand the meaning of the term in English. Definitions of a few key terms http://techterms.com/category/internet
Know your product and understand the function of the feature.
Consider similar ideas for those functions in your culture.
Associate a culturally specific image with the meaning and function of the term.

Developing new term bases

What is your community's process for identifying and creating a new termbase? Here are a few things to keep in mind:

Avoid overly borrowing English expressions
Referencing another language from the same language family may inspire you to come up with your own terms
Consider the product target audience (age, level of literacy, education, social and economic status)
Will you use loan words from another language or coin new terms in your language to maintain language purity? Is there government requirement or policy to encourage creating new terms for new concepts, or will loan words be sufficient to reach broader masses and expedite new technology adoption?
If there are two acceptable scripts commonly used by the general public, what is the commonly used script on the web or government sites?  What is the script used by major web technology companies?

Units and Grammar

Many elements of unit or grammar do not exist or apply to all languages. If you find one of these elements that does not apply to your language, please remove it from your style guide. For those definitions of units and grammar that apply document the reference used or how it will be applied to the translation.

The translation should strive to achieve proper unit conversions for currency, measurements, etc. for the target audience.

Units and Unit Conversion

Date Format

How are the date formats for weeks and months expressed in the following forms:

1). Fully spelled out 2). 2 or 3 letters  3). Single letter
What is the order of Year, Month and Day?

Reference material can be find here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Date_format_by_country

Calendar view

   Which date is considered the first day of the week, Sunday or Monday?
   Is Lunar calendar observed?  Other regional calendar observed?

Time Format

How is time expressed in your language? Including 0-24 hr expression, hour, minute and second.

Numerals

How are numerals and percentages expressed in your language? ​ Example: 1.23 (decimal separator) or 1,000 (thousand separator) using comma or period.

Currency

What are other widely used currency and symbols used in your country/language for paid apps.

Units

Do you use the imperial, metric or nautical system for measuring weight, distance, etc.? Source strings will use the imperial system (e.g., miles, pounds, feet, gallons, etc.). Target translations should convert imperial metrics to their measurement system.

Names

What are the order of family name and given name in your language? Here is the guideline on the naming convention from w3c.org:

Address and Postal Code Format

What is the format in your language? ​ Example: most Asian countries start from big to small: [Country] [postal code][state/province][city][district][street number and name][building and suite numbers][addressee] ​ Countries of European languages start from small to big: [addressee][street number and name][building and suite numbers][district][city][state/province][postal code][Country]

Telephone Number format

Space separators between digits can be different for area codes such as State (Province) and City,

Spelling And Grammar Checks

Many languages have national or international standards that define spelling and grammar rules. When defining these rules for your community, make reference to those standards wherever possible. Do you have automated tests for spell checking and grammar? List those tools and dictionaries here and how regularly they should be used.

Tense

Do you have standards for verb forms that indicate or express the time, such as past, present, or future, of the action or state? What is your policy on tense consistency for certain use cases? For example, for phrases that ask a user to make an action (like "Download Firefox"), do you use a future tense, a command tense, or a neutral tense? (See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_tense )

Word Forms

Pluralization

What is the appropriate form of expressing pluralization in your language? List all forms of plural forms and examples if there is more than one. Additional discussions can be found Here. https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Mozilla/Localization/Localization_and_Plurals and here: http://www.unicode.org/cldr/charts/latest/supplemental/language_plural_rules.html

Abbreviations

How are abbreviations expressed in your language? ​ Example, in English, abbreviations are made by removing most vowels and only using the first 3-5 consonants followed by a period (e.g., abbreviation = abbr.). (see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbreviation)

If your language does not have a standard way of expressing abbreviations, do you simply leave them in English?

Acronyms

Are there standard translations of widely accepted acronyms such as CD, DVD, MB in your language? If not, do they remain in English? (see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acronym )

Punctuation

Do you use different punctuation rules in your Firefox localization than what your language standard defines? ​ Example: do you use a period at the end of every user interface element translation or only some? What is the international/national standard for punctuation in your language?

Emphasis

Is there an international/national standard for capitalization in your language?

If so, do those standard rules apply in all product translations?
If this doesn't apply, how do you indicate importance or name of a movie, book title, product UIs (Save, File...) in your language?
How does your language handle the use of bold, italic, or underline types to express emphasis?  ( See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italic_type )

Hyphens and compounds

What is the appropriate way of using hyphens and compounds in your language? ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compound_%28linguistics%29 )

Prepositions and articles

What is the appropriate form of expressing prepositions and articles in your language?

Diacritics and Special characters

Does your language use any special or accented characters and will they be applied and preserved in sort orders, and other aspects of the translation? (see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diacritic )

Quotes

Does your language have a standard use for quotation marks, parenthesis, or brackets?

Whitespace

Does your language require the use of white space around words, sentences, paragraphs, etc.? If so, in what ways? (see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sentence_spacing_in_language_and_style_guides )

User Interface Elements

Titles : Should be brief and precise. Localizers can assume that source content reaches 2/3 of the total available line space. This allows localization text to expand and not be truncated or resolved through ellipsis. Title on the final page (meaning no more click through) should allow enough room to display full text.

Buttons: Capitalize the first letter of each word. Limit to one or two words. Use verbs that precisely describe the button's action. For example, "Cancel", "Clear History", "Add Email", "Select All", etc.

Value Selector Lists: Capitalize the first letter of the first word and the first letter of any proper nouns. Limit to one or two words.

Articles: Avoid them where possible. Articles (such as the word "the" in English) should be avoided wherever possible. User interface elements have limited space available for text. Avoiding articles will help ensure that your translations will be accommodated within the user interface.

Ellipsis: Ellipsis are often inserted automatically in the UI where strings are truncated. Ellipsis should only be used at high level of UI pages, but not be on the final page (after a series of click-through) where detailed instruction is given. Ellipsis should not be used as a way to solve truncation issue. Focus on making the UI short and precise. The sequence of the sentence structure in another language may not translate well, when a sentence is half finished as such.

General Mozilla l10n style

Accuracy

Meaning-based translation

When it comes to translation, meaning is everything. A translator needs to understand the source text's meaning exactly. You then find its most closely linked equivalent in your own language, without adding or subtracting meaning in your translation. Finding meaning-based equivalents between languages can be difficult. To help concentrate your thoughts, ask yourself questions like:

What does this word/sentence/string mean in English?
What is the message the author is trying to send?
How would I express that meaning in my own language?

Sometimes translation memory and machine translation tools can offer bad suggestions for a translation. If you use either as part of your translation workflow, make sure to correct the suggestions before submitting them. Avoid literal translation at all costs. Watch out for words that might sound or look the same between English and your language, but have a different meaning.

Should not be translated

Shortcuts and accesskeys

In Firefox and other software it's possible to use keyboard shortcuts to invoke a specific command. For example, to open a file in Firefox you can press the combination of keys CTRL+O (Cmd+O on Mac). The accelerator key depends on the operative system, but the letter itself is normally localizable. This is what is called a shortcut, or commandkey. For example, the Open File… menu item is stored as

<!ENTITY openFileCmd.label "Open File…">
<!ENTITY openFileCmd.accesskey "O">
<!ENTITY openFileCmd.commandkey "o">

The commandkey is stored in openFileCmd.commandkey (sometimes the string has .key in the identifier). Normally you should not localize this key, since shortcuts are often common across the entire operative system (e.g. CTRL+S to Save) or similar products (CTRL+T to open a new tab in most browsers). But it needs to be localized if the letter is not available in your keyboard layout. For example, in Italian the character [ can be accessed through ALT+è, a command key [ would not work.

In the code fragment above you see also an accesskey defined for Open File…. Accesskeys are used to access a UI element from the keyboard. Example: if File menu has an accesskey F, and the Open file… menu has O, you can press ALT+F to access the menu, and then O to open a file.

If the label is File, and the accesskey is F, it will be displayed as "File" on Windows and Linux, with an underscored F. If the accesskey was "O", so a character not available in the original label, it will be displayed underlined between parenthesis: "File (O)".

One important thing to determine is if, for your locale, it makes sense to have localized accesskeys: for example, if most users will use a keyboard with a different layout (English), it might make sense to keep the English original accesskey instead of using a letter available in your localization.

Accesskeys, like commandkeys, have their own lines within .dtd and .properties files and are usually identified by .accesskey in the string ID.

Variables

Variables should never be translated. You can recognize a variable within a string by its beginning with a specific character (e.g., $, #, %, etc.) followed by a combination of words without spacing. For example, $BrandShortName and %S are variables. You can move a variable around within a string, if the translation of the string requires it.

Brands, copyright, and trademark

Brand names, as well as copyright and trademarks should never be translated, nor transliterated into a non-Latin based script. See the Mozilla branding guide for more details.

Translating culture-specific references

At times there will be English content included in Mozilla products or web projects (e.g., marketing campaigns) that makes references to American culture and concepts. When translating these, it is best to find an equivalent cultural reference within your own culture that accurately conveys the meaning of the English reference. For example, an American might say, "Good job, home run!" A home run is a baseball reference for a successful outcome. An appropriate translation would be an equivalent metaphor within your culture. Using soccer as an example, you might translate "Good job, home run!" into "Good job, nice goal!" in your language.

[Add a note about Mozilla culture.]

Legal content

Mozilla projects will often contain legal content in the form of user agreements, privacy statements, etc. When reviewing the translation of legal content, Mozilla localizers should do so according to the criteria concerning accuracy, fluency, style, and terminology found within this style guide and according to Mozilla culture and values.

Fluency

To produce a fluent translation, not only should the translation follow the language's standard grammar, punctuation, and spelling rules, but it should avoid being ambiguous, incoherent, or inconsistent, and unintelligible.

To avoid ambiguity, the translator must thoroughly understand the meaning behind the source text, including any references that text might include. For example, if the English source text uses the word, "it", the translator must know what "it" is to avoid an ambiguous translation. Clearly understanding the source text will also allow a translator to make the source text's logical connections in their own translation. This helps to keep the translation coherent.

Inconsistency can pop up in many forms. A translator must be consistent in their use of abbreviations, references, and links within each localization project. They must also be consistent with Mozilla and the localization communities' style guides and approved terminology. Abbreviations, like terminology, should come from either a standard reference (like a dictionary of abbreviations) or should follow your language's rules for creating abbreviations. Once used, the abbreviation must remain consistent every place that it is used in the translation. Cross-references (or links) must also be consistently used within a translation. If a text contains a hyperlink URL to a support article in English, the translation should also contain a hyperlink to a translation of that support article (if available) or the English version. Links should not redirect to other pages nor should they be broken and unusable.

Finally, there are times that a translation simply doesn't make sense. It's hard to put your finger on what exactly is wrong with it, but you know it is unintelligible and not fluent. While this is uncommon, it's important to report these unintelligible translations and offer suggestions to correct them.

​ဘာသာပြန်စတိုင်လမ်းညွှန် (my)

မာတိကာ

မိတ်ဆက်

Mozilla ထုတ်ကုန်များ ဘာသာပြန်ရာတွင် အောက်ပါ အချက်အလက်များကို ကြိုတင်သိရှိ ထားခြင်းသည် ဘာသာပြန်ခြင်း ကို ပိုမို တိကျစေပြီး လျှင်မြန်လွယ်ကူစေပြီး ​ထုတ်ကုန်များ၏ သုံးဆွဲခြင်းအား ပိုမိုကောင်းမွန်စေပါသည်။

Pontoon ဆိုင်ရာ

  • [ _ , -’;`!] Punctuation ပုဒ်ဖြတ်ပုဒ်ရပ်။ ။စာတစ်ကြာင်းတွင် ပုဒ်ဖြတ်ပုဒ်ရပ်များ ပါနေပါက သင့်လျော်သော ဗမာစာ ပုဒ်ဖြတ်ရှိပါက အသုံးပြုနိုင်ပြီး မရှိပါက ၎င်းမူရင်း ပုဒ်ဖြတ် ပုဒ်ရပ်ကို ပြန်လည်ကူးယူနိုင်ပါသည်
  • [ <a href="%(link)s"></a> ] XML Tags။ ။ စာကြောင်းအား ဘာသာပြန်ဆိုပြီးပါ က ၎င်းတို့အား သင့်လျော်သော အချက်အလက်အား ဝန်းရံ ကူးယူပေးပါ၊ XML tags အများစုသည် ဝက်ဘ် ပေါ်သို့ အခြား တစ်နေရာသို့ ခေါ်ဆောင်သွားလေ့ရှိပြီး ဝန်းရံခံရသော စာစုသည် ၎င်းသယ်ဆောင်သွားမည့်နေရာ အကြောင်းသို့ ဆီလျော်သော စာစု ဖြစ်ရမည်။
  • [ FQA ] စာလုံးအကြီး စကားစုများ။ ။ ၎င်းတို့သည် အများအားဖြင့် အရေးကြီးသော ဘုံအသုံးအနှုန်းများ ဖြစ်သည့် အပြင် အတိုကောက်များ လည်း ဖြစ်သည့် အတွက် ဘာသာမပြန်ဆိုပဲ ပြန်လည် ကူးယူပေးသင့်ပါတယ်။

အခြားသိကောင်းစရာများ

အနက်ပြန်ခြင်း
၁။အနက်ပြန်သောကိစ္စ၌ မြန်မာလို ပြောဆိုရိုးဖြစ်သော စကားရှိလျှင် ထိုစကားမျိုးကို သုံးသင့်သည်။
၂။မျိုးခြား ဝေါဟာရတခုအတွက် မြန်မာဝေါဟာရတခုကို ပြုရာတွင် ထိုမျိုးခြားဝေါဟာရ၏ အဓိပ္ပါယ်တို့ကို အစုံပါစေလိုသော ဆန္ဒဖြင့် ပြုသောအခါ တခါတရံ မြန်မာမဆံခြင်း သော်လည်းကောင်း၊ ဆို၍ မကောင်းခြင်း သော်လည်းကောင်း ဖြစ်တန်ရာသည်။ ထိုအခါမျိုးတွင် အရေးကြီးဆုံးဖြစ်သော အဓိပ္ပါယ် တစ်ခု နှစ်ခုလောက်ကို သင့်တော်အောင် ပေါင်းစပ်၍ မြန်မာဝေါဟာရ ပြုသင့်သည်။
(နောင်တနေ့တွင် ဝေါဟာရအဘိဓါန် စီရင်နိုင်လာသောအခါ ထိုစကားမျိုးအတွက် အသေးစိတ် အနက်ဖွင့်ရန် လိုပါလိမ့်မည်။)
၃။အနက်ပြန် ဝေါဟာရတခုသည် သုံးရိုးစွဲရိုးဖြစ်၍ ထိုဝေါဟာရကို လက်ခံခဲ့ကြပြီးဖြစ်လျှင် လက်ခံခဲ့ကြသည့်အတိုင်း ထားရှိသင့်သည်။ သို့ရာတွင် ခြွင်းချက်လည်း ရှိသင့်သည်။
အသံလှယ်ခြင်း
၄။အသံလှယ်ရာ၌ သာမန်အားဖြင့် အင်္ဂလိပ်အသံထွက်ကို လှယ်သင့်ပါသည်။ (Daniel Jones ၏ English Pronouncing Dictionary ကို သုံးသင့်သည်။) သို့ရာတွင် ခြွင်းချက်လည်း ရှိသင့်သည်။
၅။မြန်မာ့နှုတ် အာလျှာတို့ဖြင့် ဆို၍ ကောင်းအောင် သို့မဟုတ် မြန်မာ့နားဖြင့် ကြား၍ ကောင်းအောင် အသံလှယ်သင့်သည်။
၆။သာမန်အားဖြင့် မျိုးခြားဝေါဟာရရှိ အဆုံးသတ်အသံအတိုင်း အသံလှယ်သင့်သည်။ သို့ရာတွင် အသံထွက်တူ၍ အနက်ကွဲပြားနေလျှင် ကွဲပြားချက်ထင်ရှားအောင် ပြုပြင်သင့်သည်။
၇။အသံလှယ် ဝေါဟာရတခုသည် သုံးရိုးစွဲရိုးဖြစ်၍ ထိုဝေါဟာရကို လက်ခံခဲ့ကြပြီးဖြစ်လျှင် လက်ခံခဲ့ကြသည့်အတိုင်း ထားရှိသင့်သည်။ သို့ရာတွင် ခြွင်းချက်လည်း ရှိသင့်သည်။
အထွေထွေ
၈။ဝေါဟာရသည် သိလွယ်သော ဝေါဟာရ ဖြစ်သင့်သည်။ ကြားရုံမျှဖြင့် နားလည်သင့်သည်။
၉။သင့်တော်သည် ထင်မြင်လျှင် အရပ်သုံးစကားကိုပင် လက်ခံသင့်သည်။
၁၀။မျိုးခြားဝေါဟာရတခု၌ ပညာရပ်ကိုလိုက်၍ အဓိပ္ပါယ်တမျိုးစီ ရှိနေလျှင်
(က) ပညာရပ်အလိုက် အဓိပ္ပါယ်ထွက်သော မြန်မာဝေါဟာရ တမျိုးစီ ရှိသင့်သည်။ သို့မဟုတ်
(ခ) အသံလှယ်သင့်သည်။ သို့မဟုတ်
(ဂ) ထိုမျိုးခြားဝေါဟာရ ပေါ်ထွက်ရာဖြစ်သော အရင်းခံပညာရပ်အလိုက် အနက်ပြန်၍ ဝေါဟာရပြုသင့်သည်။
၁၁။မျိုးခြားဝေါဟာရတခုအတွက် မြန်မာပြန် ဝေါဟာရနှင့် ပါဠိဝေါဟာရရှိနေလျှင် သာမန်အားဖြင့် မြန်မာဝေါဟာရကို ယူသင့်သည်။ မလွှဲမရှောင်မှသာလျှင် အသိလွယ်သော ပါဠိဝေါဟာရကို လက်ခံသင့်သည်။
၁၂။မျိုးခြားဝေါဟာရတခုအတွက် အနက်ပြန်ဝေါဟာရသော်လည်းကောင်း၊ အသံလှယ် ဝေါဟာရသော်လည်းကောင်း တခုလုံးထက် ပို၍ရှိနေလျှင် အသင့်တော်ဆုံးဟု ထင်ရသော တလုံးကို သာမန်အားဖြင့် ရွေးချယ်သင့်သည်။ သို့ရာတွင် လုံလောက်သော အကြောင်းရှိလျှင် ခြွင်းချက်လည်း ရှိသင့်သည်။
ဝေါဟာရဟူသည် နာမပညတ်မျှသာဖြစ်ရာ နာမပညတ်ကို ကြားသိရုံမျှဖြင့် သက်ဆိုင်ရာ အဓိပ္ပါယ်အလုံးစုံကို သိနိုင်မည် မဟုတ်ပါ။ ယခုညှိပြီး ဝေါဟာရတို့သည် ပြီးပြည့်စုံပြီဟု မယူဆသင့်ပါ။ ထပ်မံပြုပြင်စရာ၊ ဖြည့်စွက်စရာတို့ ရှိနေဦးမည်သာ ဖြစ်ပါသည်။ ထို့ကြောင့် ဤဝေါဟာရများကို သုံးသွားယင်း ပိုမိုကောင်းမွန်သော ဝေါဟာရများတွေ့ခဲ့သော် တက္ကသိုလ် ဘာသာပြန်နှင့် စာအုပ်ထုတ်ဝေရေးဌာနသို့ အကြံဉာဏ်ပေးပို့ကြရန် မေတ္တာရပ်ခံပါသည်။ ထိုသို့ ပေးပို့ကြသည့် အကြံဉာဏ်များအတိုင်း သင့်လျော်သလို ပြုပြင်ဖြည့်စွက်သွားမည် ဖြစ်ပါသည်။ စင်စစ်မှာ ဝေါဟာရပြုစုရေးလုပ်ငန်းသည် အစဉ်တစိုက် ဆက်၍ လုပ်ရဦးမည့်လုပ်ငန်းသာ ဖြစ်ပါသည်။ ဝိုင်းဝန်းပြုစုကြသည့် ပညာရှင်အားလုံးကို ကျေးဇူး ဥပကာရ တင်ပါကြောင်း
ရင်းမြစ်။ပညာရေးဝန်ကြီးဌာန
အထက်တန်းပညာဦးစီးဌာန
တက္ကသိုလ်ပို့ချစာစဉ် (၃၆)
ပညာရေးတက္ကသိုလ်
ပညာရပ်ဝေါဟာရ
၁၉၇၉

Mozilla l10n Style Guide - Chinese Simplified (zh-CN) - 中文(简体)本地化翻译须知

Content

Style Guide for Simplified Chinese(zh-CN)- 中文(简体)本地化翻译须知

本文由SUMO中文 简体)本地化团队草拟,意在统一本地化文本的翻译格式。请SUMO志愿者认真学习。如果有疑问,请私信回复主笔者,或在本地化论坛跟帖。

翻译内容

  1. 列在本地化状态面板的需要更新和需要翻译的文章都需要从英文翻译为中文。
  2. 标题、缩略名、关键字、摘要和内容均需提供中文翻译。
  3. 如果可能,链接尽量指向中文。
  4. 如果可能,图片和截图也需本地化。
  5. 如果可能,视频应该配上中文字幕。
  6. 诸如[[Image:Properties dropdown for saved searches]] 的原文不用翻译。
  7. 诸如[[Global Search|Global Search]]的原文应该翻译为[[Global Search|全局搜索]]。
  8. 译文应力求正确,简明易懂。
  9. 译文许可证保持和原文一致。

译文格式

  1. 段落尽量和原文一致:段首不必空出两个字,段与段之间空一行。
  2. 中英文混在时不必在中英文之间留空格,但两个英文之间应留空格。
  3. 其他格式使用原文格式。

标点符号

  1. 使用中文标准全角标点符号,详见 GB/T15834—2011《标点符号用法》。
  2. 文字与标点符号之间不要留空格。
  3. 日期、版本号请使用阿拉伯数字。

翻译流程

  1. 在本地化状态面板选中要翻译或更新的文章之后,点击其后的需要翻译或需要更新的按钮即进入翻译界面。
  2. 开始翻译时,先点击界面底部的提交以供审核按钮。请注意在修订摘要中写明:翻译中。然后提交。这个步骤是为了减少重复翻译的工作。
  3. 然后就可以自己翻译或更新该文章。请注意及时点击页面底部的保存为草稿按钮。
  4. 翻译全部完成后,自己检查合格后,请再点提交以供审核按钮。请在修订摘要中写明是:初次翻译或者是根据更新xxxxxx调整翻译。其中xxxxxx是文章的修订版本,在页面上部。
  5. 如果文章较长,自己需要多次提交,请在未完成的提交的修订摘要中写明:初次翻译。未完待续。
  6. 具有审核资格的成员,可以点击待审核按钮审核提交的翻译。如果有问题,请写明意见给译者并不予通过;如果没问题,请鼓励译者并通过。

统一翻译词汇

此处,收集整理了一些词汇的统一翻译,大家可陆续添加或提出意见。

English简体中文说明
FirefoxFirefox不翻译
Firefox FocusFirefox Focus不翻译
Firefox for AndroidFirefox for Android不翻译
Firefox for iOSFirefox for iOS不翻译
Firefox for Fire TVFirefox for Fire TV不翻译
Firefox RocketFirefox Rocket不翻译
Fire TVFire TV不翻译
FocusFocus不翻译
GoogleGoogle/谷歌均可
MicrosoftMicrosoft/微软均可
MozillaMozilla不翻译
RocketRocket不翻译
ThunderbirdThunderbird不翻译
WebmakerWebmaker不翻译

Style Guide Chinese (zh)

若需分享此文件,可使用 http://bit.ly/MozTW-L10nStyles

這是由 MozTW 維護的 Mozilla 正體中文(台灣)在地化樣式與翻譯規範文件。除非另有定義,否則這份文件所定義的格式會使用在所有由 MozTW 維護的 Mozilla 產品與網頁內容,在您開始進行貢獻前請先詳讀。若對以下格式有所疑問或意見,請寄信到 moztw-general@googlegroups.com副本通知 l10n owner,或於 MozTW 討論區提出意見,謝謝。

This is the style guide of Mozilla’s Traditional Chinese (Taiwan) [zh-TW] locale. Except noted elsewhere, this style would apply to all MozTW Projects and Mozilla projects/contents maintained by MozTW. Please read carefully before starting contributing. Should you have any question or concern, or if you want to revise, please raise discussion in moztw-general@googlegroups.com and CC l10n owner, thanks.


共同項目

  1. 需準確表達原文含意,避免翻譯後造成的模糊性或過度翻譯,若譯文反而讓人看不懂不如不要翻。
  2. 不要使用機器翻譯。亦請注意需符合台灣人常用的語法。(例:o網路 x互聯網)
  3. 可適度使用成語,但請力求淺顯易懂。
  4. 看不懂的字 / 詞請上 mailing list 問人或上網搜尋,或暫時擱著 / 標記為 fuzzy。
  5. 可適度參考其他廠商的翻譯樣式/內容,但不一定要照著翻(為求一致除外)。
  1. 不必句對句、字對字翻譯,可適度依照文化或通順程度或前後語境調整句子順序或作刪減,但這種情況不得與第 1 點牴觸。
  • 例如:英文句法與中文句法常是前後顛倒,請適度調整。
  1. 遇到 "you" 時,一般情形下使用敬語「您」。若原文沒有那麼嚴肅可視情況使用「你」,但產品內仍應使用「您」。
  2. 翻譯 Mozilla 產品時,需注意是否有 LOCALIZATION NOTE。當中會有該行原文與譯文的描述。若當中包含 DONT_TRANSLATE 的描述時,請勿翻譯。
  3. 若遇到長原文、有換行符號的原文或 C-Format 的原文內容,可適度依照譯文增減行數,但翻譯完需特別測試譯文是否會被截斷或影響 UI。
  4. 中文沒有複數型,遇到諸如 "#1 review;#1 reviews" 的原文,請忽略複數部分(後半)。
  • 但仍需考慮這一句有沒有被塞入不同數量的可能
  1. 注意中英文的 and / or 意義可能相反,尤其是反向表列的時候。
  2. 注意 Gettext 的跳脫符號 \,例如 "%s" 應翻譯為「%s」,但若能確定該參數會顯示的內容語言非中文時則保留使用跳脫符號與引號。
  3. 注意用詞的一致,若不知道該怎麼翻可至 Transvision 尋找 Translation Memory。

商標/品牌/產品

  1. Mozilla 商標/品牌(例:Mozilla Firefox):不翻譯
  2. Mozilla 產品功能(例:Firefox Account、Private Browsing、Sync):看前後文意而定,但商標/品牌本身仍不翻譯
  • 可翻譯成「Firefox 帳號」、「隱私瀏覽」;Sync 亦可譯為「同步」、「同步功能」
  1. 在程式內被寫死,以字串替代的名稱:不翻譯
  • 例如:Firefox 會依照 release channel 的不同,在產品內以 Firefox、Aurora、Nightly 取代 &brandShortName; 變數
  1. 其他公司、品牌:原則上不翻譯,但看情況而定。
  • 例如 Microsoft 可視情況在 SUMO 文件內翻譯為「微軟」,但不將「Microsoft Edge」翻譯為「微軟 Edge」。

標點符號

  1. 使用中華民國教育部出版之《重訂標點符號手冊》修訂版當中的標點符號。
  2. 中文字、標點符號與半形英數、符號字元間需用半形空格隔開,但與全形符號間則免。
  • 例如:「這是 Firefox」的「是」與「F」間有使用空格隔開,而「對於使用者,Mozilla」當中的「,」與「M」間則沒有空格。
  1. 無論句子語言為何,句尾冒號使用半形冒號「:」,而非全形冒號「:」。
  2. 依照文字語言使用相對應的標點符號。
  • "." 作為句點應譯為「。」、" 作為引號,應翻譯為「」。
  • 刪節號應譯為「…」(U+2026),可使用一組就好。遇到原文使用三個點(“...”) 時可報 Bug 修正。

SUMO

  1. 文章的 slug(網址後面的 seo 文章 id)不須翻譯,直接複製英文版即可。
  2. 若不小心弄出了 slug 錯誤的文件,請聯絡 L10n 團隊編輯將錯誤的文件砍除,並修正連結。
  3. 語意正確度、不漏譯、標點符號正確為先,文章的連貫性與通順度次之。不要有沒必要的空格或是零碎的句子。
  4. 未完成翻譯前若需先送出手上的文件,請在送出審核前描述編修內容時勾選 "This edit does not make this article up to date. The English differences should not change on the next edit.",下次進行翻譯時將不會自動取回最新的原文。
  5. 文件中若提及某軟體或產品內的功能,應依照該軟體內的文字翻譯。
  6. “Warning: ”譯為「警告: 」、"Note: " 譯為「註: 」、"Tip: " 譯為「秘訣: 」

MDN

  1. 貼上內容時,請盡量避免直接貼上 HTML 樣式,可切換成原始碼模式來檢查。
  2. 其餘同 SUMO。

測試 / QA

  1. 注意以動名詞開頭的句子在中文語境下的型態。
  • 例:"Installing" 可能需翻譯為「安裝中」或「安裝」。
  1. 注意英文句子中子句順序與中文不同的情況。
  2. 注意一字多義的情況,若語句怪怪的或不通順可發信討論。
  3. 注意字串長度,看看譯文是否會被截斷。若無法直接透過 l10n 調整則可報 Bug 修正。
  4. 遇到樣式、排版或是因為中文缺少好用的 Web Font 而造成的不美觀,可請 l10n owner 聯絡專案負責人修正。
  5. 注意日期時間格式是否符合使用習慣。
  6. 可調整 ordered arguments 在句中的順序。
  • 例:"Downloading %1$d of %2$d" 視長度而定,可翻譯為「正在下載 %2$d 個檔案當中的第 %1$d 個」或「正在下載 %1$d 個/%2$d 個檔案」。
  1. 翻譯之後可重新閱讀幾遍,看看譯文通不通順,再行修飾。
  • 同一句裡面不要重複出現相同的主詞,某些數量與量詞亦可省略,例如:”If you lost your password” 可翻譯為「若您忘記了密碼」而非「若您忘記了您的密碼」

MozLinks

  1. 開始翻譯時請在標題時間前面加上「[翻譯中]」,文章翻譯完成後改成「[已翻譯]」。翻譯完成後 Mail 至 mozlinks-zh-editor@googlegroups.com 通知編輯已完成某篇文章翻譯。
  2. 將翻譯內容寫在轉貼原文下方的 ”中譯:(請在下方翻譯)” 區塊;翻譯區塊下的原文、授權等內容應放在翻譯內容的最後,翻譯者不應做任何更改。
  3. 編輯內容如遇連結或其他語法請參考 Markdown 語法編輯。
  • ”MozLinks” 需要 “http://mozlinks.moztw.org/” 連結,則翻譯內容描述為”MozLinks
  • ”MozLinks” 需要使用標題二的字型,則描述應為 ”##MozLinks”
  • “MozLinks” 是清單內的其中一項內容,則描述應為 ”- MozLinks” 或 “* MozLinks”
  1. 文章翻譯者應在 φ [ ] 翻譯 - [ ] 編輯 當中,前者的 [ ] 翻譯 方框改成自己的名字;編輯的方框則是留給校閱文章的審核者使用。

Style Guide Czech (cs) / Překladatelská stylistická příručka

Toto je úvodní stránka překladatelské příručky české komunity Mozilly. Pokud se chcete do překladů zapojit, přečtěte si prosím nejdříve tyto informace.

Obsah

Další rady a tipy

Kontrola pravopisu

Kontrola pravopisu není zbytečný luxus. Odstraní řadu překlepů. Ve Firefoxu můžete použít doplněk pro kontrolu překlepů a pomůže vám i služba Korektor. Hlavně u delších textů se nebojte poprosit někoho dalšího, aby po vás překlad přečetl, nebo si jej přečtěte znovu sami druhý den.

Formáty souborů

Mozilla používá nespočet formátů (např. Fluent, DTD, Properties, Gettext nebo XLIFF). Pokud budete s některým pracovat přímo, nezapomeňte si o něm předem přečíst a zeptat se na vhodný editor. Rozhodně nepoužívejte MS Word a podobné. Výsledkem by byl špatně formátovaný soubor, který není snadné upravit do správné podoby.

Kontakt

Pokud v těchto materiálech narazíte na jakoukoliv nejasnost nebo nesrovnalost, neváhejte kontaktovat český lokalizační tým.

Style Guide Czech (cs) / Překladatelská stylistická příručka

This style guide provides instruction for translating to the Czech locale. This style guide is to be used in coordination with the General Mozilla L10n Style Guide. Please read both before starting with any localization work on Mozilla product and project, help articles or extensions for Firefox. It will help you to avoid some common mistakes and make the translation consistent.

In addition to this style guide, please also read our glossary. Words like "kliknout" and "storno" may look trivial to you, but in fact those apply to the world of MS Windows only. In multiplatform Mozilla products we use "klepnout" and "zrušit". Some terminology may be specific directly to the product, in Firefox e.g. "záložky" ("bookmarks") or "panely" ("tabs"). Please read and use our glossary or Transvision whenever you are in doubt.

If you prefer to read the style guide in Czech, there is the L10N.cz style guide, which was created base on this one, but in may differ in less or more important parts.

Czech language in a nutshell

Czech is a West Slavic language. It’s close to Polish, Sorbian and very closely related to Slovak to the point of mutual intelligibility. Similar to other Slavic languages, nouns, verbs and adjectives are inflected. The inflection rules are complex, depending on grammatical case, gender, number, tense, person, and more.

Formality and Tone

The tone of Mozilla’s language should be adaptable to anyone. From new users to seasoned Mozillians, the tone should be approachable, welcoming, and inclusive. Mozilla is fun and should delight the user in expected and unexpected ways.

Especially in desktop products, prefer formal language, but stay friendly, authentic and natural. Prefer active voice over passive voice, but please note some common exceptions below. Avoid any long and complicated sentences and grammatical constructions. Clarity and meaning of every sentence has the highest priority.

In general, use the second person plural (vy - vykání) to address the user in Firefox products ("zadejte", but not "zadej"). It will not sound that strict and you will also workaround grammatical genders ("Pokud si nejste jistý/á, ..." -> "Pokud si nejste jisti, ...").

Avoid using the first person (já, mé, moje) as it can create confusion about who is being addressed. Avoid personification of the software. It’s not a live person. Instead of "Stahuji...", use passive "Stahuje se..." or "Stahování...".

In some projects (like Desktop, Android, iOS, Focus), the language will be direct as it belongs to a software string. This language should be maintained as direct, yet respectful. Avoid using imperative! In short actions and button labels use infinitive constructions ("Zobrazit", "Použít", instead of "Zobraz", "Použij"). If there is a need to ask the user to perform an action, be polite ("Vyberte (prosím)...").

Natural expression

Any translation has to obey rules of the Czech grammar. Sentences have to be both grammatically correct and also have a clear meaning. Meaning and readability is the first thing you should care about. Do not feel ashamed to read the sentence aloud or ask someone to read it for you to make sure it sounds good.

Avoid any archaisms or long and complicated sentences and constructions. Especially beware of translating the English original word by word. Do not stick to the English word order nor sentence constructions too much. Such translations are inaccurate and sound "like a robot" instead of a human. Use your own words and everyday terms to express the desired meaning instead. One of the typical examples is "Are you sure you want...?" being translated as "Jste si jisti, že chcete...?", instead of more natural "Opravdu chcete...?".

For complex sentences, read them multiple times before translating to Czech. To make the translated text sound natural, it may be necessary to adjust the number of sentences (either split them or combine) or change their order and relations. Keep the translations simple and easy to understand. Be careful about commas and semicolons too.

Think twice when translating possessive pronouns, especially "your". You may tempt to translate "Set Firefox as your default browser" as "Nastavte si Firefox jako váš výchozí prohlížeč", however the right translation "Nastavte si Firefox jako svůj výchozí prohlížeč". Despite English does not have it, the possessive pronoun "svůj" refers to the subject and sounds much more natural in Czech. Check the language reference page and don’t be afraid to use it. ;) When translating "you"/"your" as "vy"/"váš", start the word with lowercase "v" (except where the capital letter is required by grammar, e.g. at the beginning of a sentence or label). Also keep in mind that English uses "you"/"your" more frequently than Czech does. Sometimes it sounds better if you omit the pronoun completely.

A common mistake, both in translations and spoken language, is the overuse of some pronouns and conjunctions, especially "který", "pokud" and "ale". If you cannot find any better formulations, try to alternate some of the occurrences with "jenž", "avšak" or verb conditionals ("-li").

Very frequent mistake is the overuse of borrowed words and phrases. Despite some of them may be used in your day to day life, even in the related area, always use Czech equivalents if there are any. While "menu" and "level" might work for many people using computers every day, your parents will prefer Czech equivalents "nabídka" and "úroveň". Please use our glossary or Transvision to lookup Czech equivalents already in use. The only exception are branded names.

Usually it’s also better to avoid abbreviations and acronyms. In case you need to use it (e.g. because of the space limitation), please search in the existing translations first. If this is the first occurrence, lookup and use a standard one, or follow the rules from the language reference.

Handling cultural references, idioms, and slang

English idioms and phrases usually do not make sense in Czech translated word by word. If you see a parable or a word phrase that sound weird for you, there is a good chance it’a an idiom. There are several pages you can use to search English idioms and their meaning.

Once you know the idiom meaning, you can search for an equivalent in Czech, or just translate the meaning as you would say it without any parables.

Units and Unit Conversion

Calendar view

In the Czech Republic, the 12-month Gregorian calendar is used with the week starting on Monday.

Date Format

NameFormatExample
Short (rare since 2000)dd. mm. yy1. 12. ’99
Abbreviateddd. mmm1. pro
Long (numerical)dd. mm. yyyy1. 12. 1999
LongDate Month Year (month in genitive)1. prosince 1999

Date and month, if written numerical, are single digit ordinal numbers (followed by a period with a space). In business and official correspondence double digit ordinal numbers may be used. In localization, always use the single digit form.

Time Format

The 24-hour cycle is used for official and exact purposes. The 12-hour cycle is also used in daily life, especially in spoken language. In localization, always use 24-hour clock.

Hours and minutes are separated by a period without any space, hours written a single digit, minutes always double digit (7.30, 18.05, 23.25). The period can be replaced by a colon. In that case hours can be written both single and double digit (7:30 or 07:30). In localization, always use the single digit form.

For time ranges, use a dash without space (10-13 h, 12.00-12.45).

Numerals

SeparatorCharacter NameSymbolExample
DecimalComma,1,23
Thousandsnone or Space (in longer numbers)1234 or 123 456
PercentagePercent sign (with a leading space)%99 %
Percentage (adjective)Percent sign (without any space)%99%

Numerals can become a pretty hard nut to crack, especially in case of words composed from digits and words. As a localizer, you should get familiar with the correct grammar for numerals below (what’s the difference between "12m" and "12 m", or how to correctly write "dvaačtyřicetiletý" with digits).

Currency

The currency of the Czech Republic is the Czech koruna (CZK). The monetary signs are or ,- separated by a space from the amount (50 Kč). If used as a adjective (e.g. a fifty-crown coin), the symbol is without any space (50Kč mince).

Units

In the Czech Republic metric system (kilograms, meters, ...) is used.

Address and Postal Code Format

[addressee]
[street name][building and suite numbers]
[postal code][city/post name]

Vážená paní
Jarmila Novotná
Pod Mlýnem 4
463 41 Dlouhý Most

Telephone Number format

Phone numbers in the Czech Republic consist of 9 digits, usually separated by triplets. Usually the phone number also have the international code (+420 or less frequently 00420) in front.

+420 ### ### ###

Grammar

Any translation has to obey rules of the Czech grammar. Sentences have to be both grammatically correct and also have a clear meaning. Avoid any archaisms or long and complicated sentences and constructions. When using any, make sure the punctuation is correct. Punctuation saves lives.

Copy rules

In full sentences and texts on websites or support articles, always follow the grammatical rules for capitalization.

Punctuation

Note, include the terminal punctuation in hyperlink if the entire text in the UI is linked. Do not include the terminal punctuation in the hyperlink if the link is within running text or only part of the sentence is linked.

In texts, do not forget a space after a period at the end of a sentence. Spaces need to be also written after (but not before) colons or semicolons. Text inside brackets is not separated by spaces from them, but the correct placement of spaces is right before the opening and after the closing bracket only.

For quotes use the Czech double quotation marks ( and ). On the Czech keyboard, you can write them as Alt + 0132 and Alt + 0147 respectively. The corresponding HTML entities are &bdquo; and &ldquo;. For code snippets or API or function name references use quotation marks or apostrophes (" or '). These you can usually copy from the original English text.

Lists

Lists in Czech do not have a strict rules to obey. However there are good practices to follow, all mentioned in the language reference page.

Feature names

Title case does not look natural for the Czech language. Even for product features, use lowercase, but obey the general grammatical rules. E.g. "With Tracking protection..." would be translated as "S ochranou proti sledování...".

If you want to really emphasize the importance of the feature, you can use title case for the first word of its name in nominative and introduce it by a general word "funkce". The previous sentence would now look like "S funkcí Ochrana proti sledování...". But even here more natural wording "S funkcí ochrany proti sledování..." is preferred, with the feature name all in lowercase.

User interface elements

  • Titles should be brief and precise. Unless necessary, it shouldn’t be a whole sentence. Capitalize the first letter of the first word only.
  • Window titles should be short and use infinitive form, e.g. "Uložit soubor".
  • In buttons capitalize the first letter of the first word in the label only. Limit the whole text to one or two words. Use verbs in infinitive form that precisely describe the button’s action result. It’s way better to translate "Install" button label as "Nainstalovat" than "Instalovat". Most of them will be probably covered in our glossary.
  • Checkboxes and radio buttons capitalize the first letter of the first word and use infinitive form. Make sure that the translations of elements in the same group or section are consistent and sound natural as a list of alternative or complementary choices.
  • In select options list capitalize the first letter of the first word, unless the selector makes a sentence together with the corresponding label. In that case make sure all options make a correct sentence with the label. Try to keep all the options about the same length and preferably short.
  • Tooltips serve the purpose of a short help and appear when mouse is hovered over an UI element. Use active voice with the element as unexpressed subject, e.g. "Zobrazí historii", "Uloží soubor", "Otevře nabídku".
  • Accesskeys, sometime also called accelerators, are keys to access specific UI elements using your keyboard only. Combined with screen readers, accesskeys improve the accessibility for visually impaired users, or used standalone they speedup the UI navigation. In the UI you can often determine them as underscored letters. When localizing accesskeys you have to make sure the letter is on the Czech keyboard and users can press it with the Alt key at the same time. The rule of thumb is to only use letters without diacritics. To make the accesskeys look and work the best, use letters contained in the corresponding label and if possible unique in the application menu or dialog. If it fulfills the mentioned rules, using the same accesskey as in English is a small plus.
  • Commandkeys are similar to accesskeys, but they work as regular keyboard shortcuts (e.g. Ctrl+S for save or Ctrl+Q to quit the application). Always keep the same commandkey as in English, unless the key is not available on the standard Czech keyboard. See the Shortcuts and Accesskeys section in the General Mozilla L10n Style Guide for more information about both accesskeys and commandkeys.

Překladatelský slovník

Pokud překládáte aplikace Mozilly, či některá jejich rozšíření, je nutné, aby se základní termíny překládaly stejně. Uživatelé pak nejsou mateni různými výrazy, které ve skutečnosti znamenají totéž, a překlad je celkově konzistentní.

V níže uvedených tabulkách naleznete základní výrazy, které se v aplikacích často používají, a jejich české ekvivalenty. Další výrazy obsahují slovníky L10N.cz nebo online nástroj Transvision. Pokud máte pocit, že některý běžně používaný výraz ve slovníku chybí, napište nám prosím.

Části aplikací

AnglickyČesky
NavigatorProhlížeč
BrowserProhlížeč
Mail & NewsgroupsPošta a diskusní skupiny
CalendarKalendář

Doplňky

AnglickyČesky
Add-on, AddonDoplněk
DictionarySlovník
ExtensionRozšíření
Plug-in, PluginZásuvný modul
Search moduleVyhledávací modul
ThemeMotiv vzhledu (zkráceně Vzhled)

Prvky uživatelského rozhraní

Nástrojové lišty

AnglickyČesky
ToolbarNástrojová lišta
Bookmarks toolbarLišta záložek
Composition toolbarLišta editoru
Formatting toolbarLišta úprav
Mail toolbarLišta pošty
Navigation toolbarLišta navigace

Ostatní lišty

AnglickyČesky
BarLišta
SidebarPostranní lišta
Site navigation barLišta navigace webu
Search barLišta hledání (na stránce)
Component barLišta komponent
Status barStavový řádek
Quick Filter BarLišta rychlého filtru

Prvky lišty navigace

AnglickyČesky
BackZpět
ForwardVpřed
ReloadObnovit
StopZastavit
HomeDomů
Location BarAdresní řádek
Awesome BarChytrý adresní řádek
GoPřejít
Search barVyhledávací pole (s použitím vyhledávacích modulů)

Prvky lišty pošty

AnglickyČesky
ReplyOdpovědět
Reply allOdpovědět všem (zkrácený výraz Odp. všem)
ForwardPřeposlat

Dialogy a upozornění

AnglickyČesky
AlertVýstraha
ConfirmPotvrzení
DialogDialogové okno; pouze Dialog, pokud je ve spojení s názvem dialogu (př. Preferences dialog = Dialog předvoleb)
Error consoleChybová konzole
NotificationOznámení
OptionsMožnosti
PreferencesPředvolby
PromptVýzva
SettingsNastavení

Obecné prvky uživatelského rozhraní

AnglickyČesky
BoxPole
ControlsOvládací prvky
Down-box listRozbalovací seznam
FormFormulář
GroupboxSkupina, Skupinový rám
ListboxRozbalovací seznam
ScrollbarPosuvník
Toggle buttonPřepínací tlačítko

Další prvky viz Slovník vizuálních prvků.

Nabídky

AnglickyČesky
Context menuMístní nabídka
Main menu, Menu BarHlavní nabídka
MenuNabídka
Sub-menuPodnabídka
Title barZáhlaví okna

Položky hlavní nabídky

AnglickyČesky
FileSoubor
EditÚpravy
ViewZobrazit
HistoryHistorie
GoPřejít
BookmarksZáložky
MessageZpráva
ToolsNástroje
HelpNápověda

Položky nabídky Soubor

AnglickyČesky
CloseZavřít
Print previewNáhled tisku
Page setupVzhled stránky
ExitUkončit

Položky nabídky Úpravy

AnglickyČesky
UndoZpět
RedoZnovu
CutVyjmout
CopyKopírovat
PasteVložit
DeleteSmazat
Select allVybrat vše

Položky nabídky Nápověda

AnglickyČesky
AboutO aplikaci/O rozšíření

Položky místní nabídky

AnglickyČesky
Page sourceZdrojový kód stránky
Send linkOdeslat odkaz

Akce uživatele

Akce myší

AnglickyČesky
ClickKlepnutí
Double clickPoklepání
Right clickKlepnutí pravým tlačítkem

Obecné akce

AnglickyČesky
ApplyPoužít
BlockBlokovat, Zakázat
Browse (files)Procházet (soubory)
Browse (web)Prohlížet (web)
CopyZkopírovat (v textu nebo jako proběhlá akce, př. Zkopírováno, Zkopíruje adresu odkazu), Kopírovat (jako popisek v nabídkách)
ExecuteProvést, Vykonat
ExpiresPlatnost do
FindHledat, Najít (na stránce)
Find as you typeHledat během psaní text
FlushVyprázdnit
HighlightZvýraznit (zvýraznění)
CheckZaškrtnout, Zkontrolovat (záleží na kontextu)
LoadNačíst (případně jinak konkrétněji podle kontextu)
SearchHledat (akce nebo v kontextu hledání na stránce), Vyhledávání (pomocí vyhledávacího modulu)
UploadNahrát
UncheckOdškrtnout

Obecné výrazy

AnglickyČesky
AdvancedRozšířené
AttributeAtribut
DefaultVýchozí
Character codingZnaková sada
Character setZnaková sada
Internetinternet (s malým i na začátku)
Key modifierModifikátor klávesové zkratky
LoginPřihlašovací údaje
Master passwordHlavní heslo
Privacy notice, Privacy policyZásady ochrany osobních údajů, Zásady společnosti XXX o ochraně osobních údajů
RestoreObnovit
Release notesPoznámky k vydání
RequestPožadavek, Požadovat (případně jinak konkrétněji podle kontextu)
RequirePotřebovat, Vyžadovat (případně jinak konkrétněji podle kontextu)
SecurityZabezpečení
SessionRelace
TitleNázev (stránky), Titul (akademický)
UpgradeAktualizace
User profileUživatelský profil
Profile managerSprávce profilů

Odborné výrazy

AnglickyČesky
AuthenticationAutentizace
BugChyba
BuildSestavení
Cookies(nepřekládáme)
DebugLadit
Debugger(nepřekládáme)
DecryptDešifrovat
EncryptZašifrovat
Nightly buildNoční verze
PipeliningProudové zpracování
RefererOdkazující URL
RSS feedRSS kanál
Search engineVyhledávač
SmartCard(nepřekládáme)
StylesheetKaskádový styl

Prohlížeč

AnglickyČesky
Ad trackers, Analytic trackers, Social trackers, ...Sledující reklamy, Sledující analytické prvky, Sledující sociální sítě, ...
BookmarksZáložky
FrameRám
HomepageDomovská stránka
Image/text placeholdZástupný obrázek/text
Live bookmarkAktuální záložka
LocationUmístění (když mluvíme o prvku), Adresa (pokud se jedná o URL)
Location Aware BrowsingProhlížení se znalostí polohy
Private browsingAnonymní prohlížení
TabPanel
TrackersSledovací prvky (v kontextu sledování na webových stránkách)
Tracking ads, ...Sledující reklamy, ...
Tracking elementsSledovací prvky
Tracking protectionOchrana proti sledování
WebsiteWebový server (dle kontextu lze překládat i jako webová stránka)

E-mailový klient

AnglickyČesky
Address bookČást aplikace na správu kontaktů se jmenuje ''Kontakty''. Kontakty jsou ve složkách, které se nazývají ''Složky kontaktů'' a nejnižším prvkem je samotný ''Kontakt''.
AttachPřipojit
AttachmentPříloha
Card/vCardVizitka
Compact FoldersProvést údržbu složek
LabelŠtítek
Mail (sloveso)Poslat
MarkOznačit
NewsgroupDiskusní skupina
RSS feedRSS kanál
Saved searchUložené hledání
ScamPodvodný e-mail
SubscribeOdebírat
SpamNevyžádaná pošta
ThreadVlákno
UnsubscribeNeodebírat

Styleguide: Dutch (nl)

Dit document is een gedeeltelijke kopie van de pagina op www.mozilla-nl.org. Aan een echte stijlgids wordt nog gewerkt, zij het met lage prioriteit.

Algemene regels

  • Spreek de gebruiker aan met u, niet je.
  • Helpfiles auteursrecht: Auteursrecht © 2003-20xx Medewerkers van het Mozilla Help Viewer Project. (Gebruik het actuele jaar.)
  • Aangezien we als Mozilla-NL vaak dezelfde richtlijnen volgen als de vertaling van KDE, slaat de uitleg in de KDE-vertaalgids en de bijbehorende woordenlijst ook op de vertaling van Mozilla. De woordenlijst op deze pagina heeft wel voorrang.
  • Voor andere zaken waarover wordt getwijfeld, kunnen de woorden worden opgezocht in het Vrijschrift-woordenboek of in de lijst met online woordenlijsten die GNOME-NL heeft opgesteld.

Aanhalingstekens en apostroffen

In de Nederlandse vertaling gebruiken we zgn. ‘gekrulde’ aanhalingstekens en apostroffen. Dit omdat deze typografisch beter staan, en de Unicode-standaard ook aanraadt in plaats van de ' een ’ te gebruiken voor apostroffen. Een overzicht van de tekens:

TekenUnicodeDTDPropertiesToetscombinatie (qwerty internationaal)
enkele aanhalingstekens openenU+2018&#8216;\u2018ALTGR + 9
enkele aanhalingstekens sluitenU+2019&#8217;\u2019ALTGR + 0
apostrofU+2019&#8217;\u2019ALTGR + 0
dubbele aanhalingstekens openenU+201C&#8220;\u201CALT + 0147 (Windows) / ALTGR + SHIFT + [ (Linux)
dubbele aanhalingstekens sluitenU+201D&#8221;\u201DALT + 0148 (Windows) / ALTGR + SHIFT + ] (Linux)

Je kunt de tekens zelf gewoon in de Unicode-gecodeerde bestanden gebruiken. Mozilla gebruikt - tegen de richtlijnen van Sun in - voor bijna alle bestanden utf-8. Voor uitzonderingen, zie MDN.

Als je geen qwerty-internationaal gebruikt, zijn deze tekens eenvoudig in de ‘character map’ (Start / Programma’s / Bureau-accessoires / Systeemwerkset / Speciale tekens) te vinden. Kies daarvoor ‘Geavanceerde weergave’, ‘Groeperen op: Unicode-subbereik’, ‘Algemene interpunctie’, en daar staan ze dan tussen.

Voor Linux is er het programma ‘gucharmap’, dat net zo werkt.

Waarschuwing: gebruik nooit en te nimmer de accenttekens (U+0060) en (U+00B4). Dit zijn geen aanhalingstekens; ze hebben een ander doel en ze zien er anders uit. Het gebruik van deze tekens veroorzaakt bijvoorbeeld ongewenste extra spatiëring.

Style Guide Esperanto (eo)

Ĝeneralaj reguloj por tradukoj

Elektado de vortoj

Bonvolu kontroli kiel oni tradukis antaŭe similajn frazojn (langeto Machinery en Pontoon). Vi povas uzi ankaŭ Transvision por tio. Manko da kohereco povas esti kialo ne akcepti (aŭ devi modifi) sugestitan tradukon, eĉ se la traduko estis bona. Ekzemple, kaj "forviŝi" kaj "forigi" povas esti taŭgaj tradukoj por "delete", sed ni uzas "forigi" en Firefox.

Tamen, oni povas ĉiam pridiskuti la elekton de kelkaj vortoj, eĉ se ili estas ofte kaj/aŭ delonge uzataj. Tio okazis jam plurfoje. Du menciindaj okazoj: la ŝanĝo de "paĝosigno" al "legosigno" kaj la ŝanĝo de "retesplorilo" al "retumilo". Do, se vi opinias ke iu termino estas ŝanĝenda, unue oni tion diskutu kaj poste, se estas konsento, oni tion amase ŝanĝos.

Bonvolu uzi nur Fundamentajn, oficialajn kaj Zamenhofajn radikojn, se tio eblas. Novradikoj kaj novaj elementoj estas evitindaj. La kategorio de radiko estas kutime kontrolebla en iu ajn vortaro esperantlingva.

Terminaro

Kvankam ankoraŭ ne estas aparta terminaro, vi povas kontroli tradukojn serĉante la vorton en Transvision (Pli da informo ĉe Rimedoj).

Gramatiko kaj vortaro

Nia norma gramatiko estas PMEG kaj la norma vortaro estas PIV - Plena Ilustrita Vortaro de Esperanto. Aliaj estas uzeblaj, kompreneble, sed okaze de dubo, la ĉi supraj estos decidaj.

verboformoj

La -u formon oni nur uzas kiam la programo petas ion al la uzanto. Ekzemple (re)tajpu vian pasvortonelektu pli etan valoron. En ĉiuj aliaj okazoj oni uzas ĉu la (-ad)-o formon, ĉu la -i formon. Kiam kaj -o kaj -ad-o eblas (ekzemple por import-) oni uzu la pli mallongan, kio cetere povas esti bona afero por la poŝaparataj produktoj, kie loko estas elĉerpebla rimedo.

sensubjektaj verboj

En la angla aperas tekstoj kiel "Loading..." aŭ "Reading files...", kie la subjekto estas subkomprenata (kutime temas pri la retumilo). Ni tamen bezonas havi subjekton. Do, depende de la frazo oni povas uzi la -ad- formon, por indiki daŭran agon, aŭ tripunkton, aŭ igi la frazon pasiva.

anglaesperanta
Loading…Ŝargado…
Reading files…Ŝargado de dosieroj…
Reading files…Dosieroj ŝargataj…

vortordo

La vortordo ne havas limigojn, krom tio ke ni preferas tiu ĉi anstataŭ ĉi tiu. Oni tamen klopodu resti kohera kun la vortordo de subjekto, objekto, verbo, ktp. en la cetero de la tradukunuo, kiun oni tradukas (retpaĝo, fenestro, panelo, ktp.)

adjektivo aŭ aparteno

Oni povas klarigi dubon inter adjektivo aŭ aparteno per la jena ekzemplo:

miŝmiŝ estas kata nomo (sed eble neniu kato tiel nomiĝas)

miŝmiŝ estas nomo de kato (do, krom esti taŭge kata, iu kato fakte tiel nomiĝas)

anglaesperanta
File sizeDosiera grando
File sizeGrando de dosiero
anglaesperanta
File sizeAparatoj de sekureco
Security DevicesSekurecaj aparatoj

uskleco (majuskloj kaj minuskloj)

Majuskle oni nur skribas la komencon de la frazo kaj proprajn nomojn. Ĉiujn aliajn vortojn oni skribas minuskle, krom kiam ili estas mencio al butono aŭ menuero, kiujn ni konsideras propran nomon en tiu kunteksto.

anglaesperanta
Open FileMalfermi Dosieron
Open FileMalfermi dosieron

netradukeblaj vortoj

En tiuj okazoj, oni klare montru ke tiu vorto estas alilingva.

anglaesperanta
Ping TypeTipo de «ping»

Tie ĉi, Ping estas angla vorto kiun ni ne opiniis tradukebla/tradukinda.

Ordonklavoj

Ordonklavojn (command keys) ni ne tradukas. Tiuj estas la klavoj, kiujn oni premas kune kun la stirklavo. Ili restas same al tiuj en la angla versio (ekzemple, stir+f por serĉi).

Alirklavoj

Alirklavojn (access keys) ne forgesu ŝanĝi! Alirklavo estas la klavo kiun oni povas premi por iri rekte al menuero aŭ butono. Estas grava afero el aspekta kaj ankaŭ el alirebleca vidpunkto, ĉar tio permesas rapidan aliron al menuero aŭ butono. Tial oni klopodu havi malsamajn alirklavojn por ĉiu teksto en unu fenestro.

tekstoalirklavoteksto montrataklarigo
Malfermi dosieronMMalfermi dosieronla litero M estos substrekita
Malfermi dosieronoMalfermi dosieronla unua litero o estos substrekita
Malfermi dosieronFMalfermi dosieron (F)ĉar ne eblas substreki literon, la alirklavo aperas fine, inter krampoj

Rimedoj

Iloj de Mozilla

Pontoon estas la oficiala reta tradukilo de produktoj de Mozilla. Dum tradukado ĝi permesas vidi la tradukojn en aliaj lingvoj (vi povas agordi kiujn vi volas vidi unue).

Transvision permesas serĉi tradukojn en ĉiuj produktoj kaj lingvoj de Mozilla. En tiu sistemo eblas ankaŭ raporti cimojn kaj vidi kion la aliaj lingvojn tradukis.

Lingvaj

PIV - Plena Ilustrita Vortaro de Esperanto

Revo - Reta vortaro

Style Guide Finnish (fi)

Mozillan suomen kielen lokalisoinnin tyyliopas

Intro

Tyyliopas vastaa muutamiin yleisiin tyylikysymyksiin Mozilla-tuotteiden ja Mozilla-sivustojen kääntämisessä.

Esimerkkejä kansainvälisistä tyylioppaista:

Tyyli

Kaiken kirjoitetun pitäisi noudattaa kirjakielen sääntöjä. Markkinointiviestit voivat olla tyyliltään vapaampia, mutta puhekieltä ei pitäisi käyttää niissäkään.

Käännösten tavoite on olla niin selkeitä, että “mummosikin ymmärtää”. Luonnollisesti tämä riippuu mummosta, mutta yksinkertainen tapa sanoa asia on aina ylivertainen verrattuna teknisesti tarkkaan versioon. On hyvä pitää mielessä, että päivittäisten suomenkielisen Firefoxin käyttäjien määrä on puolen miljoonan paremmalla puolella, joten käyttäjät ovat aivan tavallisia ihmisiä.

Sävyltään tekstin pitäisi seurata alkuperäistä englanninkielistä tekstiä, mutta suomen kieli on luonnostaan rauhallisempaa kuin amerikanenglanti, joka pitää ottaa huomioon erityisesti markkinointiviestintää käännettäessä.

Ohjelmistoja kääntäessä ei yleensä käytetä pronomineja aktiivisesti. Ei siis käännetä “You can click…” “Sinä voit napsauttaa…”, vaan muutetaan ohjeistukset yleensä passiivisiksi “Napsauttamalla…”. Vastaavasti ei yleensä käytetä muotoja minun/sinun käännöksissä (vaan esim. Oma).

Ohjelmia, tavaramerkkejä tai palvelujen nimiä ei yleensä käännetä vaan lisätään tarkentava kuvaus nimen jälkeen, esimerkiksi Firefox Sync -palvelu. Mozillan käännöstiedostoissa tällaiset tuotenimet ovat usein muuttujina, jolloin pitää olla tarkkana että pääte tulee oikein. Kansainvälinen ohjeistus: https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/styleguide/identity/firefox/branding/.

Oikeinkirjoitus- ja kielioppiohjeistus

TBD? Many languages have national or international standards that define spelling and grammar rules. When defining these rules for your community, make reference to those standards wherever possible. Do you have automated tests for spell checking and grammar? List those tools and dictionaries here and how regularly they should be used.

Yksiköt

Yksiköissä käytetään SI-yksiköitä ja suomen kielen merkintätapaa niille (https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansainv%C3%A4linen_yksikk%C3%B6j%C3%A4rjestelm%C3%A4#Kirjoituss.C3.A4.C3.A4nn.C3.B6t).

Tallennuskapasiteetin yksiköinä käytetään lähdetekstin mukaista käytäntöä. Kilotavut, megatavut, gigatavut lyhennetään kt, Mt, Gt jne.

Päiväys & kalenteri

Päiväykset kielitoimiston ohjeistusten mukaisesti: http://www.kielitoimistonohjepankki.fi/haku/p%C3%A4iv%C3%A4ys/ohje/53.

Termistö

Termistöä löytyy täältä…

cancel -> peruuta

lista -> lista tai luettelo, usein lista

Uusien vaikeiden termien kääntämistä kannattaa lähestyä hakemalla olemassa olevia käännöksiä tai yrittämällä ymmärtää, mitä ominaisuus tarkoittaa.

Käyttöliittymäelementtikohtaisia ohjeita

Pikanäppäimet

Pikanäppäimille (access keys) ei ole ohjeistusta (TBD). Pikanäppäimet yleensä määritelty kontekstissa ensimmäiseksi vapaaksi pikanäppäin-kirjaimeksi merkkijonossa.

Muut käyttöliittymäelementtikohtaiset ohjeistukset

  • Painikkeet: Ensimmäinen sana voi olla isolla. Verbien käyttö suositeltua, mutta voidaan unohtaa jos tila ei muuten riitä ja ymmärrettävyys ei kärsi.
  • Arvolistat: Seuraa lähdetekstin versaalit/gemenat -muotoa, mutta vain ensimmäinen sana (ja erisnimet) isolla.
  • Ellipsis: Kolme pistettä eli ellipsis-merkkiä tulee käyttää lähdetekstin mukaisesti.

Yleiset ohjeet

Tärkeimmät mielessä pidettävät asiat tehdessä käännöksiä ovat:

  • Ymmärrettävyys, selkeys
  • Johdonmukaisuus

Ymmärrettävyyden kannalta keskeistä on, että kääntäjä ymmärtää toiminnon ja mitä toiminto tarkoittaa. Mozilla tarjoaa tähän joitain apuja, mutta paras tapa on usein käyttää kehitysversioita ohjelmistosta, jotta näkee toiminnot käytännössä.

Johdonmukaisuus voi rikkoutua ohjelman sisällä kun kääntäjä unohtaa, mitä termiä tai tyyliä on käyttänyt aikaisemmin tai ohjeistuksen ja ohjelman välillä jos ohjeistuksen kirjoittaja ei ole selvillä ohjelmassa olevasta käännöksestä.

Johdonmukaisuuden tärkein tekijä on jatkaa projektin parissa pidempään ja oppia tekemällä. Toinen loistava työkalu johdonmukaisuuteen on käyttää http://transvision.mozfr.org/ -palvelua selaamaan olemassa olevia käännöksiä ja viimeisenä luonnollisesti kommunikointi kääntäjien kesken.

Style Guide French (fr)

Read the style guide here

French Localization Guide

Ce document est à l’usage de toutes les personnes amenées à écrire pour Firefox en français. Il a pour objectif d’uniformiser le ton et la voix de la marque sur toutes les plateformes et à travers le monde.

Pourquoi a-t-on besoin d’un tel guide pour localiser le contenu ?

Firefox parle d’une même voix dans le monde entier, mais nous voulons éviter de traduire notre contenu de manière littérale. Il est important de maintenir l’image de la marque et l’intention originale du message, en prenant soin d’adapter le langage aux spécificités locales.

En somme, ce guide est écrit pour :

  • Développer un ton qui reflète l’image de la marque et qui convient à notre public
  • Uniformiser la traduction des termes techniques et/ou spécifiques à la marque

Le lexique en fin de document permet d’assurer une certaine cohérence dans la terminologie que nous employons.

Les consignes de ce document ne sont pas gravées dans la roche. Notre marque évolue, nous actualisons donc le document lorsque c’est nécessaire.

À propos de Firefox – Qui sommes-nous ?

Firefox, c’est bien plus qu’un navigateur. C’est une marque reconnue à travers le monde, qui remet en question le statu quo et qui lutte pour les droits des internautes.

Nous plaçons les utilisateurs et utilisatrices au centre de tout ce que nous créons et décidons.

La marque Firefox représente une philosophie qui place les internautes avant les bénéfices, et ce dans chacun des produits de sa gamme.

Mozilla est l’organisation à but non lucratif à l’origine de Firefox.

La promesse de la marque :

Firefox se bat pour vous

Ce pour quoi nous nous battons :

Firefox se bat pour défendre les internautes en leur proposant des produits qui leur permettent de prendre le contrôle de leur vie en ligne.

L’objectif de la marque :

Expliquer aux internautes que Firefox est la marque qui tient leurs intérêts à cœur et qu’ils ont le contrôle et sont en sécurité quand ils utilisent les outils Firefox.

Les produits Firefox :

Personnalité et ton de la marque

À qui s’adresse-t-on ?

Nous ciblons les personnes qui font des choix réfléchis, c’est à dire qui ne prennent pas de décisions au hasard mais qui choisissent consciencieusement, autant en ligne que hors ligne.

Choisir consciencieusement signifie :

  • Développer des préférences et prendre des décisions de consommations réfléchies.
  • S’efforcer d’agir selon ses valeurs et ses idéaux.
  • Faire preuve d’exigence et ne pas se satisfaire du minimum.
  • Effectuer son propre travail de recherche afin de comprendre toutes les options qu’on a à sa disposition.

Personnalité de la marque Firefox

La marque repose sur quatre piliers, véritables fondations de tout ce que nous faisons et de tout ce que nous écrivons, aussi bien en anglais qu’en français.

CaractéristiquesPersonnalité
DogmatismeNos produits prouvent que nous sommes portés par des convictions profondes. Nous exprimons fièrement nos points de vue. Quand d’autres ne s’intéressent qu’aux aspects techniques, nous fondons tout sur notre éthique.
OuvertureOuverture d’esprit. Sincérité. Open Source. La transparence et notre vision globale font partie intégrante de notre marque. En effet, nous parlons plusieurs langues et nous nous efforçons de refléter tous les points de vue.
BienveillanceNous voulons ce qu’il y a de mieux pour Internet et pour les internautes. Nous montrons l’exemple. En concevant de meilleurs produits. En engageant la conversation, en établissant des partenariats en collaborant, éduquant et informant. Notre empathie s’étend à tout le monde.
RadicalitéC’est un acte radical que d’être optimiste quant à l’avenir d’Internet. C’est un acte radical de servir les autres avant soi-même. Nous bouleversons le statu quo car c’est la bonne chose à faire.

Nous sommes dogmatiques, mais ouverts. Nous sommes radicalement bienveillants. La personnalité de la marque tient sa richesse de ses traits de caractère opposés en apparence, mais essentiellement complémentaires chez Firefox.

Ton de la marque

CaractéristiqueExplication
Direct et facile à comprendreNous voulons que tous les internautes se sentent les bienvenus. Ainsi, nous n’utilisons que des mots et des concepts clairs que tout le monde peut comprendre.
ConcisOn aime les titres et les phrases courtes. Il en va de même pour les calls to action (boutons d’appel à l’action).

Les mots et phrases clés doivent figurer en début de paragraphe On évite les structures de phrase complexes ainsi que les informations superflues.
AuthentiqueTout comme nos produits, nos textes sont créés par la communauté et pour la communauté. Nous nous adressons à notre public sur un pied d’égalité et écrivons de façon naturelle.On sait de quoi on parle, mais on ne s’exprime pas avec condescendance.
NaturelNous évitons les structures à la voix passive et préférons la voix active. Deux phrases courtes valent mieux qu’une longue phrase.
RespectueuxS’exprimer avec respect ne signifie pas s’exprimer de façon guindée.
Plein d’humourNous n’hésitons pas à faire preuve d’humour, sans être grossiers ni mièvres.
PertinentPour les textes plus longs, les lecteurs doivent pouvoir savoir à quoi s’attendre dès le début de l’article, et si celui-ci les concerne.

Il est important de placer l’utilisateur dans un contexte (où, quand, pourquoi lit-il/elle ceci).

Les références culturelles doivent parler au lecteur et être adaptées au marché concerné. Si quelque chose est intraduisible, il ne faut pas le traduire, mais plutôt chercher à exprimer la même intention différemment.
Optimiste et motivantNous sommes confiants que le futur d’Internet est positif. Bien sûr, nous sommes aussi conscients des problèmes qui existent, mais nous essayons toujours de conclure sur une note positive, orientée sur des solutions.
CréatifNotre contenu doit avant tout être clair, facile à comprendre et informatif. Mais nous aimons aussi être innovants et créatifs. On évite les discours ennuyeux et les lieux communs du marketing.

2ᵉ personne du pluriel et forme impersonnelle

Il est recommandé d’utiliser, selon le contexte, soit la deuxième personne du pluriel, soit la forme impersonnelle (« on »). Le tutoiement est à proscrire, sauf lorsque le contexte le requiert (citations, expressions, etc.)

Écriture inclusive et emploi du masculin et féminin

Nous prenons soin de n’exclure personne et de nous adresser au public le plus large possible et évitons autant que possible les termes et formules genrés. L’exercice relevant parfois de l’acrobatie, il est important de se fier à son bon sens afin d’éviter les phrases et formules alambiquées qui alourdissent le texte et peuvent distraire le lectorat du message que nous souhaitons faire passer.

Cette liste non-exhaustive de consignes s’applique à notre contenu marketing.

Privilégier les formules épicènes (invariables en genre) ou les formules englobantes (mots génériques pour désigner un groupe de personnes) :

  • Mots épicènes : internaute, élève, adulte, analyste, etc…
  • Formules englobantes : l’équipe de développement, les personnes malvoyantes, tout le monde, etc…

Dans la mesure du possible éviter la voix passive afin de ne pas avoir à accorder un participe passé.

  • Exemples :
    👎 Vous êtes suivi(e) par des traqueurs partout sur le Web.
    👍 Des traqueurs vous suivent partout sur le Web.

Lorsqu’il n’y a pas de contraintes de limite du nombre de caractères, la double flexion peut être utilisée, avec l’accord au masculin pluriel.

  • Exemples :
    👎 Les étudiants et les étudiantes sont fatigué·es
    👍 Les étudiants et les étudiantes sont fatigués.

Dans les phrases courtes et percutantes (slogans, balises h1), utiliser le masculin pluriel en guise de neutre.

  • Exemples :
    👎 Êtes-vous prêt à franchir le pas ?
    👎 Êtes-vous prêt·e à franchir le pas ?
    👍 Êtes-vous prêts à franchir le pas ?

Quand on parle de nous-mêmes, on utilise le masculin pluriel

  • Exemples :
    👍 Chez Firefox, nous sommes convaincus que vos données vous appartiennent.

Donner plus de visibilité au féminin, notamment en l’utilisant dans des exemples et démonstrations de cas particuliers, ainsi qu’en féminisant les fonctions.

  • Exemples :
    👍 Une utilisatrice lambda doit s’inquiéter de la manière dont ses données sont traitées.
    👍 La présidente de l’Estonie a rencontré la première ministre de l’Islande.

N’utiliser le point-milieu qu’en dernier recours, de préférence uniquement au singulier et lorsque la terminaison du féminin peut s’apposer au masculin sans fléchir le radical.

  • Exemples :
    👎 Les instituteur·trice·s se sont mis·e·s d’accord :
    👍 C’est un·e élève discipliné·e.
    👍 Nous recherchons un·e excellent·e informaticien·ne.

Règles typographiques

Se référer au guide stylistique pour la traduction pour les règles concernant la typographie en français.

Titres d’œuvres

Les titres d’œuvres, de publications, d’émissions de télé ou de radio, etc. doivent être placés en italique, sans guillemets. On parlera ainsi d’un article du Monde, ou de 1984, l’œuvre prophétique d’Orwell.

Anglicismes

Nous parlons et écrivons comme notre public parle et écrit. Nous défendons un usage libre de la langue française et ne forçons personne à franciser les mots empruntés à l’anglais. Nous recommandons l’utilisation du terme le plus couramment employé dans la langue de tous les jours. On préférera donc les termes e-mail (avec le trait d’union), bug, chat ou newsletter à la place de courriel, bogue, clavardage et liste de diffusion.

Les mots empruntés à l’anglais (ainsi qu’à d’autres langues) et non adoptés par l’usage sont mis en italique.

Exemples :

  • Les entreprises sont appelées à mettre en place les bonnes pratiques de lean data.
  • la NSA a publié un document informant ses employés des dangers du juice jacking.

Calls to action (CTA)

Le verbe dans les CTA (boutons d’appel à l’action en bon français) doit préférablement être à l’infinitif.

Exemples :

  • Télécharger Firefox plutôt que Téléchargez Firefox, ou encore Lire l’article plutôt que Lisez l’article.

Expressions et métaphores Dans la traduction, toujours s’assurer que les expressions employées en français sont idiomatiques. Si ce n’est pas le cas, chercher une expression équivalente. Les noms de marques tierces doivent être laissés tels quels. Dans le cas d’une référence culturelle inadaptée à un public francophone, ne pas hésiter à trouver une marque française équivalente.

Textes optimisés pour le référencement (SEO)

  • Comme tout ce que nous écrivons, les textes SEO doivent être localisés de manière à ce qu’ils offrent de la valeur aux lecteurs. Il faut s’assurer que les textes SEO sont aussi intéressants et pertinents que les articles de nos blogs.
  • Les titres doivent être aussi précis que possible et doivent adresser le sujet de l’article en question, pas seulement le thème général (par exemple, un article sur le respect de la vie privée ne doit pas s’intituler : Tout ce qu’il faut savoir sur le respect de la vie privée).

Articles sur le blog

  • Le titre de l’article doit être aussi précis que possible et doit préférablement tenir sur une seule ligne.
  • Dans la mesure du possible, la première phrase doit apparaître intégralement dans l’aperçu de l’article afin que les lecteurs sachent à quoi s’attendre avant de cliquer.
  • Ne pas hésiter à diviser l’article en paragraphes et à utiliser des sous-titres afin de le rendre plus facile à lire.

Lexique

Expressions fréquentes dans l’univers Firefox

Les expressions suivantes reviennent fréquemment dans nos articles et il est important de toujours utiliser la même traduction pour des raisons de cohérence.

L’outil de recherche Transvision est une excellente ressource qui permet de voir certaines expressions et tournures de phrase dans différents contextes et leur traduction en français.

Afin d’éviter la confusion, les termes suivants doivent être traduits comme indiqué ci-dessous.

AnglaisFrançais
Activity StreamActivity Stream
Ad trackerTraqueur publicitaire
Browser EngineMoteur de rendu
Browser historyHistorique de navigation
ClickbaitPiège à clics
Context GraphContext Graph
Control TabControl Tab
Corporate controlContrôle par les grandes entreprises
Corporate PowersPouvoirs collectifs
CryptominerMineur de cryptomonnaie
data breachFuite de données
Data collectionCollecte de données
DecentralizationDécentralisation
Decentralized InternetInternet décentralisé
Deep LearningApprentissage profond
Desktop BrowserNavigateur pour ordinateur
Dev ToolsOutils de développement
Digital CitizenshipCitoyenneté numérique
Digital footprintEmpreinte numérique
Digital InclusionInclusion numérique
Download FirefoxTélécharger Firefox
Dropdown menuMenu déroulant
empowerDonner le contrôle / Valoriser
Enhanced tracking protectionProtection renforcée contre le pistage
ExposureVulnérabilité
ExtensionsAdd-onsExtensionsModules complémentaires (pour les fonctions du menu)
FeatureFonctionnalité
FingerprintingCapture d’empreinte numérique
Firefox PrivacyPolitique de confidentialité de Firefox
FormFormulaire
intelligent search suggestionsSuggestions de recherche intelligentes
Internet citizenCitoyen d’Internet
Internet experienceExpérience internet
Internet healthSanté d’Internet
lean browserNavigateur
Lean Data ToolkitBoîte à outils du lean data
LibraryBibliothèque
Life onlineVie numérique
limited dataDonnées limitées
MalwareLogiciel malveillant
MemoryMémoire
Mozilla Developer NetworkMozilla Developer Network
MozillianMozillien (avec une majuscule)
Multi-processMulti-processus
NetworkRéseau
Network neutralityNeutralité du réseau
Network requestsAppels réseau
Night modeMode nuit
Non-ProfitNon lucratif
Open SourceOpen Source
PaddingRemplissage
Password managerGestionnaire de mots de passe
PerformancePerformance
Personal data promisePrincipes concernant les données personnelles
PolicyPolitique
PrivacySelon le contexte:vie privée confidentialité
Privacy ModeMode privé
Responsive Design ModeVue adaptative
ScratchpadBloc-notes
Search ChoiceChoix de recherche
Storage PanelPanneau de stockage
Style EditorÉditeur de Style
TechnologyTechnologie
technologyTechnologie
technology devicesAppareils technologiques
Third-party advertisersPublicitaires tiers
Third-party trackersTraqueurs tiers
to championSoutenir
ToolbarBarre d’outils
Tracking ProtectionProtection contre le pistage
trust and privacyConfiance et protection de la vie privée
Visual EditingÉdition visuelle
VolunteerContribuer – Contributeur / Contributrice
Web AudioWeb Audio
Web browserNavigateur web
Web LiteracyÉducation à Internet
Web-InnovationsInnovations du Web
Webcam-CoverCache webcam

Expressions spécifiques à la marque:

CatégorieExemple
MarquesMozilla et Firefox sont toujours écrits avec une majuscule, sauf dans une URL.

Le logotype moz://a ne doit pas être utilisé.
Quelques slogansEnsemble, créons un Internet ouvert et indépendant Votre vie, vos données.

Le compte qui vous protège sans profiter de vous

Rejoignez Firefox
Tenez tête à une industrie qui vous considère comme un produit.

Adoptez une technologie qui lutte pour vos droits.

Obtenez le respect que vous méritez.

Moins d’informations. Plus de protection.

Pas de secrets. (à retravailler ?)
Nous luttons pour un Internet plus sain
URLPour plus de lisibilité, ne pas inclure www à une URL.
Exemple : mozilla.org

Quelques règles générales

CatégorieExemple
DateLe format de date est JJ/MM/AAAA
Le 7 avril 1998 s’écrit donc 07/04/1998
HeureL’heure est au format hh:mm sur 24 heures.
Exemple: 18:30
NombresEn français, le séparateur décimal est la virgule.
Exemple : ½ = 0,5

Les nombres de plus de 4 chiffres sont séparés en tranches de trois chiffres par une espace insécable.
Exemples : 1983 ; 25 700 ; 100 000
Point d’exclamation et points de suspensionÀ utiliser avec parcimonie.
MesuresUtiliser le système métrique en toutes circonstances, et convertir quand on traduit de l’anglais, sauf quelques exceptions comme la diagonale d’un écran habituellement exprimée en pouces.
AstérisquesÀ éviter. Si la précision est importante, l’inclure dans le texte. Si elle ne l’est pas, ne pas l’inclure (cf. le paragraphe sur la concision).
LiensS’assurer que les liens inclus dans un texte ouvrent dans un nouvel onglet. Quand le lien est intégré dans une phrase, surligner les mots clés.

S’assurer également que le lien renvoie à une ressource en français.

Style Guide German (de)

Wenn Sie bei der Übersetzung mitmachen wollen, so wenden Sie sich bitte an die Person aus dieser Liste hier, welche für Ihr Interessengebiet zuständig ist.

Was sollte bei der Übersetzung beachtet werden?

Rechtschreibung/Grammatik

Da als Bezeichnung meistens nur einzelne Stichwörter verwendet werden, sollte vor allem auf Tippfehler und Buchstabendreher geachtet werden. In Beschreibungen, die möglichst einen vollständigen Satz ergeben sollten, ist weiterhin noch auf Rechtschreibung/Grammatik im Allgemeinen zu achten. Die meistverbreiteten Fehler sind der falsche Einsatz von Leerzeichen/Bindestrichen sowie Groß- und Kleinschreibung.

Umlaute und Sonderzeichen sollen auf alle Fälle korrekt eingesetzt und dargestellt werden. ae, ue, oe, ss etc. sind keine Alternative.

Terminologie

Wir sind bemüht, zur Vereinheitlichung und für ein homogenes Erscheinungsbild innerhalb des offiziellen Rahmens der deutschsprachigen Mozilla-Produkte zu arbeiten. Weiterhin lassen sich auch Begriffe aus schon geprüften und veröffentlichten Erweiterungen nutzen (falls die Anwendungen keine Hilfestellung geben).

Es gibt z. B. im deutschen Firefox keine Icons, hier ist von Symbolen die Rede. Buttons sind Schaltflächen, Toolbars zumeist (abhängig vom Kontext) Symbolleisten. Toolbar Buttons erscheinen dementsprechend als Symbolleisten-Schaltflächen etc.

Um eine Auseinandersetzung mit der gängigen Mozilla-Terminologie kommt man also nicht herum. Wir können nur jedem Übersetzer, der seine Aufgabe ernst nimmt, empfehlen, nebenher eine englische Version des entsprechenden Programms zu betreiben, um einen direkten Vergleich zu den jeweils angesprochenen Elementen und auch Funktionen zu haben.

Sollte ein Begriff noch nie verwendet/übersetzt worden sein, so bitte auch die Hinweise im Abschnitt Benutzerfreundlichkeit/Eindeutigkeit beachten.

Formulierung/Stil

In Übersetzungen sollte der „Du-Imperativ“ vermieden werden (Lösche…, Akzeptiere…, Lehne…, etc.). Stattdessen wird der Infinitiv verwendet.

Beispiel: XYZ anzeigen statt Zeige XYZ

Benutzerfreundlichkeit/Eindeutigkeit

Hier muss man sich vor Augen halten, dass viele Entwickler selbst keine „Native English Speaker/Writer“ sind und zudem als Autoren natürlich einen anderen Blick auf ihre Werke haben (und auch nur Menschen sind, die mal Fehler machen).

Oftmals ist es daher ratsam, Formulierungen zu hinterfragen und ggf. etwas freier und somit erklärender zu wählen oder den Gegebenheiten der deutschen Sprache anzupassen, um eine bessere Verständlichkeit zu bieten. Die Bezeichnung sollte möglichst eine einfache, aber auch eindeutige Funktionsbeschreibung sein.

Anrede

Stellenweise verwandt mit dem vorherigen Punkt: Den Benutzer nie duzen! Des Weiteren sollte ein „Sie“ grundsätzlich aber auch gemieden und nur in Fällen verwendet werden, in denen es einer direkten Ansprache des Nutzers bedarf. Ausnahme: Social Media. Bei Texten, die auf Facebook und Twitter veröffentlicht werden, wird generell das „Du“ eingesetzt.

Metaphern & passende Übersetzungen

Sprichwörter und Floskeln, welche im Deutschen nicht geläufig sind, werden durch ein passendes Sprichwort ersetzt oder falls nicht möglich umschrieben. Zum Beispiel:

  • "Dog eat dog" / "Der Stärkere gewinnt"
  • "kick-off meeting" (Referenz auf American Football) / "Auftaktveranstaltung für ein größeres Projekt"

Marken- und Produktnamen

Markennamen mit Markenrichtlinien von Mozilla wie "Firefox" oder jene anderer Unternehmen und Organisationen dürfen nicht übersetzt werden. Weitere Informationen dazu hier: https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/styleguide/identity/firefox/branding/ (auf Englisch). Für Marken, welche eindeutig über keine Markenrichtlinien verfügen, muss die Community entscheiden, ob diese übersetzt werden sollen oder nicht. Falls die Marke ins Deutsche übersetzt wird, so muss sie folgender Liste hinzugefügt werden.

EnglischDeutsch
Firefox AccountsFirefox-Konten

Eine ausführliche Liste, welche Produktnamen lokalisiert werden dürfen, ist hier verfügbar (Stand: Dezember 2015).

Zahlen

Tausenderstellen werden mit Punkten getrennt, das Komma ist das Dezimaltrennzeichen:

Beispiel: 1.234,56

Datum

Tag und Monat werden als Zahl jeweils mit zwei Stellen geschrieben (eine führende 0 wird falls nötig eingefügt). Das Jahr wird vierstellig geschrieben:

Beispiel: 03.05.2015

Achtung bei der Übersetzung: Amerikanische Datumsangaben enthalten an erster Stelle in der Regel den Monat, d.h. mit 05/03/2015 ist der 03. Mai 2015 gemeint.

Rechtliche Texte

Projekte von Mozilla enthalten oft rechtliche Texte wie Benutzervereinbarungen, Datenschutzerklärungen usw. Beim Korrekturlesen von rechtlichen Texten sollten Übersetzer darauf achten, dass die aufgestellten Regeln beachtet werden.

Zeichenkodierung

Alle Übersetzungsdateien (.dtd, .properties) müssen im UTF-8-Format (ohne BOM) gespeichert werden. Dazu benötigt man unbedingt einen Editor, der es erlaubt, beim Abspeichern die Zeichenkodierung des Dokuments festzulegen, beispielsweise Notepad++ oder SciTE. In .dtd-Dateien müssen bestimmte Zeichen maskiert werden:

Zeichen.dtd-Dateien
&&amp;
<&lt;
"&quot;
%&#37;
>&gt;
'&apos;
andere Unicode-Zeichen&#Dezimalnummer;
Kommentar<!-- Text Text Text -->

Hinweis: Zeichenketten wie %S oder %1 dürfen nicht verändert werden, da es sich hierbei um Platzhalter handelt.


Quellen

erweiterungen.de: Informationen für Übersetzer

How to Firefox in German

Dieses Dokument soll die Erstellung und Lokalisierung von Texten erleichtern – für optimal aufbereitete und konsistente Inhalte. Wichtig hierfür sind:

Das Dokument spiegelt den aktuellen Stand wieder. Unsere Marke entwickelt sich aber immer weiter, sodass Aktualisierungen weiterhin vorgenommen werden.

Warum ist dieser Guide wichtig für die Lokalisierung unserer Texte?

Unsere Texte sollen nicht nur eins zu eins übersetzt werden, sondern unsere Markenpersönlichkeit und Tonalität widerspiegeln und für den kulturellen und linguistischen Hintergrund optimiert werden. Die emotionale Intention des Ausgangstextes soll adaptiert werden.

Unsere Markeneigenschaften bestimmen dabei die Tonalität der englischen als auch deutschen Fassung. Dieser Guide soll dabei helfen, Firefox als Marke besser zu verstehen, um ein besseres Gefühl dafür zu bekommen, wie die Texte in der deutschen Sprache klingen sollen. Außerdem teilen wir hier festgelegte, unternehmensspezifische Schreibweisen, die den Lokalisierungsprozess erleichtern sollen.

About Firefox – wer wir sind

Firefox ist mehr als nur der Browser. Firefox ist bietet ein ganze Reihe an Produkten, die Menschen dabei helfen sollen, online sicherer zu sein.

Firefox ist eine Challenger-Brand, die als Herausforderer den Status quo infrage stellt und sich für die Online-Rechte der Nutzer stark macht.

Bei allem was wir tun, stellen wir die Rechte und Bedürfnisse der Menschen, die unsere Produkte nutzen, an die erste Stelle. Und als Tech-Unternehmen stellen wir Menschen immer über Profit.

Firefox als Marke vereint den Firefox Ethos und die sich erweiternde Bandbreite der Produkte. (Mozilla ist dabei die Non-Profit-Organisation, die hinter Firefox steht.)

Brand promise:

Firefox fights for you

(Wichtig: Dieser Claim wird nie ins Deutsche übersetzt. Wir benutzen ihn in der deutschen Kommunikation ebenfalls auf englisch)

Wofür kämpfen wir:

Firefox kämpft für seine Nutzer/innen – mit Produkten, die Menschen auch online die Kontrolle über Leben geben.

Firefox Produkte:

  • Firefox Browser (Desktop-Browser)
  • Firefox Mobile (für iOS und Android)
  • Firefox Send (versendet Dateien bis zu 2.5 GB per verschlüsseltem Link, der automatisch abläuft)
  • Firefox Monitor (überprüft E-Mail-Adressen auf Datenleaks)
  • Firefox Lockwise (Passwort-Manager)
  • Pocket (Qualitätsinhalte aus dem Web)
  • Firefox Reality (VR Browser)

Persönlichkeit & Tonalität

Mit wem sprechen wir?

Wir beschreiben unsere Zielgruppe als Conscious Choosers. Damit sind Menschen gemeint, die bewusste Entscheidungen treffen oder treffen wollen – online und offline.

Conscious Choosers:

  • entwickeln Vorlieben und Konsumentscheidungen sorgsam und bewusst
  • streben danach, Handlungen mit ihren Werten und Idealen in Einklang zu bringen
  • sind anspruchsvolle Kunden
  • recherchieren oft selbst, um alle Optionen zu kennen und zu verstehen

Unsere Markeneigenschaften/Firefox Brand Personality

EigenschaftenPersönlichkeit
opinionated/meinungsstarkFirefox handelt aus Überzeugung und nimmt selbstbewusst klare Positionen ein.
Unsere Produkte zeigen, dass sich unsere Motivation aus unserer Brand-Vision ableitet. Unser Brand-Ethos liegt allem, was wir tun, zugrunde. Und das wollen wir auch an unsere Nutzern und Partner kommunizieren.
open/offenFirefox findet, dass das Internet für alle zugänglich und sicher sein sollte und strebt immer ein offenes Gespräch oder eine Zusammenarbeit an.
Open-minded. Open-hearted. Open source. Eine globale Perspektive ist fester Bestandteil unserer Marke. Wir sprechen viele Sprachen und bemühen uns darum verschiedene Blickwinkel einzunehmen.
kind/einfühlsamFirefox antizipiert Bedürfnisse und bietet dort Lösungen und Alternativen an, wo Freiheit und Rechte der Menschen, die das Web nutzen, bedroht sind oder missbraucht werden können.
Wir wollen das Beste für unsere Nutzer und die Welt. Also gehen wir mit gutem Beispiel voraus: wir entwickeln bessere Produkte, wir starten Dialoge, wir arbeiten offen und mit anderen zusammen, wir bilden uns und andere weiter und wir informieren unsere Nutzer. Dabei handeln wir allen Menschen gegenüber empathisch.
radical/radikalFirefox stellt den Status quo und gängige Praktiken der Tech-Giganten infrage und kämpft mit Zuversicht für ein besseres Internet.
Optimistisch in die Zukunft des Internets zu schauen, ist ein radikaler Akt. Die Bedürfnisse der Nutzer vor unsere eigenen zu stellen ist ebenso radikal. Wir rütteln am Status quo, weil wir finden, dass es richtig ist.

Unsere Marken- Persönlichkeit wird von dem Zusammenspiel dieser Eigenschaften definiert. Je nach Kontext kann eine Eigenschaft deutlicher oder weniger deutlich hervorstechen.

Firefox Personality Matrix

Ansprache/Tonalität

Unsere Sprache ist:

AnspracheTonalität
Direkt, deutlich, einfach verständlichWir wollen, dass sich die Menschen, mit den wir sprechen, willkommen fühlen und benutzen Wörter und Konzepte, die jeder versteht.
prägnantWir mögen kurze Headlines, Sätze und eindeutige Call-to-Actions. Wichtige Keyword holen wir nach vorn.
Komplizierte Satzkonstruktionen oder Sätze ohne Mehrwert versuchen wir zu vermeiden.
authentischUnsere Texte sind – wie unsere Produkte – von Menschen für Menschen gemacht. Wir sprechen mit den Leuten, die Firefox nutzen, auf Augenhöhe und benutzen eine natürliche Sprache. Wir wissen wovon wir reden, aber wir tun auch nicht so als wüssten wir immer alles.
natürlichPassivsätze nur sparsam verwenden und lieber in Aktivform schreiben. Nominalstil vermeiden. Lieber zwei kurze Sätze als einen langen.
respektvollOhne zu formal zu klingen
humorvollOhne zu flapsig oder cheesy zu werden
inklusivWir achten auch beim Schreiben darauf, niemanden auszuschließen und wir versuchen Annahmen über die Personen, die unsere Texte lesen, zu vermeiden.
Das heißt, wir vermeiden das generische Maskulinum und Formen, die lediglich 2 Geschlechter einbeziehen ( Doppelform, Schrägstrich usw.).

Gendersternchen und Gendergap sind zwar inklusiver, aber eben auch länger. Durch Neutralisierungen und direkte Ansprachen lässt es sich oft leichter vermeiden, Geschlechtergruppen auszuschließen. Gleichzeitig ist es leichter die vorgegebene Zeichenanzahl nicht zu überschreiten.

Auch wenn die meisten Leute, die Firefox anspricht, recht Tech-affin sind, erklären wir Begriffe, die unter Umständen nicht eindeutig sind etwas genauer.

Wir schreiben mit dem Verständnis dafür, dass wir mit Menschen auf der ganzen Welt – mit unterschiedlichen Lebensumständen, Backgrounds und Erfahrungen – sprechen.
relevantLesende sollen auf den ersten Blick erkennen können, was sie von dem Text/Inhalt erwarten können und in der Lage sein einen persönlichen Bezug zu sehen. Wir holen die Menschen dort ab, wo er gerade ist. Kulturelle Anspielungen müssen Sinn machen und zum Markt passen.
Optimistisch und motivierendWir glauben an eine gute Zukunft für das Internet. Wir sprechen zwar über das, was nicht so gut läuft, aber wir enden immer mit einem positiven Ausblick.
KreativAuch wenn Information und Klarheit an erster Stelle stehen, zeigen wir uns gern auch sprachlich innovativ. Wir wollen niemals langweilig klingen und versuchen Marketing-Klischées zu vermeiden.

DU vs. SIE

Firefox

Ganz im Sinne des Community-Gedankens verwenden wir “du”. Das ist unkomplizierter, emotionaler und aktivierender.

“Du” wird dabei – außer natürlich am Satzanfang – klein geschrieben.

Tipps für SEO-Texte

  • Auch SEO-Texte sollen nicht eins zu eins übersetzt, sondern so lokalisiert werden, dass sie einen Mehrwert für den Leser schaffen und kulturell relevant sind.
  • Titel sollten so spezifisch wie möglich formuliert werden und nicht das Übergeordnete Thema, sondern immer das konkrete Thema beschreiben (Bsp.: geht es um digitale Privatsphäre, sollte im Titel nicht stehen: Alles, was du über Privatsphäre wissen musst.

Tipps für Blog-Artikel

  • Auch hier sollte der Titel so eindeutig wie möglich sein
  • Die ersten 1-2 Sätze werden beim Einbau als Teaser übernommen. Hier sollte der Leser bestenfalls schon erkennen, was im Text etwa abgedeckt wird bzw. Lust bekommen weiterzulesen. (Teaser werden so angezeigt: https://blog.mozilla.org/firefox/de/)
  • Zwischenüberschriften

Beispiel-Posts:

  • https://blog.mozilla.org/firefox/de/firefox-versprechen-fuer-deine-persoenlichen-daten/
  • https://blog.mozilla.org/firefox/de/so-schuetzt-du-deine-daten-auf-reisen/
  • https://blog.mozilla.org/firefox/de/join-firefox/
  • https://blog.mozilla.org/firefox/de/loesche-deinen-digitalen-fingerabdruck-in-firefox/
  • https://blog.mozilla.org/firefox/de/so-blockierst-du-krypto-mining-auf-deinem-computer-mit-firefox/
  • https://blog.mozilla.org/firefox/de/add-ons-fuer-digitalen-fruehjahrsputz/
  • https://blog.mozilla.org/firefox/de/online-tracking-hol-dir-die-kontrolle-zurueck/
  • https://blog.mozilla.org/firefox/de/firefox-fights-for-you/
  • https://blog.mozilla.org/internetcitizen/de/2018/10/29/sichere-zuallererst-deine-passwoerter/
  • https://blog.mozilla.org/firefox/de/das-original-unter-den-alternativen-firefox/
  • https://blog.mozilla.org/firefox/de/firefox-monitor-dein-schutz-vor-hackern/

Glossar

Immer wiederkehrende Schreibweisen bei Firefox Englisch-Deutsch

Die hier aufgeführten Begriffe werden häufig in unserer Kommunikation verwendet. Und sollten aus Konsistenzgründen bevorzugt eingesetzt werden.

Bei Unsicherheiten kann auch die Transvision Suche konsultiert werden. Da in der Suche aber häufig auch ältere Übersetzungs-Versionen in der Ergebnisliste (oft noch mit der formalen Ansprache) angezeigt werden, dient dieses Tools eher als Orientierungshilfe.

Folgende Begriffe und Schreibweisen gelten jedoch immer:

English TermTranslation
Activity StreamActivity Stream
Add-ons ExtensionsAdd-ons Erweiterungen
Mehr darüber
Ad trackerWerbe-Tracker
AdblockerAdblocker
Auto-fill FormAutovervollständigung
Block fingerprintingFingerprinter (Identifizierer) blockieren
Browser Enginedie Browser Engine, CSS Engine …
Browser historyChronik
ClickbaitClickbait, Klickköder, Clickbaiting
to championfür + Eigenschaft
dafür eintreten
ConsoleKonsole
Context GraphContext Graph oder Empfehlungssystem
Control TabControl Tab
Corporate controlKontrolle durch Unternehmen
Corporate PowersTechnologie-Giganten / Tech-Konzerne / Tech-Riesen
Customizable search defaultsSucheinstellungen anpassen
Cryptominer
Cryptomining
Krypto-Miner
Krypto-Mining
data breachDatenleck
DebuggerDebugger
Decentralized Internetdezentralisiertes Internet
DecentralizationDezentralisierung
Deep LearningDeep Learning
Digital Citizenshipdigitale Staatsbürgerschaft
Digital InclusionDigitale Teilhabe
Desktop BrowserDesktop-Browser, für den Desktop
Dev ToolsDev Tools
Download FirefoxFirefox downloaden, für CTA-Buttons auch: Download Firefox
Dropdown menuMenüschaltfläche
FeatureFunktion, Features
Firefox PrivacyDatenschutz bei Firefox
IconSymbol
InspectorInspector
intelligent search suggestionsintelligente Suchvorschläge
Internet healthZustand des Internets
Internet experienceSurf-Erlebnis
JavaScript-DebuggerJavaScript-Debugger
Join FirefoxJoin Firefox
Komm zu Firefox (nicht auf CTA buttons nutzen, dort wird zwischen Sign in (einloggen) und Sign up (Anmelden oder Konto erstellen) differenziert.
lean browserschlanker Browser, auf das Wesentliche reduzierter Browser
Lean Data ToolkitLean Data Toolkit
LibraryBibliothek
limited dataverbleibende Daten
local communitynäheres Umfeld / Umfeld vor Ort
MemorySpeicher
MozillianMozillianer
Mozilla Developer NetworkMozilla Developer Network
Multi-processMulti-Prozess-Architektur
NetworkNetzwerk
Network requestsNetzwerkanfragen
New tabNeuer Tab
Night modeNachtmodus
Non-ProfitBevorzugt:
Non-Profit
Non-Profit-Organisation

Weniger bevorzugt ;-):
gemeinnützig
Open SourceOpen Source
Aber: Open-Source-Initiative
PaddingInnenabstand
PerformancePerformance, Leistung
performance panelAnsicht für die Laufzeitanalyse
Personal Data Promise:
Take less.
Keep it safe.
No secrets.
Unser Versprechen für deine (persönlichen) Daten
Oder auch
(Das) Firefox Versprechen für deine (persönlichen) Daten:

Wenig sammeln.
Sicher aufbewahren.
Ehrlich sein.
PrivacyDatenschutz – die Mittel zum Schutz
Privatsphäre – das Ergebnis

Der Unterschied: Datenschutz schützt unsere Privatsphäre.
Privacy ModePrivater Modus
PolicyRichtlinie
Politik-Gestaltungsprozesse
rebuilt from the groundfundamental erneuert
Responsive Design ModeResponsive Design Mode
ScratchpadScratchpad
seamlesslynahtlos / geräteübergreifend
Search ChoiceBevorzugte Suchauswahl
Search EngineSuchmaschine
Search engine optionsAnpassbare Sucheinstellungen
Smarter SharingSmarter teilen
Storage PanelStorage Panel
Style EditorStyle Editor
tab hopTabs wechseln
Third-party advertisersWerbung von Drittanbietern
TechnologyWeb-Technologien
Technik
digitale Technologien
technology devicestechnische Geräte
Top Sites (new tab)Wichtige Seiten (in neuer Tab)
ToolbarSymbolleiste
trust and privacyDaten- und Vertrauensschutz
UserUser
VolunteerMitmachen
Web AudioWeb Audio
Webcam-CoverWebcam-Abdeckung
Web-InnovationsWeb-Innovationen
Web LiteracyWeb-Kenntnisse

Unternehmensspezifische Schreibweisen/Firefox Claims:

Content typeSpelling
Unternehmensname // Company nameDer Markenname wird aus Alleinstellungsgründen nie per Bindestrich angebunden.

Beispiel:
Firefox Team statt Firefox-Team

Einzige Ausnahmen:
Firefox-Konto
und
Firefox-Produkte

Gleiches gilt für Mozilla:
Mozilla Team statt Mozilla-Team

Außerdem wird Mozilla Im Fließtext stets so ausgeschrieben. Nicht erlaubt moz://a
Claims // Taglines für FirefoxFirefox fights for you (Achtung: wird nicht übersetzt, sondern bleibt Englisch)

Weniger Big-Tech, mehr Good-Tech

Wir kämpfen für ein besseres Internet – mit Produkten, die Dir auch online die Kontrolle über Dein Leben geben.

Firefox respektiert Deine Privatsphäre und macht es Dir leicht, Deine Daten zu schützen.

Du entscheidest, was Du teilst und wann.

Deine Daten gehören Dir. Wir verkaufen sie niemals.

Für Menschen, statt für Profit.

Tech mit Respekt

Komm zu Firefox

Alle reden über Privatsphäre. Firefox macht Privatsphäre. Mit jedem einzelnen Produkt.

Firefox kann mehr als nur einen richtig guten Bowser.

Zeige Big-Tech, dass du dich nicht zum Produkt machen lässt.

Nutze Technologien, die sich für dich einsetzen.

Privatsphäre in jedem Produkt. Nicht nur in der Tagline.

Das Firefox Versprechen für deine persönlichen Daten: Wenig sammeln. Sicher aufbewahren. Ehrlich sein.
Website und Blog-URL’sFür einen verbesserten Lesefluss entfällt im Fließtext entfällt das www

Beispiel: mozilla.org

Entsprechend entfällt bei Blogs oder beispielsweise dem MDN das https:// im Fließtext.

Beispiel: blog.mozilla.org/ und developer.mozilla.org/de/
Social Media URL’sFirefox
https://twitter.com/firefox_de
https://www.facebook.com/Firefox
https://www.youtube.com/user/firefoxchannel

Mozilla
https://twitter.com/mozilla
https://www.facebook.com/mozilla
https://www.instagram.com/mozillagram

In der Kommunikation werden hier idealerweise jeweils das entsprechende Icon für den jeweiligen Kanal samt Handle kommuniziert.
Fremdmarken // Third party brandsDie Schreibweise von Fremdmarken wird jeweils 1:1 von der jeweiligen Marke übernommen.

Beispiel: Vidyo
Anglizismen // English Words in GermanEs können Anglizismen verwendet werden. Als Grundregel gilt hier: Die Ausdrücke sollten geläufig und allgemeinverständlich sein. Ansonsten sollten sie weiter ausgeführt werden. Oder durch einen gleichbedeutenden deutschen Ausdruck ersetzt werden.

Englisch-Deutsche Wortkombinationen werden mit Bindestrichen angebunden. Beispiel: Open-Source-Initiative
Metaphern und Sprichwörter //Metaphors and sayings1:1 Übersetzung nur wenn möglich. Ansonsten durch eine in die gleiche Richtung gehende Umschreibung.

Allgemeine Schreibweisen

  
Datum // DatesNumerisch: TT.MM.JJJJ – 06.03.2017 Im Fließtext: 6. März 2017, eine vorangestellte Null kann eingefügt werden.
Beispiel: 06.03.
Uhrzeiten // TimeUhrzeiten werden mit einer ein- oder zweistelligen Ziffer geschrieben, durch einen Punkt getrennt und mit “Uhr” beendet.
Beispiel: 16.00 Uhr
Zahlen // NumbersZahlen bis zwölf werden im Fließtext immer ausgeschrieben.

Zahlen-Wortkombinationen richten sich nach dem Duden.

Tausenderstellen werden mit Punkten getrennt, das Komma ist das Dezimaltrennzeichen
Bindestriche // HyphensBei Zahl-Wort-Kombinationen: 80-prozentig

Deutsch-Englisch-Kombinationen: Non-Profit-Organisation

Für bessere Lesbarkeit: Desktop-Browser
GedankenstricheOption + Bindestrich = Gedankenstrich (- vs. –)
Ausrufezeichen // Exclamation marksSehr sparsam einsetzen.
Prozentangaben // PercentageProzentangaben werden immer mit Leerzeichen zwischen Zahl und % geschrieben. Beispiel: 100 %
Maßeinheiten // MeasurementsWerden in der vom Duden empfohlenen Schreibweise abgekürzt. Beispiel: cm, mm, km, 36° …
Telefonnummern // Phone numbersTelefonnummern geht immer ein + mit der jeweiligen Länderkennzahl voraus. Die Null der Ortsvorwahl wird in Klammern gesetzt.

+49(0)30983333002
Dateiformate // File formatsDateiformate werden in ihrer gängigen Form verwendet:
PDF, 13 GB …
SlashFür verbesserte Lesbarkeit nutzen wir ein Leerzeichen vor und nach dem Slash. Beispiel: Mitarbeiterinnen / Mitarbeiter
Sternchen // AsterisksSternchentexte werden nach Möglichkeit vermieden. Sollten sie dennoch benötigt werden, sollten sie so nahe wie möglich am betreffenden Inhalt platziert werden.
LinksLinktexte sind möglichst sprechend und geben Aufschluss auf die zu erwartenden Inhalte.

Überschriften, Aufzählungen und Formatierungen

  
H1 / H2 / H3In der Regel beginnen alle Headlines mit einem Großbuchstaben und werden ohne Punkt beendet. Idealerweise sollten sie eine Zeilenlänge nicht überschreiten.
Headlines in Videos // Headlines in VideosAuch diese beginnen mit einem Großbuchstaben und werden ohne Punkt beendet. Beispiel hier.
Aufzählungen // Bullet pointsAufzählungen beginnen mit einem Großbuchstaben und enden ohne Punkt.

Style Guide Hausa (ha)

Introduction

This style guide is intended for translators working on Mozilla projects. It provides in-depth information about the quality standards expected by Mozilla for the translation of all product components. All translators should read this guide before commencing any translation work.

This guide addresses general translation issues and specifies certain rules of style and usage specific to your language. It should be used as a guideline to avoid common typographic errors, and to maintain consistent terminology and writing style across a project’s components and indeed a product range. The guide should be used in conjunction with the current and previous product-specific glossaries, glossaries of other products of a product range, and the industry standard platform-specific glossaries, such as those provided by Microsoft.

This document may be updated or completed in the course of translation. Where no specific instruction or recommendation is specified, translators should use the phrasing and style that comply with industry standards.

General Style Considerations

Style guidelines

Follow these basic rules:

  • Original American English text tends to be rather casual. In technical texts Hausa tends to adopt the style of the original text because often technical vocabulary is lacking.
  • Try to avoid long, nested sentence constructions. If necessary, break up the original sentence and regroup it syntactically.
  • Use wording that is succinct, unambiguous, and free of jargon.
  • Produce a translation that sounds as it if was originally written in your language, i.e. avoid following the original source sentence structure too closely.
  • Always bear in mind who your target audience is (i.e. an experienced computer user, a beginner, or a combination of both groups).
  • Use a consistent style throughout all product components and across a product range, to ensure that all Mozilla products can be linguistically identified as part of a group of products.

Style guidelines specific to Mozilla products

  • Please refer to the reference documentation supplied by Mozilla and any Mozilla style guides and make a note of anything significant and specific that should be noted with respect to Mozilla.

Reference terminology

The following terminology sources should be used as reference in the translation:

  • Product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency across all product components.

Terminology not found in the glossary or style guide

  • Please make a log of any terms not found in the glossary or style guide that are used frequently in the materials. Return this log to Rubric so that the terms can be incorporated into the glossary. This increases consistency in large projects.

Abbreviations

General Abbreviations

Avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations such as min. for minutes. Where no appropriate abbreviation exists, use the whole word. There are very few abbreviations, if any, in Hausa, for example, AM and PM are replaced with full words in Hausa. For example, app. (aikace-aikace). But for easy readability these English abbreviations are also acceptable in Hausa

  • URL = URL
  • webM = webM

Measurements and Numerals

  • Be careful of the difference in use between periods and commas as decimal markers in different languages.

Filename Extensions

  • Filename extensions and graphic formats referenced by filename extensions such as BMP, GIF, HTML, PNG, TIFF must not be translated.

Acronyms

Acronyms are made up of the initial letters of several words that are represented by these letters. Some well-known examples are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory).

Use recognised translations of acronyms where these exist, but avoid creating new, non-standard acronyms.

If the source text does not do so, and if possible, spell out an abbreviation or acronym the first time it is used in a document, followed by that abbreviation or acronym in parentheses.

Examples:

  • Data Access Objects (DAO)
  • ActiveX data objects (ADO)

Articles

Product Names

[Mozilla] product names are used without definite or indefinite articles. Because Hausa, is an agglutinative language, it does not have articles standing on their own, articles are incorporated as prefixes, for example the page (shafin). Here ‘n’ is ‘the’ and ‘shafi’ is ‘page.’

Articles for English Borrowed Terms

When faced with an English loan word previously used in Microsoft products, consider the following options:

  • Motivation: Does the English word have any formally motivated features that would allow a straightforward integration into the noun class system of Hausa language? English words that are loaned to Hausa are categorized as noun class 5(a), therefore they take the (i-) prefix.
  • Analogy: Is there an equivalent Hausa term whose article could be used?
  • Frequency: Is the term used in other technical documentation? If so, what article is used most often?

The internet may be a helpful reference here.

  • Example: (+) i-Microsoft, i-browser, i-firefox etc.

Copyrights and Trademarks

Product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Before translating any product or component name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way. If in doubt, please contact the Rubric Project Manager.

The same product may be marketed under different names in different countries. One solution is to add a note saying "Marketed as -------- in the UK etc" the first time the product is mentioned, and then continue to use the name as given in the text.

copyright protection is granted to any original work of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression from which it can be perceived, reproduced, or communicated. The original author should be credited. Example: Onke amalungelo agodliwe, noma amalungelo okushicilela ngawabakwa-Micro

Translation of Version Strings

  • Please use the following guidelines when localizing version strings:

Please follow structure of the source

Gender-neutral Translation

Sex or gender is a grammatical feature in Hausa. Therefore, in Hausa we have the following classification:

(+)CommonfeminineMasculine
itaita (subject)shi (subject)(ita = she; shi = he)
susu (subj/plu)su (subj/plu)(su = They)
-ta-ta (object)-sa (sing/obj)(used as an affix)
-su-su (obj/plu)-su (obj/plu)(su = them)
***-mu (obj/plu)-mu (obj/plu)(mu = us)
***-ku (obj/plu)-ku (obj/plu)(ku = you)

Genitive

A possessive is a word which shows ownership. In Hausa possessives are used as affixes to the noun i.e. the suffix of a noun class determines the form that the possessive assumes. Consider the following examples:

  • Tsintsiyata (my broom)
  • Jirgin-ruwan Gwamnati (a ship of the Government)
  • Mijinsu (their husbands)
  • Matata (my wife)
  • Mijina (My husband) ( Would suggest using a masculine noun as an example here to show the effect of variation in gender; may use “Mijina (my husband)

The possessive relates to the noun, i.e. something that is possessed to that which possesses it, depending on the gender and/or number of what is possessed

Localized term vs. English term

The preferred language in the computer world is English. Therefore, a translator frequently has to decide whether to use the (correct, but obsolete) translation or simply the English word.

Gender

Sex or gender is a necessary grammatical feature in Hausa.

Inflections

Inflections can be translated in the Hausa structure and does not follow English grammatical rules

Plural formation

Unlike in English where plural form is indicated by a suffix, Hausa indicates plural in various forms. This is directed by which noun class the word falls into. For example, the plural form of the “riga” (shirt) is “riguna”; while “yaro” (boy) is “yara”.

Verbs and Verb Forms

Consistency is key in the translation of verbs. If it is grammatical to omit the predicate “be” in Hausa, you can omit it in error messages, but you should be consistent in your usage across all error messages. Be concise without changing the meaning of the source string. Many technical verbs have no equivalents and are often transliterated, for example, TCP socket is translated as “soket na TCP”

Headings

Headings should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly.

Capitalization

In English headings all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions (e.g. that, until, which) are capitalized. The same applies in Hausa, words at the beginning of a sentence are capitalized, pronouns (names of people, surnames, places, languages, months, names of God and gods, days of the week, organizations, headings and titles , books in the bible etc

In Lists and Tables

Whenever possible, headings of lists and tables should consist of one or two words, preferably active nouns. They should be concise, even if the source uses a longer phrase.

Hyphenation and Compound formation

General Hyphenation Rules The hyphen is used to divide words between syllables, to link parts of a compound word, and to connect the parts of words

Example: (+) aikace-aikace.

En Dash

The en dash is used as a minus sign, usually with spaces before and after.

The en dash is also used in number ranges, such as those specifying page numbers. No spaces are used around the en dash in this case.

Em Dash

The em dash should only be used to emphasize an isolated element or introduce an element that is not essential to the meaning conveyed by the sentence. When a speaker trails away from a certain idea and eventually comes back

Example: (+) Manajan kamfanin – wanda kuma shi ne uban yaron – ya musanta wannan magana.

Ellipses (Suspension Points)

This means that certain words have been omitted

Example: (+) Kowa ya bar gida….

English Compounds

If there is an equivalent it is used, or else the closest equivalent is used following Hausa grammatical rules.

Compounds with Acronyms, Abbreviations or Numerals

Acronyms

Acronyms and abbreviations are very rare in Hausa. The words are normally spelt out. Where acronyms are used, normally the English word is retained. A generalization is that acronyms that have become part of the everyday lexicon are all in upper case.

Caution: Do not include a generic term after an acronym or abbreviation if one of the letters in the acronym stands for that term. Even though this might occur in the US-English version, it should be “corrected” in the localized version. The following examples show the redundancy in red for English terms.

  • (-) RPC call i-RPC
  • (-) HTML language i-HTML
  • (-) TCP/IP-Protocol i-TCP
  • (-) PIN Number i-PIN

Numerals

Hausa spells out numbers, time etc. Therefore digits are adopted into the language and the source text is followed. Numbers can also stand on their own For example, you have 8 new message will be “Kana da saƙo guda 8. In the case of an unidentified number, for example: You have {{value}} new message, it is best to use the neutral word like “wasu” (some). Then the translation should be “kana da wasu saƙwanni”.

Indexes

Capitalization, Prepositions and Articles

  • Avoid starting an entry with a preposition or an article because of their unfavorable effect on the overall sorting order and general legibility of the index.

Key Names

  • On the first mention, use the definite article and "key" in conjunction with the key name, for example, "the ESC key". On all subsequent references, refer to the key only by its name, for example, "Click ESC".
  • As a rule of thumb, be frugal in your use of the word "key". Use it if the key name appears alone in the sentence and the actual key name does not appear on the keyboard.

Prepositions

Pay attention to the correct use of prepositions in translations. Influenced by the English language, many translators omit them or change the word order. In Hausa, prepositions play a vital role as they stand alone in the sentence as do English prepositions. For example, “The bird on the tree” should be “Tsuntsu yana kan bishiya”.

Pronouns

Pronouns in Hausa are divided just like the English ones. Having number (singular/plural); gender (masculine/feminine); case (subject/object). This classification, however, does not always affect the verb form. Unlike English language, however, sometimes nouns and pronouns are used together within the same sentence. For example, “Yaro ya (pronoun) na wasa” literally means “The boy (he) is playing.

It is also important to avoid the cumbersome use of ki/ka when addressing users. It is better to use only the masculine form ‘ka’ e.g. Ka tabbata? (Are you sure?)

Procedures and Syntax

Syntax and register differ between Hausa and English in the following ways: Hausa has a basic SVO word order, relative clauses and possessive phrases follow the head noun and auxiliaries precede the verb.

Example:

Na karanta sabon littafi
( I )  (read)   (a new book)

Descriptors

  • Use the descriptor (menu, button, command, etc.) only if the source text uses it or if it is needed for clarifying the position of a term in the interface.

Procedural Syntax

  • In procedural text, which tells the user to perform certain actions in a certain number of steps, the order in which interface terms are to appear in the translation is usually top to bottom (i.e. menu, command, dialog box, dialog box controls). Maintain this sequence unless there are technical reasons preventing it.
  • Example:
    • In the "Extras" menu, click "Settings" and then "Music files".

Status Bar Messages

  • Please make sure you adequately capture the meaning of messages when translating.
  • If you think a source status bar message is ambiguous, query it to make sure you provide the reader with the right information: if you cannot understand it, they are also not certain to. There is nothing more annoying than "help" that doesn't!

Usage of "Select"

  • Please follow source text

Usage of "Click"

  • Please follow source text

Punctuation

Punctuation marks serve same purpose and function as the English punctuation marks.

In Lists and Tables

  • Do not use a comma after bulleted points.
  • If the original source entry contains a period, leave it. If the source text does not contain a period, but you split the translation into several independent sentences, put a period at the end of each sentence.
  • Never put a period after just one word.
  • The result of this method may be that some entries within one table are with and some entries are without a final period. From a technical point of view this is acceptable.
  • The same convention applies to captions and callouts

Comma vs. Period in Numerals

  • English uses a period as decimal separator. Please follow source text.

Version Numbers

  • Please follow source text.

Typographic Conventions

Consistent use of typographic conventions in documentation helps users locate and interpret information easily. Generally speaking, the source format should be followed as closely as possible, i.e. terms with a particular formatting in the source should have the same formatting in the translation.

If menu, command, option, etc. names are highlighted by bold print in the source, use bold print for the corresponding translated terms. If menu, command, option, etc. names are put in quotes in the source, use quotes for the corresponding terms in the translation.

Note that in software strings, you must use two double quotes (""xxx"") to denote names within a string. If you only use a single double quotes ("xxx"), this will cause problems with the compilation, as strings are generally denoted by double quotes.

Wizard Names

Should be translated accordingly, if necessary.

Style Guide Hindi (hi)

Introduction

Style guides define the standard against which we determine a translation's quality. They contain rules that are both defined by Mozilla and by Mozilla's localization communities on how to best translate text in Mozilla products, websites, and other projects. By following these rules, a translator has a better chance of producing a high quality translation that represents Mozilla values and culture

Why should we Localize?

Whenever we are touching a key on a keyboard for translating anything into Hindi, we are having great responsibility. The responsibility of conveying the message of any source text into Hindi is having the responsibility to convey to the millions of users. And so the problem is acute. Hindi is not just a language in India. Hindi is not just one culture of India. Combine many languages, many cultures, many dialects, many traditions – the one result you will get is Hindi. That is why it is not a simple job to define what really Hindi is? You can find different forms of Hindi from Kashmir to Kanyakumari and From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh. That is why translating in Hindi is more challenging job than what generally it is being seen.

What is Hindi?

According to Wikipedia, Hindi is the name given to various Indo­Aryan languages, dialects, and language registers spoken in northern and central India (theHindi belt), Pakistan, Fiji, Mauritius, and Suriname. Standard Hindi, a standardized register of Hindustani, is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and the primary official language of the Indian Union. In the broadest sense of the word, "Hindi" refers to the Hindi languages, a culturally defined part of a dialect contin-uum that covers the "Hindi belt" of northern India. It includes Bhojpuri, an important language not only of India but, due to 19th and 20th century migrations, of Surinam, Guyana, Trinidad and Mauritius, where it is called Hindi or Hindustani; and Awadhi, a medieval literary standard in India and the Hindi of Fiji. Standard Hindi is the official language of India and is the most widely spoken of India's scheduled languages. It is spoken mainly in northern states of Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh,Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand and Bihar. It is the second major language in Andaman and Nicobar Islands and is also understood in Maharashtra and Gujarat. Hindi is the official language of India. It is also the official languages for 11 states.

Who is the target user for this project and what is their background?

General Translation Guidlines

  • Font

For Translating any documents or any application in Hindi language, we need to use Unicode based Devanagari fonts. Eg. Lohit, Sarai etc. The font should contain a glyph for each allocated code point prescribed by Unicode. The font should contain the following: (1) vowels; (2) consonants; (3) glyphs for conjuncts; (4)variants for vowel signs (matras), (5) vowel modifiers (Chandrabindu, Anuswar), (6) consonant modifier(Nukta); (7) digits and (8) punctuation marks.

  • WhiteSpace

In computer science, white space is any single character or series of characters that represents horizontal or vertical space in typography. When rendered, a white space character does not correspond to a visualmark, but typically does occupy an area on a page. There may be different pattern of any language related to white space. We should properly care and follow the source text and target language rules for placing any extra white space.

Ex:- %S is not a valid Location
Wrong: % S एक वैध स्थान नहीं हैं.
Correct: %S एक वैध स्थान नहीं हैं.
  • Accelerators

Mozilla Uses ampersand(&) accelerator markers.

  • Program Syntax, Funtions, TAGs, Placeholders

Never translate program syntax or functions or tags, place holders. Sometimes some translators translate these as well. We should not translate any of these. This creates major error in translation.

  • Message Length

The message length is an important aspect of any translation particularly in technical translation areas. The message length should not exceed more than 20 percentage of the number of words present in the source text. Though it takes time to make translation concise, but there is big need to concentrate on this aspect.

Ex:- AutoCorrect
Wrong: स्वचालित ढंग से ठीक करें.
Correct: स्वतः सुधार
  • Numeral

How are numerals and percentages expressed in your language?

Example: 1.23 (decimal separator) or 1,000 (thousand separator) using comma or period.

Note: We will use International form of Indian Numerals in translation instead of Devanagari numerals. However, the employment of Devanagari numerals is same as Indian numerals. So we will use 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 instead of ०, १, २, ३, ४, ५, ६, ७, ८,९.

  • Calender

The Indian national calendar (sometimes called Saka calendar) is the official civil calendar in use in India. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by The Gazette of India, news broadcasts by All India Radio, and calendars and communications issued by the Government of India.

  • Honorific Usages

It is encouraged to use honorific pronoun in Hindi. So, it is better to use words like आप, यह, वह instead of तुम, ये, वे respectively. Along with this, we should not translate like ढूँढो, खोजों, करों etc. Saying anything like this are being seen as rude in Hindi.

Ex:- Find again
wrong: फिर ढूँढो
Correct: फिर ढूँढें
  • Acronyms

Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations that are formed using the initial components in a phrase or name. These components may be individual letters. The term acronym is the name for a word created from the first letters of each word in a series of words. Acronyms and initialisms are used most often to abbreviate names of organizations and long or frequently referenced terms, or any products. In the case of acronyms as a file name don't translate standard acronyms like Jpeg, HTML, xml to name a few.

  • Product/Brand/Company Name

For Product/Brand/Company Name, it is general rule accepted by agencies to keep as it is like English.

Ex:<HTML>Clear the contents of the location bar.</html>
Wrong: <एचटीएमएल>स्थानपट्टी की सामग्री हटायें</एचटीएमएल >
Correct:<HTML>स्थानपट्टी की सामग्री हटायें</HTML >
  • Key Name

Keys name should not be translated. eg. Backspace, Delete, Enter should not be translated since we still use the same keyboard as English. Though some keyboard came in Hindi but it is not still popular.

Ex: Both Ctrl keys together change layout.
Wrong: दोनों कंट्रोल कुंजी एकसाथ लेआउट बदलता हैं.
Correct: दोनों Ctrl कुंजी एकसाथ ख़ाका बदलती हैं.
  • Currency

What are other widely used currency and symbols used in your country/language for paid apps.

  • Dates and Times Formats

It should be noted that Dates and Times should be properly translated. If not it can create confusion much. For 28 August 2010, international dating system represents 2010­08­28 but the American Usage is 8.28.10. But in Hindi we write it like 28 अगस्त 2010 and it is represented as 28.8.10. So we should follow this convention of writing. For translating time, using colon will be preferred then just putting period. For example, 10:30 बजे.

Type: Dates
Ex: 25 September 2016
Wrong:सितम्बर 25 2016
Correct: 25 सितम्बर 2016
  • Units and Grammar
  • Units and Unit Conversion
  • Domain Name
  • Tense

Do you have standards for verb forms that indicate or express the time, such as past, present, or future, of the action or state? What is your policy on tense consistency for certain use cases? For example, for phrases that ask a user to make an action (like "Download Firefox"), do you use a future tense, a command tense, or a neutral tense? See: (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_tense)

  • Abbreviations

How are abbreviations expressed in your language?

Example, in English, abbreviations are made by removing most vowels and only using the first 3-5 consonants followed by a period (e.g., abbreviation = abbr.) see: (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbreviation)

  • Punctuation

Do you use different punctuation rules in your Firefox localization than what your language standard defines?

Example: do you use a period at the end of every user interface element translation or only some? What is the international/national standard for punctuation in your language?

How would I express that meaning in my own language?

Terminology

Should Not Translate

  • Shortcuts and accesskeys

In Firefox and other software it's possible to use keyboard shortcuts to invoke a specific command. For example, to open a file in Firefox you can press the combination of keys CTRL+O (Cmd+O on Mac). The accelerator key depends on the operative system, but the letter itself is normally localizable. This is what is called a shortcut, or commandkey. For example, the Open File… menu item is stored as

<!ENTITY openFileCmd.label "Open File…"> <!ENTITY openFileCmd.accesskey "O"> <!ENTITY openFileCmd.commandkey "o">

The commandkey is stored in openFileCmd.commandkey (sometimes the string has .key in the identifier). Normally you should not localize this key, since shortcuts are often common across the entire operative system (e.g. CTRL+S to Save) or similar products (CTRL+T to open a new tab in most browsers). But it needs to be localized if the letter is not available in your keyboard layout.

In the code fragment above you see also an accesskey defined for Open File…. Accesskeys are used to access a UI element from the keyboard. Example: if File menu has an accesskey F, and the Open file… menu has O, you can press ALT+F to access the menu, and then O to open a file.

If the label is File, and the accesskey is F, it will be displayed as "File" on Windows and Linux, with an underscored F. If the accesskey was "O", so a character not available in the original label, it will be displayed underlined between parenthesis: "File (O)".

One important thing to determine is if, for your locale, it makes sense to have localized accesskeys: for example, if most users will use a keyboard with a different layout (English), it might make sense to keep the English original accesskey instead of using a letter available in your localization.

E.g.- <html>Clear Location bar</html>
Wrong: <एचटीएमएल>स्थानपट्टी हटाएँ </एचटीएमएल >
Correct: <html>स्थानपट्टी हटाएँ </html>

Accesskeys, like commandkeys, have their own lines within .dtd and .properties files and are usually identified by .accesskey in the string ID.

  • Command Key should not be translated
  • Variables

Variables should never be translated. You can recognize a variable within a string by its beginning with a specific character (e.g., $, #, %, etc.) followed by a combination of words without spacing. For example, $BrandShortName and %S are variables. You can move a variable around within a string, if the translation of the string requires it.

E.g.- Changes made to the document in the last %ld second will be permanently lost.
Wrong:  दस्तावेज़ में अंतिम %एलडी सेकेंड में किये गये परिवर्तन हमेशा के लिए मिट जाएँगे.
Correct: दस्तावेज़ में अंतिम %ld सेकेंड में किये गये परिवर्तन हमेशा के लिए मिट जाएँगे.
  • Brands, copyright, and trademark

Brand names, as well as copyright and trademarks should never be translated, nor transliterated into a non-Latin based script. See the Mozilla branding guide for more details.

About Mozilla culture.

  • Legal content

Mozilla projects will often contain legal content in the form of user agreements, privacy statements, etc. When reviewing the translation of legal content, Mozilla localizers should do so according to the criteria concerning accuracy, fluency, style, and terminology found within this style guide and according to Mozilla culture and values.

  • Fluency

To produce a fluent translation, not only should the translation follow the language's standard grammar, punctuation, and spelling rules, but it should avoid being ambiguous, incoherent, or inconsistent, and unintelligible.

To avoid ambiguity, the translator must thoroughly understand the meaning behind the source text, including any references that text might include. For example, if the English source text uses the word, "it", the translator must know what "it" is to avoid an ambiguous translation. Clearly understanding the source text will also allow a translator to make the source text's logical connections in their own translation. This helps to keep the translation coherent.

Meaning of it in Hindi: यह or इस should be properly used according to the String. E.g: It should be done. इसे किया जाना चाहिए. It will be good. यह सही होगा.

Clearly understanding the source text will also allow a translator to make the source text's logical connections in their own translation. This helps to keep the translation coherent.

Inconsistency can pop up in many forms. A translator must be consistent in their use of abbreviations, references, and links within each localization project. They must also be consistent with Mozilla and the localization communities' style guides and approved terminology. Abbreviations, like terminology, should come from either a standard reference (like a dictionary of abbreviations) or should follow your language's rules for creating abbreviations. Once used, the abbreviation must remain consistent every place that it is used in the translation. Cross-references (or links) must also be consistently used within a translation. If a text contains a hyperlink URL to a support article in English, the translation should also contain a hyperlink to a translation of that support article (if available) or the English version. Links should not redirect to other pages nor should they be broken and unusable.

Finally, there are times that a translation simply doesn't make sense. It's hard to put your finger on what exactly is wrong with it, but you know it is unintelligible and not fluent. While this is uncommon, it's important to report these unintelligible translations and offer suggestions to correct them.

Tips to Remember

  1. Do limit the word count of the localized string same as source string. Use FUEL guides for consistency.
  2. Do change dot . to wisarg '।' not pipe |.
  3. Always use not translate product names. Like Mozilla, Firefox, Facebook.
  4. Don't translate HTML tags. Like <HTML>, &ndash
  5. Try to use localised developer edition browser.
  6. Don't follow Google Translate. You can use Shabdkosh/Online Dictionary for word meanings.
  7. Don’t translate numbers 1, 2, 3, letters a, b, c.
  8. Please translate all uppercase strings. For some of them it might make sense (e.g. JSON, SQL), but BLOCKED, or SUGGESTED, are normal strings displayed uppercase for English, and you should definitely translate them. All terms/verbs which is having & in between or in word starting (ex:- &Hide Toolbars, M&ove) that should be translated, not left in English. I wonder if you will because of the &, which only indicates an accesskey in the middle of the word. You can just remove the & in the string and it will fallback to English. (Very Important)

What are accesskeys?,

Accesskeys, not to be confused with shortcuts (or commandkeys), are used to access a UI element from the keyboard. Example: if File menu has an accesskey F, and the Open menu has O, I can press ALT+F to access the menu, and then O to open a file. If the label is File, and the accesskey is F, it will be displayed as "_F_ile" on Windows and Linux, with an underscored F. If the accesskey was "O", so a character not available in the original label, it will be displayed underlined between parenthesis: "File (O)".

How accesskeys work in Pootle? In the original localization file, label and accesskey are two separate strings, for example: <!ENTITY fileMenu.label "File"> <!ENTITY fileMenu.accesskey "F">

Þýðingavísir fyrir íslensku (is)

Inngangur

Þýðingavísar skilgreina staðalinn sem við notum sem mælikvarða á gæði þýðinga. Þeir innihalda reglur sem eru bæði settar af Mozilla og þýðingateymum Mozilla, um hvernig er best að þýða texta í vörum Mozilla, vefjum og öðrum verkefnum. Þýðingavísar eru notaðir bæði til að þýða og meta gæði þýðingar. Með því að fylgja þessum reglum fær þýðandi betra tækifæri til að framleiða hágæðaþýðingu sem endurspeglar gildi og menningu Mozilla. Sem dæmi um alþjóðlega þýðingavísa sem aðrar stofnanir hafa sett sér má nefna:

Þessi þýðingavísir skiptist í tvo meginþætti: sá fyrri inniheldur reglur sem einskorðast við hvert tungumál og eru settar af hverju l10n þýðingarteymi (þetta spannar stílbrögð sem einskorðast við tungumál, notkun hugtaka og mælieiningar); sá seinni inniheldur almennar reglur sem Mozilla hefur skilgreint fyrir þýðendur allra tungumála sem geta gagnast við þýðingar (þetta spannar meginreglur um nákvæmni og málkunnáttu).

Gagnlegir tenglar

Innihald

Stíll

Stíll þýðingarteymisins er að miklu leyti í þess eigin höndum að skilgreina. Hann er hluti af leiðbeiningum og stöðlum samfélagsins til að þýða strengi innan hverrar tegundar verka. Stíll nær til ýmissa þátta, svo sem formlegheita, blæbrigða, eðlilegra orðatiltækja, meðhöndlunar menningarviðmiða, orðalags, slangurs og að viðhalda samræmi milli Mozilla og þriðja aðila. Þýðingateyminu er gert að skilgreina þessi stílbrigði fyrir staðfærslu á Mozilla-verkefnum yfir á markmálið. Skoðum þessi meginhugtök stíls.

Formlegheit og blæbrigði

Þegar formlegheit eða blæbrigði eru skilgreind fyrir Mozilla verkefni skulu eftirfarandi spurningar hafðar í huga:

  • Hverjir eru tilvonandi notendur og hver er bakgrunnur þeirra?
  • Hvernig mun tilvonandi notandi búast við að eiga samskipti við forrit? Til dæmis, myndi hann búast við vingjarnlegum, hversdagslegum samskiptum?
  • Er formlegt orðaval viðeigandi fyrir öll Mozilla forrit tungumálsins, eða bara sum þeirra? Hver þeirra?
  • Er óformlegt orðaval viðeigandi fyrir öll Mozilla forrit tungumálsins, eða bara sum þeirra? Hver þeirra?

Raunar ætti staðfærslan ekki að byggjast á meiri né minni formlegheitum en krafist er skv. þessum stílreglum, ákveðnum af samfélaginu. Dæmi um þetta væri að nota „ýta hér“ (án málfræðitölu) frekar en „ýtið hér“ (í 2. persónu). Ennfremur ættu blæbrigðin sem beitt er í þýðingarverkefnum að halda innra samræmi.

Eðlileg orðatiltæki

Notkun eðlilegra orðatiltækja lætur þýðinguna hljóma eðlilega fyrir þá sem eiga málið að móðurmáli. Ef þýðingin er ekki í samræmi við þýðingavísinn um staðbundin eða eðlileg orðatiltæki, þá er útkoman meðalgóð og/eða vandræðaleg þýðing. Teymin skulu gæta sín að taka þau fyrir og hafa í huga meðan þýtt er, sem er ástæða þess að þetta er mikilvægur hluti þýðingavísisins. Dæmi um eðlilegt orðatiltæki í þýðingu er spænski frasinn "En ocho días". Á íslensku væri það þýtt „eftir átta daga“ eða „eftir viku“. Hið síðara er dæmi um náttúrulega þýðingu, þótt hvort tveggja myndi teljast rétt.

Í þessum hluta eru leiðbeiningar um hvernig skal leggja til eðlilega hljómandi þýðingu (staðfærslu). Það gæti tekið smá stund og reynslu að finna réttu dæmin til að taka fram og búa til réttu leiðbeiningarnar á þínu tungumáli.

Meðhöndlun menningarviðmiða, málshátta og slangurs

Menningarviðmiðanir, málshættir og slangur krefjast fulls skilnings á tilvísunum milli menninga upprunamáls og markmáls. Dæmi um menningarlega tilvísun á ensku væri frasinn „kick-off meeting“. Þetta er tilvísun sem notar hugtak úr amerískum fótbolta. Það merkir fundur til þess að hefja verkefni. Til að þýða það er hægt að fylgja annarri af eftirfarandi leiðum:

  1. Finna hliðstæðan frasa á markmálinu.
  2. Fjarlægja tilvísun í menningu og þýða kjarna málsins (t.d., „byrjunarfundur“).

Nota skal almenna, góða íslenska frasa sem endurspegla merkingu upprunamálsins, svo lengi sem það er hægt. Séu þeir ekki fyrir hendi, ætti að leitast við að þýða kjarna setningarinnar eins eðlilega og hægt er án þess að nota upprunamálsfrasann.

Stílsamræmi

Að lokum ættu vörumerkja- og þýðingavísar Mozilla og annarra aðila að vera virtir alls staðar í þýðingaverkefnum. Frekari upplýsingar um vörumerkjareglur sem einskorðast við Mozilla má finna hér: https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/styleguide/identity/firefox/branding/. Ekki ætti að þýða ákveðin vörumerki, eins og t.d. „Firefox“. Önnur vörumerki sem ekki hafa neinar merkingarreglur þarf hvert þýðingateymi að ákveða hvort eigi að þýða. Kannið vörumerkjareglur áður en ákveðið er hvort nöfn eiga að vera þýdd (hvort sem það er fyrir Mozilla eða þriðja aðila) og teljið upp í þýðingavísi.

Þýðingar á vörumerkjum

Í þessu skjali er listi yfir vörumerki sem koma fyrir í verkefnum Mozilla, hvort þau séu þýdd og þá hvernig.

Vörumerki sem ekki á að þýða hafa einfaldlega x í þýðingardálkinum.

VörumerkiÞýðingAthugasemdir
Firefoxx
Thunderbirdx
SyncxEingöngu þegar það er notað til að vísa í verkfærið Firefox Sync. Sync er þýtt sem samstilling í setningum.
AMOx
Common VoiceSamrómur
Firefox AccountsFirefox reikningar
Firefox for AndroidFirefox fyrir Android
Firefox for iOSFirefox fyrir iOS
Focusx
Pocketx
SUMOx
Thunderbird.netx

Hugtök

Hér eru nokkur grunnhugtök sem þegar eru samþykkt fyrir skilgreiningar, hugbúnaðar- og vefhugtök (takmarkast þó ekki við):

Gætið að samræmi í notkun áreiðanlegra hugtakagrunna sem þegar eru til í tungumálinu. Þessi grunnhugtök gætu verið þróuð og samþykkt af samfélaginu eða skipt út úr öðrum hluta sem fylgir þjóðlegum, alþjóðlegum eða staðbundnum venjum fyrir hugbúnaðar- og vefhugtök. Eftirfarandi skal forðast:

  • Ósamræmd notkun hugtaka innan verkefnis
  • Ósamræmd notkun hugtakagrunna
  • Ósamræmd notkun hugtaka þvert á verkefni
  • Notkun hugtaka úr öðrum fræðigreinum (t.d., ekki nota læknisfræðihugtök í Firefox)

Ábendingar um þýðingu á flóknum hugtökum

Að þýða hugtök sem endurspegla flókin fyrirbæri er vandasamt verkefni. Hér eru nokkrar tillögur til að auðvelda þýðingar á hugtökum sem eiga sér ekki hliðstæður á markmálinu:

  • Skilningur á merkingu hugtaksins á ensku. Skilgreiningar á nokkrum lykilatriðum: http://techterms.com/category/internet
  • Þekking á vörunni og skilningur á virkni eiginleikans.
  • Íhugun um svipaðar hugmyndir um þennan eiginleika fyrir viðeigandi málsvæði.
  • Tenging menningarbundinna ímynda við merkingu og eiginleika hugtaks.

Þróun nýs hugtakagrunns

Hvernig er ferli teymisins til að bera kennsl á og búa til nýjan hugtakagrunn? Hér eru nokkur atriði til að hafa í huga:

  • Forðist að ofnota staðfærslur á enskum orðatiltækjum
  • Athugun á öðrum tungumálum af sömu málafjölskyldu gæti hjálpað til við að búa til ný hugtök
  • Íhugun á markhópi vörunnar (aldur, lestrarkunnátta, menntunarstig, félagsleg og efnahagsleg staða)
  • Ætlarðu að nota tökuorð úr öðru tungumáli eða búa til nýyrði á markmálinu til að viðhalda hreinleika málsins? Er ríkisstjórnarkrafa eða stefna sem hvetur til gerðar nýyrða um ný hugtök, eða nægja tökuorð til þess að ná til breiðari fjölda eða flýta fyrir tækninýjungum?
  • Mælt er með að þýðendur horfi til stjórnvalda og temji sér sama orðaval á svipuðum hugtökum.

Einingar og málfræði

Dagsetningar

Dagsetningar eru skrifaðar á sniðinu dd/mm/áááá, rétt eins og í Evrópu. Mánuðir eru skrifaðir með litlum staf nema í byrjun setninga. Punktur er skrifaður á eftir deginum, dæmi: 20. október 2018.

Dagatal

Gregoríska dagatalið er í notkun á Íslandi. Dagatöl á Íslandi hefjast ýmist á sunnudegi eða mánudegi. Þetta er ekki á föstu.

Tímasetningar

Sólarhringnum er skipt upp í 24 stundir. Klukkan 3 eftir hádegið er því skrifað 15:00.

Tölustafir

Tugastafur (tugabrot) er merkt með kommu (,). Í þúsundabroti er punktur (.) hins vegar notaður.

Dæmi:

1,5
12.350

Gjaldmiðlar

Íslenska krónan er skammstöfuð kr. á Íslandi. Í alþjóðatali er það ISK.

Mælieiningar

Metrakerfið er notað á Íslandi. Birta ætti tölur í metrakerfinu.

Nöfn

Raðað er eftir skírnarnafni fyrst í símaskrá og öðrum skrám á Íslandi.

Heimilisföng og póstnúmer

Götuheiti og númer húss kemur fyrst þegar heimilisfang er skrifað á íslensku. Í næstu línu kemur póstnúmer (þriggja stafa tala) og þar á eftir er bil og síðan bæjarheiti.

Dæmi:

Borgartúni 37
105 Reykjavík

Snið símanúmera

Oftast er símanúmer skrifað með þremur tölustöfum, síðan bil og þar á eftir koma síðustu fjórir tölustafirnir. Einnig sjást símanúmer skrifuð með þremur tölustöfum fyrst, síðan bandstrik og loks síðustu fjórir tölustafirnir.

Dæmi:

516 1000
565-1000

Sjá einnig https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telephone_numbers_in_Iceland

Beygingar og réttritun

Beygingarlýsing íslensks nútímamáls er mjög hjálplegt tól http://bin.arnastofnun.is/forsida/ Einnig hægt að nota Orðabók.is til að fletta upp beygingum https://www.ordabok.is/beygingar.asp

Tíð

Best er að skoða Ritreglur http://islenskan.is/images/ritreglur-IM-2016.pdf

Setningaskipan

Ritreglur

Skjalið http://islenskan.is/images/endurskodun-ritreglna-heimasida-IM.pdf hefur að geyma hafsjó af almennum ritreglum.

Skammstafanir

Punktar eru jafnan notaðir í skammstöfun og merkir að um styttingu sé að ræða. Sjá kafla 22.6 http://islenskan.is/images/endurskodun-ritreglna-heimasida-IM.pdf

Greinarmerki

Sjá hér http://islenskan.is/images/endurskodun-ritreglna-heimasida-IM.pdf

Áhersla

Íslenska er almennt séð spéhrædd við stóra stafi og er miklu til sparað á þeim bæ. "Stór stafur er alltaf ritaður í upphafi máls og í nýrri málsgrein á eftir punkti. Á eftir upphrópunarmerki, spurningarmerki og tvípunkti er stundum stór stafur, en aldrei á eftir kommu eða semíkommu." (Sjá http://islenskan.is/images/ritreglur-IM-2016.pdf) Einnig er stór stafur í sérnöfnum.

Bandstrik og samsett orð

Íslenska er uppfull af samsettum orðum. Bandstrik er ekki notað í samsettum orðum. Bandstrik eru notuð þegar orði er skipt upp á milli lína sem og í öðrum tilvikum. Sjá nánar kafla 26 http://islenskan.is/images/endurskodun-ritreglna-heimasida-IM.pdf

Forsetningar

Sjá kafla 2.6 http://islenskan.is/images/ritreglur-IM-2016.pdf

Sérstakir stafir

Passa þarf uppá að sérhljóðar séu í réttri stafrófsröð: a, á, e, é, i, í, o, ó, u, ú, y, ý, ö.

Tilvitnanir

Nota skal gæsalöpp sem er niðri og bendir út í byrjun tilvitna. Loka skal tilvitnuninni með því að nota gæsalöpp sem er uppi og bendir út.

Dæmi: „Hér er tilvitnun.“

Notendaviðmót

  • Fyrirsagnir: Ættu að vera stuttar og kjarnyrtar. Gera má ráð fyrir að upprunatextinn taki um 2/3 af leyfilegu plássi. Með þessu móti er svigrúm fyrir aðeins lengri texta í þýðingu án þess að stytta þurfi textann eða nota úrfellingarmerki. Titill á lokasíðu (þ.e.a.s. ekki er hægt að smella lengra) ætti að vera þannig að allur textinn sjáist.
  • Hnappar: Fyrsta orðið er með stórum staf. Takmarka við eitt eða tvö orð. Nota ætti sagnorð sem lýsir nákvæmlega virkni hnappsins. Til dæmis: "Hætta við", "Ferill" og "Velja allt".
  • Fellilistar með gildum: Fyrsta orðið er með stórum staf. Takmarka við eitt eða tvö orð.
  • Greinir: Forðast eins og hægt er. Notendaviðmót hefur takmarkað pláss fyrir texta og með því að nota eingöngu stofn orðsins, þá er mun líklegra að nægilegt pláss sé fyrir textann.
  • Úrfellingarmerki: Úrfellingarmerki eru oft á tíðum notuð í notendaviðmóti við að tilgreina styttingu. Úrfellingarmerki ætti eingöngu að nota á "efri" síðum í notendaviðmóti en ekki á lokasíðu (þ.e.a.s. ekki er hægt að smella lengra) þar sem nákvæmari upplýsingar er að finna. Úrfellingarmerki ætti ekki að nota til styttinga. Einblína ætti á að gera notendaviðmótið kjarnyrt og stutt í spuna. Orðskipan á öðru tungumáli þarf stundum að endurraða.

Almennur þýðingavísir Mozilla (sem á við öll tungumál)

Nákvæmni

Þýðingar sem varðveita merkingu

Að varðveita merkingu textans skiptir þýðingarvinnu mestu máli. Þýðandi ætti að skilja upprunatextann fullkomnlega og velja þau orð í þeirra máli sem komast næst því að fanga sömu merkingu, án þess að bæta við meiningu óþarflega, eða þá að glata henni. Það getur reynst erfitt að finna orð með nákvæmlega sömu merkingu í íslensku og einhverju öðrum máli. Til að auðvelda leitina er sniðugt að velta fyrir sér:

  • Hvað þýðir þetta í ensku?
  • Hvaða skilaboðum er höfundurinn að reyna að koma til skila?
  • Hvernig myndi ég koma þeim skilaboðum frá mér á íslensku?

Vélaþýðingar eru ekki enn komnar á það stig að geta þýtt þannig að samhengi varðveitist, svo ef þær eru notaðar í þýðingarferlinu er nauðsynlegt að staðfesta útkomuna áður en hún er send inn. Forðast er að þýða nokkuð beint. Fylgst er með því að orð séu ekki óvart notuð þegar þau þýða annað í ensku en í íslensku, þó þau líti svipuð út eða hljómi eins.

Það sem ekki ætti að þýða

Flýtilyklar

Flýtilyklar er þegar ákveðnir lyklaborðstakkar eru notaðir í sameiningu sem færa mann beint að ákveðnum hluta heimasíðu. Þá er hægt að aðlaga að íslensku með því að velja einn bókstaf til að nota. Flýtilyklar hafa sérlínur í .dtd og .properties skránum sem eru merktar með ".accesskey".

Breytur

Ekki ætti að þýða breytur. Breytur eru orð sem hefjast á sérmerki eins og t.d. $, # eða %. Sem dæmi má nefna $BrandShortName og %S, sem eru hvort tveggja breytur. Það er í lagi að færa breytuna til innan setningar, krefjist þýðingin þess.

Höfundarréttur og skrásett vörumerki

Vörumerki og höfundarréttarvernduð heiti ætti ekki að þýða né yfirfæra í órómanskar leturgerðir. Sjá vörumerkjavísi Mozilla.

Þýðingar á tilvísunum í staðbundna menningarþætti

Það kemur fyrir að efni á ensku í vörum og vefsíðum Mozilla gera tilvísanir í amerísk menningarhugtök. Þegar þýða á slíkan texta er best að reyna að finna sambærilegt menningarlegt fyrirbæri í íslensku sem færir sömu merkingu og sú enska. Sem dæmi gæti Ameríkani sagt, "Good job, home run!" en það er vísar í velgengi í hafnarbolta. Eðlileg þýðing myndi gera sambærilega myndlíkingu í íslenskri menningu. Ef við tökum yfirfærslu í golf sem dæmi, þá myndi þýðingin "Good job, home run!" verða á við "vel gert, hola í höggi!"

Lagalegur text

Verkefni Mozilla hafa yfirleitt eitthvern lagalegan texta, t.d. í formi notandaskilmála, friðhelgisyfirlýsinga og þess háttar. Þýða ætti slíkan texta í samhengi við þá nákvæmni, færni, stíl og orðanotkun sem fjallað er um í þessum þýðingavísi og í samhengi við menningu og gildi Mozilla.

Færni

Til að enda með náttúrulega þýðingu ætti ekki að fylgja í blindni reglum um málfræði, stafsetningu og greinarmerki, heldur þarf að forðast að textinn verði óljós, skorti samræmi eða samhengi, eða verði einfaldlega óskiljanlegur.

Til að koma í veg fyrir að texti verði óljós þarf þýðandinn að skilja vel þá merkingu sem býr í upprunatextanum, þ.m.t. tilvísanir sem gætu leynst í honum. Til dæmis ef enski upprunatextinn notar orðið "it" til að vísa í eitthvað, þarf þýðandinn að vita nákvæmlega hvað það er til að geta framreitt skýra þýðingu. Það að skilja upprunatextann gefur líka þýðandanum færi á að nota rökfræðilegan framgang upprunatextans í þýðingunni, sem hjálpar henni að halda samhengi.

Ósamræmi getur birst í mörgum myndum. Þýðandi þarf að gæta samræmis þegar notaðar eru styttingar, vísanir og tenglar innan hvers verkefnis sem stendur til að þýða. Þessir hlutir verða einnig að vera í samræmi við hvernig Mozilla notar þá og hvernig samþykkt hefur verið að nota þá í þýðingarvísum annarra þýðingarteyma. Eins og á við um hvaða hugtök skal nota, ættu skammstafanir að koma frá viðurkenndri heimild (t.d. skammstafanaorðabók) eða fylgja algildum reglum tungumálsins um hvernig á að skammstafa. Þegar skammstöfun hefur einu sinni verið notuð þarf að gæta þess að hún sé gerð eins alls staðar þar sem hún kemur fyrir síðar meir. Millivísanir (og tenglar) ættu að vera gerðar eins í allri þýðingunni. Komi fyrir tengill (URL) í viðaukagrein sem er á ensku ætti þýðingin að innihalda tengil á þýdda útgáfu af þessari viðaukagrein, sé hún til, eða þá viðaukagreinina á upprunamálinu. Tenglar ættu ekki að áframsendast milli síða, né þá vera ónýtir.

Svo getur komið fyrir að þýðingu sé erfitt að skilja fullkomnlega. Það getur jafnvel verið erfitt að segja hvað sé nákvæmlega að, en tilfinningin fyrir því að hún sé ruglingsleg og óþjál sé samt til staðar. Þó slíkt sé óalgengt, þá er mikilvægt að benda á þær þýðingar sem virka svona á mann og stinga uppá lagfæringu.

Style Guide Indonesian (id)

Panduan ini disusun untuk dapat digunakan oleh sukarelawan Mozilla dalam melakukan pelokalan proyek Mozilla.

Panduan Umum (Gaya linguistik spesifik Mozilla)

Formalitas

Penentuan formalitas bahasa yang digunakan ditentukan berdasarkan target pasar dari produk atau proyek Mozilla yang akan dilokalkan. Sebagai contoh, bahasa yang digunakan di dalam Firefox akan menggunakan bahasa formal karena target pengguna Firefox tidak dibatasi oleh usia. Sementara itu, Webmaker menggunakan bahasa semi-formal karena memiliki target pengguna dengan usia muda dan pengguna awam.

Gunakan bahasa formal untuk proyek berikut:

  • Firefox Desktop
  • Firefox untuk iOS
  • Firefox untuk Android
  • Thunderbird
  • mozilla.org
  • AMO
  • mozillians.org

Gunakan bahasa yang semi formal untuk proyek berikut:

  • Webmaker
  • Konten untuk nawala
  • Konten pemasaran
  • Media sosial

Gaya Selingkung

Penerjemah menggunakan bahasa yang tidak mengandung bias, yang tidak mengacu kepada ras, etnik atau grup minoritas tertentu baik dalam hal representasi, stereotip, maupun eufimisme secara sengaja, yang mengarah pada bentuk penyerangan tertentu. Hindari penggunaan bahasa seperti itu ketika melakukan pelokalan.

Penerjemah juga disarankan agar tidak menggunakan bahasa percakapan, slang, puitis, kata-kata langka, istilah yang hanya dimengerti lingkungan tertentu (lokal) dan ekspresi yang tidak termasuk dalam bahasa Indonesia standar.

Contoh:

Bahasa InggrisBahasa Indonesia
Create(+) Buat
(-) Ciptakan

Nada

Nada pelokalan ke Bahasa Indonesia diusahakan menyerupai nada yang disampaikan produk/proyek Mozilla yang dimaksud, namun tetap penuh kehati-hatian. Sebaiknya penerjemah menghindari penggunaan kata-kata yang spesifik dengan dialek tertentu.

Contoh:

Bahasa InggrisBahasa Indonesia
You are now connected to the Internet(+) Anda kini tersambung dengan Internet
(-) Kau kini tersambung dengan Internet

Suara

Bahasa Indonesia memiliki beberapa terjemahan untuk kata “You”, seperti “Anda”, “kamu”, “engkau” dan “kau”. Dalam pelokalan, kata “You” diterjemahkan sebagai “Anda” - sebagai orang kedua tunggal dan jamak.

Contoh:

Bahasa InggrisBahasa Indonesia
You are now connected to the Internet(+) Anda kini tersambung dengan Internet

Keluwesan bahasa

Dalam pemilihan kata, penerjemah menggunakan pilihan kata yang sesederhana mungkin — kecuali dibutuhkan penjelasan yang lebih rinci.

Contoh:

Bahasa InggrisBahasa Indonesia
You are now connected to the Internet(+) Anda kini tersambung dengan Internet

Penanganan Istilah Setempat, Idiom, dan Bahasa Slang

Istilah yang mengacu pada budaya tertentu, idiom dan bahasa slang membutuhkan pemahaman yang menyeluruh. Baik antara budaya asal bahasa sumber dengan bahasa target, yaitu bahasa Indonesia. Sebagai contoh adalah frasa “kickoff-meeting” yang digunakan pada bahasa Inggris. Istilah ini adalah acuan yang digunakan dalam olah raga American Football. Secara makna, frasa tersebut bermakna “awal sebuah proyek”.

Untuk menerjemahkan hal semacam ini, penerjemah dapat menggunakan salah satu dari pendekatan berikut:

  1. Mencari frasa acuan yang setara di bahasa Indonesia
  2. Menghapus acuan budaya dan menerjemahkan makna inti dari frasa tersebut

Contoh:

Bahasa InggrisBahasa Indonesia
kickoff-meeting(+) rapat perdana
(-) rapat permulaan

Konsistensi Gaya

Kepatuhan kepada gaya selingkung, merek Mozilla dan pihak ketiga seharusnya dilakukan sepenuhnya dalam sebuah proyek pelokalan. Informasi lebih lanjut tentang aturan merek Mozilla secara spesifik dapat dilihat di sini.

Contohnya, sejumlah nama merek sebaiknya tidak diterjemahkan, misalnya “Firefox”. Untuk merek lain yang tidak memiliki panduan penggunaan merek, komunitas pelokalan perlu memutuskan apakah akan menerjemahkannya atau tidak. Berhati-hatilah dalam memeriksa aturan penggunaan merek sebelum memutuskan menerjemahkan sebuah merek atau tidak (baik itu untuk Mozilla atau merek milik pihak ketiga) dan untuk memuatnya dalam panduan selingkung komunitas pelokalan Anda.

Terminologi

Dalam melakukan penerjemahan istilah-istilah tertentu, penerjemah disarankan untuk mengacu kepada situs-situs web berikut:

  1. Transvision
  2. Daftar istilah internet Indonesia
  3. Pembakuan istilah aplikasi komputer berbahasa Indonesia
  4. [Microsoft terminology]((https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/language)

Daftar di atas disusun berdasarkan tingkat rekomendasi penggunaan situs web sebagai acuan pelokalan. Untuk memeriksa makna dari kata yang digunakan, penerjemah menggunakan Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia 4

Satuan dan Ejaan Bahasa

Seluruh aturan pengunaan satuan numerik dan ejaan bahasa sepenuhnya mengacu kepada Microsoft Style Guide Bahasa Indonesia (halaman 8–29) dan Panduan Umum Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia 2015 yang diterbitkan oleh Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia.

Dalam hal huruf kapital, pengguna perlu memerhatikan Pedoman Penulisan Huruf Kapital.

Gaya Pelokalan Mozilla Yang Lazim

Akurasi

Terjemahkan berdasar arti

Dalam proses menerjemahkan, arti adalah segalanya. Penerjemah harus bisa memahami arti suatu kalimat, kemudian mencari padanannya dalam istilah lokal. Untuk membantu proses ini, beberapa pertanyaan berikut mungkin akan membantu:

  • Apa pengertian dari kata/kalimat tersebut dalam bahasa lokal saya?
  • Apa pesan yang ingin si penulis sampaikan?
  • Bagaimana saya mengekspresikan pesan tersebut dalam bahasa lokal?

Bagian yang tidak perlu diterjemahkan

Ada beberapa untai kalimat yang tidak perlu diterjemahkan, termasuk:

  • Jalan pintas (shortcut) & access key
  • berbagai variabel
  • merek, hak cipta, dan merek dagang

Istilah yang memiliki konteks budaya setempat

Apabila mendapati istilah yang memiliki konteks budaya dari negara tertentu, maka istilah tersebut harus diterjemahkan berdasarkan konteks budaya setempat — bukan berdasarkan kata per kata.

Konten legal

Segala konten legal yang akan diterjemahkan harus disesuaikan dengan maksud dari misi Mozilla.

Kefasihan

Hindari istilah yang mengundang ambiguitas, membingungkan, tidak konsisten, atau tidak mudah dipahami.

Style Guide Igbo (ig)

Introduction

This style guide is intended for translators working on Mozilla projects. It provides in-depth information about the quality standards expected by Mozilla for the translation of all product components. All translators should read this guide before commencing any translation work.

This guide addresses general translation issues and specifies certain rules of style and usage specific to your language. It should be used as a guideline to avoid common typographic errors, and to maintain consistent terminology and writing style across a project’s components and indeed a product range. The guide should be used in conjunction with the current and previous product-specific glossaries, glossaries of other products of a product range, and the industry standard platform-specific glossaries, such as those provided by Mozilla.

This document may be updated or completed in the course of translation. Where no specific instruction or recommendation is specified, translators should use the phrasing and style that comply with industry standards.

General Style Considerations

Style guidelines

Follow these basic rules:

  • Original American English text tends to be rather casual. For Igbo, use a neutral style, with the informal form of address.
  • Try to avoid long, nested sentence constructions. If necessary, break up the original sentence and regroup it syntactically.
  • Use wording that is brief and unambiguous.
  • Use a consistent style throughout all product components and across a product range, to ensure that all Mozilla products can be linguistically identified as part of a group of products.

Style guidelines specific to Mozilla products

  • Please refer to the reference documentation supplied by Mozilla and any Mozilla style guides and make a note of anything significant and specific that should be noted with respect to Mozilla.
  • Please ensure to use a recently published dictionary (recommended source: Pharos 5-1 CD-ROM / Pharos Online list of technical dictionaries).
  • Before returning any files, please be sure to run a recent Igbo spellchecker (in case of disagreements, the HAT spelling will be followed).

Reference terminology

The following terminology sources should be used as reference in the translation:

  • Product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency across all product components.
  • Previous version product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency between versions.
  • Glossaries of other Mozilla products, to ensure cross-product consistency.
  • Microsoft glossaries, to ensure adherence to some of the industry standards. The glossaries can be found at:http://www.microsoft.com/Language.

Terminology not found in the glossary or style guide

  • Please make a log of any terms not found in the glossary or style guide that are used frequently in the materials. Return this log to Rubric so that the terms can be incorporated into the glossary. This increases consistency in large projects.

Abbreviations

General Abbreviations

  • Avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations. Where no appropriate abbreviation exists, rather use the whole word.
  • Where there are space restrictions in the UI, abbreviations can be used. These must be entered into the glossary with the full translation, and should be approved by the customer.
  • The compounds below contain either an abbreviation or a numeral followed by a component name. The abbreviation or numeral is marked in red in the English example. The Igbo example below show how such constructions should be translated.
English exampleIgbo example
CD-ROM driveDraịvụ CD-ROM
2-D gridlinesAhịrị ngidi 2D
24 bit color valueMpụtara agba bit 24
3.5 FloppyFlọpị 3.5
51/4-inch FloppyFlọpị 5¼-inchi
35mm slidesngammịfe nwayọ nwayọ 35 mm

Note the difference between the styling of “Flọpị 5¼-inchi” and “nwayọ nwayọ 35 mm”, which results from the fact that "mm" is regarded a symbol and not an abbreviation. Igbo officially uses the metric (SI) system, which requires as space between a figure and the accompanying symbol.

Measurements and Numerals

In addition to common measurements such as km, m, cm, mm, etc., the following abbreviations are used in technical documentation:

MeasurementAbbreviationComment/Example
GigabyteGBDo not use Gbyte
KilobyteKBDo not use Kbyte
MegabyteMBDo not use Mbyte

Important: The old rule that all numerals up to 12 must be spelled out is no longer valid. Use your best judgment given the at hand, especially when a combination of numbers is involved.

Filename Extensions

  • Filename extensions and graphic formats referenced by filename extensions such as BMP, GIF, HTML, PNG, TIFF must not be translated.

Acronyms

Acronyms are made up of the initial letters of several words that are represented by these letters. Some well-known examples are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory).

If an acronymn has an official or commonly recognised translation in Igbo (e.g. if it is present in a general dictionary), use the Igbo acronymn. Otherwise, use the English acronymn. If the acronymn is followed in English by a full form, retain the acronymn in English and translate the full form into Igbo.

IMPORTANT: Do not translate an abbreviation or acronym that is a trademark, unless it is the official translation of that trademark.

Use recognised translations of acronyms where these exist, but avoid creating new, non-standard acronyms.

Articles

Product Names

Mozilla product names are used without definite or indefinite articles. Product names and non-translated feature names are considered proper nouns and are used without definite or indefinite articles in English.

Note that the product and feature names are regarded as proper nouns. They are not to be translated.

English exampleIgbo example
Windows Mail shares your Internet Connection settings with Internet ExplorerOzi windo na ekekọrịta ntọala Njikọ Ịntanetị gị n’etiti nchọnchọ Ịntanetị
Website addresses will be sent to MicrosoftA ga-eziga adreesị weebụsaịtị na Microsọft

By contrast, translated feature names are used with a definite or indefinite article as they are not treated as proper names.

English exampleIgbo example
Hide the Task Manager when it is minimizedZoo Ihe Njikwa Ọrụ mgbe ewedatara ya
Check for updates in your installed Media Player's languageLee maka mwelite n’asụsụ nke Ngwa Egwu gị etinyere

Copyrights and Trademarks

Product names should not be translated unless the client requests it.

Copyright protection is granted to any original work of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression from which it can be perceived, reproduced, or communicated.

English textIgbo translation
CopyrightIkike onwunwe ihe
All rights reservedEchekwara ikike niile

Translation of Version Strings

  • Please use the following guidelines when localizing version strings:
  • Version strings that contain copyright information should always be translated.

In version strings containing feature names that are trademarked, the feature names that are trademarked should not be translated.

Gender-neutral Translation

You should always recognize your audience’s sensitivity to male and female stereotypes. Instead of stressing gender differences or reinforcing stereotypical distinctions between men and women, use language that is as neutral as possible. The neutral approach also applies to the localization of scenarios, comparisons, examples, illustrations, and metaphors.

Create a balance when assigning roles and functions to men and women (active vs. passive roles, leading vs. secondary roles, technical vs. non-technical professions, and so on). Scenarios, pictures, metaphors, and comparisons should be based on areas and attributes common to both genders.

Instead of using phrases which mention the two genders separately, use a general term that includes both genders such as “people,” “users,” or “persons.”

Avoid writing sentences that refer to a single person whose gender is unknown. You can often avoid this situation by rewriting the sentence to make the subject plural. In cases where a reference to a single person is impossible to avoid, do not use “he or she,” “him or her,” or “his or hers.” The language in Microsoft products should sound natural, as if part of a spoken conversation. Also, generally avoid the use of slashes to combine both genders (although sometimes exceptions are made - see table below).

Use the following strategies to avoid the use of overtly gender-biased expressions:

Linguistic methodExampleContext
Use a Neutral nounperson, leader, team lead, expert, employee, userConcept descriptions, explanations
Combine both genders by means of a slashhe/she, s/heOnly in exceptional cases such as License Terms, sometimes in tables (headers or column/row titles, for example)

Nouns with gender bias such as nwoke, man, are generally replaced with gender neutral ones like onye, person, mmadụ, person, ndị, people etc. There is no gender distinction in Igbo pronouns. They have neutral reference. E.g. ‘Ọ dị mma.’ , can be translated as ‘it’s fine, she’s fine, he’s fine.’

Localized term vs. English term

The most common language of terminology in the computer world is English. However, it is quite unnatural in Igbo to use English words in an Igbo sentence (except for product names and acronyms). Resist the temptation to borrow an English word as-is except in pluralising which we most times leave as it is. Find out what the word means, and create a term that a reasonably intelligent Igbo reader will understand.

Gender

Many terms in circulation in the high tech industry have been adopted from English. They must follow Igbo grammar and syntax rules.

Inflections

The examples below show how English loanwords inflect for number in Igbo.

CD
CD-ROM
HTML
HTTP
SIM

Verbs and Verb Forms

Do not use an English verb as loan word in Igbo.

Headings

Headings should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly. If in English the heading begins with a gerund, try to use a nominalized form in Igbo.

English exampleIgbo example
Sending a fileIzipu faịlụ
Using StylesIji ụdị dị iche iche

Capitalization

In English headings, all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions (such as “that,” “until,” and “which”) are capitalized. Please do not apply the same principle to Igbo headings. Instead, follow the normal Igbo capitalization rules. The same rule applies to software strings.

English exampleIgbo example
Click Help to proceedPịa Enyemaka iji gaa n’ihu
Click Help Me Choose to proceedPịa Nyere M Aka Họrọ iji gaa n’ihu
Switching Between WindowsỊgbanwe N’etiti windo

In Lists and Tables

Whenever possible, headings of lists and tables should consist of one or two words, preferably active nouns. They should be concise, even if the source uses a longer phrase.

In English, lists may be headed in two ways, namely (a) an introductory phrase that is completed syntactically by every item in the list and (b) an “independent” introductory phrase followed by syntactically independent items.

In English, the syntax of the items are typically not affected by the phrasing of the introductory phrase, if it is one sentence. However, in Igbo, the word order of the introductory phrase can affect the word order of the individual items. When translating the introductory phrase, try to translate it in such a way that the items can be translated as an independent phrases.

Either way, care should be taken to ensure that every individual item is not an incorrect syntactical completion of the heading and makes sense in terms of meaning (semantics) and subject matter. Note that the position of the (main) verb may require a structure that differs significantly from the English.

US headingIgbo heading
In order toIji mee nke a
Do thisMee nke a
How to useụzọ esi eme
First do thisBuru ụzọ mee nke a
Then do thisMee nke a
How to:ụzọ esi:
WalkthroughGafere

Hyphenation and Compound formation

General Hyphenation Rules

In Igbo, hyphens are more common and more acceptable than in English. In fact, hyphens can be used in long compound nouns to make its meaning clearer. When faced with a highly complex compound, resolve it by clarifying the relationships among the various compound components. Ways of doing this include shifting the word order or using prepositions.

Examples:

the Windows 2000 operating systemIgwe arụmọrụ Windo 2000
the Windows 2000 user magazine subscription registration formakwụkwọ ndebanye aha akwụkwọ akụkọ onye ọrụ nke Windo 2000
the software user license conditionsọnọdụ ikikere ngwaọrụ

This applies in particular to Mozilla product and component names that appear as the proper-noun element in compounds that are either proper nouns again, or common nouns (Examples below include Microsoft/Windows product names).

English exampleIgbo example
Windows passwordIgodo mmepe Windo
Microsoft Word documentIhendekọ Microsọft Wọdụ
Microsoft SQL Server DatabaseIkpo data Microsọft SQL Sava
Microsoft BackOffice product familyEzinụlọ ngwaahịa Microsọft BackOfis

English Compounds

We do not automatically hyphenate purely English compounds. Use the following steps in handling US compounds:

  • If the compound consists of no more than 3 components write it as one word in Igbo, unless there is serious risk of misunderstanding.
  • If the compound is more complex, resolve it by:
    • inserting a hyphen at the appropriate point in the word (try to avoid using more than one hyphen in a single word, unless one of the hyphens is required and the other is optional).
    • adjusting the word order and applying the rules of Igbo syntax,
    • using prepositions,
    • reducing complexity by writing related components as one word.

Product Names

Product names must not be hyphenated. However, in order to offset the actual product name from the word that follows in a compound, the hyphen is placed right between the product name and the following term. Please note that this rule applies even if the word that follows is a US term.

Compounds with Acronyms, Abbreviations or Numerals

The compounds below contain either an abbreviation or a numeral followed by a component name. The abbreviation or numeral is marked in red in the English example. The Igbo example below show how such constructions should be translated.

English exampleIgbo example
CD-ROM driveDraịvụ CD-ROM
2-D gridlinesAhịrị ngidi 2D
24 bit color valueMpụtara agba bit 24
3.5 FloppyFlọpị 3.5
51/4-inch FloppyFlọpị 5¼-inch
35mm slidesIhe mmịfe 35 mm

Indexes

Capitalization, Prepositions and Articles

For first level entries (main index level), always capitalize the first letter of the first word. Write the remaining words according to existing Igbo capitalization rules.

Subentries: capitalize nouns, use lowercase for other entries.

In English headings, all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions (such as “that,” “until,” and “which”) are capitalized. Please do not apply the same principle to Igbo headings. Instead, follow the normal Igbo capitalization rules. The same rule applies to software strings.

English exampleIgbo example
Click Help to proceedPịa Enyemaka iji gaa n’ihu
Click Help Me Choose to proceedPịa Nyere M Aka Họrọ iji gaa n’ihu
Switching Between WindowsỊgbanwe N’etiti windo

Prepositional phrases in English need to be translated according to their context; anglicisms should be avoided. The table below contains frequently used verbs and the prepositions that follow them.

Prepositions

Translate English prepositions according to their context and not too literally.

Prepositional phrases in English need to be translated according to their context; anglicisms should be avoided. The table below contains frequently used verbs and the prepositions that follow them. Please use this table as a reference.

This is a particularly problematic area, because some verbs used transitively in English cannot be so used in Igbo, and then something needs to be added or changed in translation, for instance migrate cannot be used transitively in Igbo. (or a similar translational solution used). Also, Igbo phrasal verbs will change (be “split”) depending on the particular syntactical environment. This matter should be dealt with extremely carefully.

US-English expressionIgbo expression
migrate tobanye na
Migrate fromBanye site na
import tobubata na
import frombubata site na
export tobuga na
export frombupu site na
update tomelite ka ọ bụrụ
upgrade toKwalite ka ọ bụrụ
change tobanye na
click onpịa na
connect tojikọọ na
welcome to ...nnọọ na ...

The examples below contain frequently occurring noun phrases that are preceded by a preposition. Please use this table as a reference.

US-English expressionIgbo expression
in the toolbarn’ogwe ngwaọrụ
on the tabna taabụ
on the menuna menu
on the netna net
on the Internetna Ịntanetị
on the Webna Weebụ
on a web sitena weebụsaịtị
on a web pagena ibe weebụ

Procedures and Syntax

In procedural text, which tells the user to perform certain actions in a certain number of steps, the order in which interface terms are to appear in the translation is usually top to bottom (for example, “menu,” “command,” “dialog box,” “dialog box controls”). This order reflects the sequence in which the action needs to be performed, and it should be maintained unless there are technical reasons preventing it.

This convention is less important in normal body text, which is sometimes written in a more personal tone and less formal style, thus allowing the translator to be more creative.

See also sections 4.5.5 and 4.6.2.2.

English exampleIgbo example (possible body text)
On the View menu, click FilterNa menu Lelee, pịa Myọ
On the Tools menu, click Internet Options, and click the Security tabNa menu Ngwaọrụ, pịa Nhọrọ Ịntanetị, wee pịa taabụ Nche

Descriptors

Use the descriptor (“menu,” “button,” “command,” and so on) only if the original text uses it or if it is needed for clarifying the position of a term in the interface.

Procedural Syntax

In procedural text, which tells the user to perform certain actions in a certain number of steps, the order in which interface terms are to appear in the translation is usually top to bottom (i.e. menu, command, dialog box, dialog box controls). Maintain this sequence unless there are technical reasons preventing it.

Example:

In the "Extras" menu, click "Settings" and then "Music files".

You may come across procedural instructions of the type "To do this and that, click on ...". In body text, you may rearrange such sentences to first mention the action the user needs to do and then the purpose.

English exampleIgbo example
To open the shortcut menu, click View SourceIji mepee menu ụzọ mkpịrịsị, pịa Lee Isi Mmalite
To end the install, click CancelIji kwụsị nwụnye ahụ, pịa Kagbuo

Procedural Headings

Procedural headings are very important because they tell users exactly what they are going to do in the steps that follow. Headings should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly. If in English the heading begins with a gerund, try to use a nominalized form in Igbo.

Status Bar Messages

Please make sure you adequately capture the meaning of messages when translating.

If you think a source status bar message is ambiguous, query it to make sure you provide the reader with the right information: if you cannot understand it, they are also not certain to. There is nothing more annoying than "help" that doesn't!

A status bar message is information about the active document, a selected command, or any active selected interface item. The messages are shown in the status bar at the bottom of the window when the user has chosen a menu, a command or any other item, or has started a function. Some status bar messages refer to actions being performed or already completed (for example in Microsoft Internet Explorer). Refer to

Status Bar Image

Figure 1. Example of a typical status bar and status bar message.

Messages reporting that a process is executing usually use a verb in the “-ing” form plus three dots after the text. In Igbo you should choose a verb tense and/or aspect that expresses the ongoing nature of the action.

Difficulties can arise if this convention is not kept in the US text and the status or progress message is not immediately recognizable as such (although sometimes the Resource ID will tell). The standard syntax should be applied to status bar messages wherever possible.

Examples:

English exampleIgbo example (status bar message)Igbo example (dialog heading)
Scanning filesNa-enyocha ebe nchekwa ozi
Opening messageNa-emepe ozi
Scanning files...Inyocha ebe nchekwa ozi...
Opening message…Imepe ozi....

Usage of "Select"

ItemUS exampleIgbo example
ListsIn the drop-down list, select an option.Na ndepụta ndotu, họrọ otu nhọrọ.
Check BoxesSelect the check box.Họrọ igbe nrịbama.

Usage of "Click"

ItemExampleUSIgbo
MenusOn the ____ menu, click _____.On the File menu, click Open.Na menu ebe nchekwa ozi, pịa Mepee.
Cascading MenusOn the ___ menu, click ___, and then click ___.On the Tools menu, click Preferences, and then click Music Files.Na menu Ngwaọrụ, pịa Mmasị, wee pịa ebe nchekwa Egwu.
Click the arrow next to _____ and then click ____ .Click the arrow next to , and then click the file type you want.Pịa ụta dị n‘akụkụ wee pịa ụdị faịlụ ị chọrọ.

Punctuation

Commas and Other Common Punctuation Marks

Please follow the following basic rules for the use of punctuation marks in Igbo. Make sure to include a space after commas, and after periods if it is followed by another sentence. Use one space between sentences.

There are a few important punctuation conventions that need to be observed:

  1. The predicates of complex sentences are separated by a comma, whether or not they occur next to each other in the sentence. After the infinitive (om te + verb) as a noun clause no comma is needed.
  2. A defining adjectival clause is terminated by a comma, unless two equivalent clauses are linked by “en” or “of”, or, of course, unless it is the final clause of the complex sentence.
  3. A non-defining adjectival clause is preceded by a comma before the relative pronoun and is terminated by a comma.
  4. A dash (en dash) between words should be preceded and followed by a single space.

Comma vs. Period in Numerals

English uses a period as decimal separator, Igbo usually uses a comma.

Example:
English: 5.25 cm
Igbo: 5,25 cm

English: Letter Landscape 11 x 8.5 in
Igbo: Letter Querformat 11 x 8.5 in

English: 1,526
Igbo: 1 526

In bullet lists, instruction lists, captions and callouts:

  • If your translation is longer than the US text, or if you split your translation into several independent sentences, use common sense and insert a period if it improves the Igbo style.

US English uses a period as the decimal separator, while many other languages use a comma. In Igbo a comma is used.

In paper sizes (the last example in the table below) the decimal separator and the abbreviation "in" for inches are kept, since the sizes are US norms and should be represented accordingly.

The “in” as abbreviation for “inch” is not acceptable in Igbo, and should be changed to “dm.” – note the full stop! – which has been the recognized abbreviation for decades. Before independence, Nigeria as part of the British Empire used the imperial measurement system in which “inch = duim” and “in = dm.”.

English exampleIgbo example
5.25 cm5,25 cm
5 x 7.2 inches5 x 7,2 inchi
Letter Landscape 11 x 8.5 inLetter Landskep 11 x 8.5 dm.

For thousands, English uses a comma while many other languages use a period (at Mozilla we normally do not use a space for this purpose, but we use a period instead to avoid wrapping problems).

Note that neither a full stop nor a comma may be used for thousands, because both may be interpreted as a decimal separator. A space should be used for thousands and preferably a hard space to avoid wrapping problems.

English exampleIgbo example
1,5261 526
$ 1,526.75$1 526,75

Note that there should be NO SPACE between the currency symbol and the first digit!

Version Numbers

Version numbers always contain a period (Version 4.2, for example). Please note the following punctuation examples of “Version x.x”:

Examples:

English exampleIgbo example
If you are using Word version 7.0 or later...Ọ bụrụ na ị na eji ụdị 7.0 nke Wọdụ maọbụ nke ọhụrụ...
If you are using Microsoft Excel version 6.0 for Windows...Ọ bụrụ na ị na eji ụdị 6.0 nke Microsọft Esel maka Windo...

Version numbers are usually also part of version strings, but technically they are not the same. Where possible in Igbo, leave out “weergawe” because it would in most cases require a hyphen to link it to the product name, which will only complicate matters.

Typographic Conventions

Consistent use of typographic conventions in documentation helps users locate and interpret information easily. Generally speaking, the source format should be followed as closely as possible, i.e. terms with a particular formatting in the source should have the same formatting in the translation.

If menu, command, option, etc. names are highlighted by bold print in the source, use bold print for the corresponding translated terms. If menu, command, option, etc. names are put in quotes in the source, use quotes for the corresponding terms in the translation.

Note that in software strings, you must use two double quotes (""xxx"") to denote names within a string. If you only use a single double quotes ("xxx"), this will cause problems with the compilation, as strings are generally denoted by double quotes.

Wizard Names

Abbreviations: N = Noun, A = Adjective (incl. participle used as A), Nv = Verb used as Noun

SourceTargetRulePattern
Configuration Wizard, Installation WizardỌkachamara Nhazi, Ọkachamara NwụnyeRule 1: One noun is followed by a hyphen and “assistent”.N-assistent

Appendix

Guidelines for the Localization of Error Messages

The following guidelines do not apply to the translation of FirefoxOS because brevity is more important in FirefoxOS than using long, pleasant sounding idiomatic expressions.

Articles and Pronouns

SourceTargetGuidelines
File already exists / The file already exists / This file already existsEbe nchekwa ozi adịlarịị adị / ebe nchekwa a adịlarịị adị / ebe nchekwa a adịlarịị adịIn complete sentences, use articles consistently even if the US string does not.
Not enough memory to complete this operation.Enweghị ebe nchekwa zuru oke iji mezuo arụmọrụ a.Use the definite article instead of the demonstrative pronoun unless it is important in context.
The network is down./ Network is down.Netwọk emebiela.Metaphorically used prepositions usually require rephrasing.

Verbs

SourceTargetGuidelines
The document is too large. / Document too large.Ebe nchekwa ozi ahụ buru oke ibu. / Ebe nchekwa ozi buru oke ibu.Use verb consistently even if source message does not.
An unknown error has occurred./ No error occurred.Mperi amaghị dapụtara./ Ọnweghị mperi dapụtara.Shorten this construction where possible.
Cannot locate file.Enweghi ike ịchọta ebe nchekwa.Locate, find = chọta
To try copying files again, click OK.Ịnwa inomi ebe nchekwa ọzọ, pịa ỌDỊMMA.Omit the translation of try when there is a simple alternative.

Negation

SourceTargetGuidelines
Wrong file type.Ụdị ebe nchekwa ezighi ezi.Wrong, incorrect = ezighi ezi
File not found. / File was not found. / The file was not found.Ahụghị ebe nchekwa.Use this basic syntax for negative sentences.

Style Guide Irish (ga)

Brollach

Rinneamar na cinntí seo thíos agus muid ag cur Gaeilge shoiléir ar chomhéadain Mozilla, GMail, LibreOffice, Twitter, agus táirgí eile. Cé go mbíonn cúiseanna le gach rogha a rinneamar (ceal spáis nó leanúnachas ceisteanna le freagraí), fearaimid fáilte roimh aiseolas nó ceisteanna i gcónaí. Is fiú cuimhneamh go mbítear ag logánú meáin fhíor-éagsúla agus logánú ar bun agat, is é sin le rá, go mbítear ag iarraidh go dtiocfaidh suíomh gréasáin le comhéadan bogearra i gcomhthéacsanna áirithe, ach i gcomhthéacsanna eile ní bhíonn sa logánú ach aistriúchán ar chaint mhargaíochta an Idirlín. Bhí cúis mhaith le gach cinneadh a rinneadh, maith nó olc, ceart nó mícheart.

Tá eagarthóireacht shíoraí ar bun le deimhniú go bhfuil gach cuid de na comhéadain seo cruinn intuigthe agus go bhfuil leanúnachas sna roghanna teanga nuair is féidir.

An tAlt

Leantar, den chuid is mó, a bhfuil leagtha amach i gCaibidil 7 de Ghraiméar Gaeilge na mBráithre Críostaí, mar gheall ar an alt. Nuair atá tú ag caint ar líon nó thacar cinnte de rud éigin, is minice an t-alt a bheith in úsáid sa Ghaeilge; beag beann ar an mBéarla.

  • “Screen size” = “Méid an scáileáin”
  • “Leave Group” = “Fág an Grúpa”
  • “Restore session” = “Athchóirigh an seisiún”
  • “The latest technologies” = “Na teicneolaíochtaí is déanaí”*

Aithnítear go n-úsáidtear an focal “teicneolaíocht” go cinnte agus go héiginnte.

Úsáidtear an t-alt agus sinn ag scríobh faoi choincheapa teibí nuair atá brí fhorleathan go maith acu e.g. an fhearg, an mhaith, an pobal, etc. agus:

  • “…a ndéanann tú ar an nGréasán.”
  • “Tabhair an t-iomlán chun tosaigh”
  • “Deaschliceáil nó tarraing anuas chun an stair a thaispeáint”

I liosta tíortha, baintear úsáid as an alt: “An Fhrainc”, “An Ghearmáin”, srl.

Ní úsáidtear an t-alt i liosta teangacha: “Fraincis, Gearmáinis, Spáinnis, …”

Úsáidtear an t-alt in ionad na haidiachtaí sealbhaí freisin, nuair is cuí.

Msh: “To get the most out of your browser” = “Leis an tairbhe is mó a bhaint as an mbrabhsálaí” nó “A webpage is slowing down your browser.” = “Tá leathanach Gréasáin ag cur moill ar an mbrabhsálaí.”

Caveat: Cuimhnigh gur comhéadan é seo a bhfuil spás teoranta aige ar an scáileán. Beidh cásanna ina mbeifeá ag súil leis an alt ach go bhfágtar ar lár é ar na cúiseanna seo a bhaineann le húsáid an chomhéadain. D’fhéadfadh rud cinnte amháin a bheith ann nó rudaí iomadúla a bheith i gceist, fágtar an t-alt ar lár sna cásanna seo de ghnáth. Nuair nach n-oireann sé don chomhéadan ó thaobh spáis de, fágtar an t-alt ar lár anois is arís. I gcás cnaipe, mar shampla.

  • “Please select the file(s) to attach” = “Roghnaigh comha(i)d le ceangal”

seachas “Roghnaigh an comhad/na comhaid atá le ceangal”, rud nach mbeadh spás dó.

  • “illegal character(s) in public id” = “carachta(i)r neamhcheadaithe san aitheantas poiblí”

Ceannlitreacha

De ghnáth, leanaimid an stíl sa mbuntéacs:

  • “Root Only” = “Forúsáideoir Amháin”
  • “Character Encoding” = “Ionchódú Carachtar”

ach ní úsáidtear litir mhór leis an alt, le réamhfhocail, srl.:

  • “System Settings” = “Socruithe an Chórais”
  • “About Service Workers” = “Maidir le hOibrithe Seirbhíse”

Iolraí agus Uimhreacha

Nuair a bhraitheann teachtaireacht ar uimhir, mar shampla “%d documents”, is minic gur féidir aistriúcháin éagsúla a thabhairt; tá cúig chás againn sa Ghaeilge:

  • %d = 1, “%d documents” = “%d cháipéis”
  • %d = 2, “%d documents” = “%d cháipéis”
  • %d = 3,4,5,6, “%d documents” = “%d cháipéis”
  • %d = 7,8,9,10, “%d documents” = “%d gcáipéis”
  • %d > 10, “%d documents” = “%d cáipéis”

Mura bhfuil idirnáisiúnú cuí déanta ar an mBéarla sa chaoi seo, ní féidir an claochlú tosaigh a leanann na bunuimhreacha a thuar. Leis seo, fágtar an t-ainmfhocal san ainmneach lom de ghnáth.

  • “%d documents” = “%d cáipéis”

Giorrúcháin

Ní chuirtear Gaeilge ar an bhformhór de ghiorrúcháin an Bhéarla:

  • Ní aistrítear giorrúcháin, msh: RSS, HTML, XML, USB, ASCII, UTF-8, CPU, srl.
  • Glactar le SAM (USA), RA (UK), agus corrcheann seanbhunaithe mar é.

Ní úsáidtear “is” in ionad “agus” sna comhéadain, ná leaganacha giorraithe d’fhocal ar bith a bhfuil baint acu le canúint ar leith..

OK

Úsáidtear “OK” ar chnaipí agus i gcláir amháin, aistrítear go Gaeilge “ok” nó “okay” i gcás abairtí.

Amparsan

Is minic a fheictear & (“and”) i mbuntéacs Béarla: “Decrypt & Save”, “Time & Date”, “Security & Privacy”. B’fhearr linn an carachtar Unicode ⁊, ach níl sé ar fáil i ngach clófhoireann. Mar sin, úsáidimid “agus” mar aistriúchán ar &.

  • “Headers & Footers” = “Ceanntásca agus Buntásca”
  • “Security & Privacy” = “Slándáil agus Príobháideachas”

Aicearraí

Féach go gcaomhnaítear gach amparsan sna cásanna seo. Úsáidtear an t-amparsan chun aicearra a roghnú. Nuair nach mbíonn spás idir an t-amparsan agus an litir atá sa lorg air, áirítear an litir sin mar aicearra don rogha sin sa chlár nó sa phreabfhuinneog.

  • &Check for Updates = &Lorg nuashonraithe
  • &Apply Update… = &Cuir nuashonrú i bhfeidhm…

Uaschamóg

Úsáidimid an uaschamóg ASCII síos tríd, mar sin: “B’fhéidir”, seachas “B’fhéidir”.

Ceisteanna:

Más féidir, úsáidimid struchtúr “An bhfuil…” nó “An bhfuil fonn ort…” mar aistriúchán ar cheisteanna toisc gur minic nach féidir aistriúcháin speisialta a thabhairt ar na freagraí, mar shampla más cnaipí Yes/No iad. Leis seo, cuirtear “Tá/Níl” ar na cnaipí faoi na ceisteanna sin i gcónaí. Seo roinnt samplaí:

“Would you like to…/Do you want to…” = “An bhfuil fonn ort…”

“Are you sure you want to…” = “An bhfuil tú cinnte gur mhaith leat…”

“Delete this file?” = “An bhfuil fonn ort an comhad seo a scriosadh?”

“Really delete this file?” = “An bhfuil tú cinnte gur mhaith leat an comhad seo a scriosadh?”

Canúintí

Déantar iarracht an leagan is neodraí a roghnú i gcónaí, ó thaobh na gcanúintí de.

Mar shampla:

  • “Freisin” a roghnaítear seachas “chomh maith” nó “fosta” nó “leis”
  • “Faoi” a roghnaítear seachas “fé” nó “fá”

Cé gur nós le canúint(í) áirithe focail iasachta a shéimhiú nó a urú; ní dhéantar sin ar leithéidí “Mozilla”, ná “Firefox”, ná eile sna comhéadain seo.

Santaítear do chanúint ar leith i gcásanna teicniúla i gcónaí, sa chaoi go mbeidh feidhm theicniúil na teachtaireachta soiléir leanúnach agus de réir a chéile síos tríd.

  • View = Amharc (seachas “radharc”)
  • Preview = Réamhamharc (seachas “réamhradharc”)

Dea-bhéasa an Bhéarla:

Ní chuirtear “le do thoil” ná “le bhur dtoil” leis na haistriúcháin Ghaeilge.

  • “please try again later” = “bain triail eile as ar ball”
  • “Please enter a new name” = “Cuir ainm nua isteach”

Den chuid is mó, meastar gur fearr aistriúchán ar “sorry” a sheachaint go hiomlán:

  • “Sorry, that folder name is in use” = “Tá an t-ainm sin in úsáid ar fhillteán cheana”
  • “Sorry, connection timed out” = “Ceangal imithe thar am”

Agus tuin chainte sách spraíúil in úsáid sa Bhéarla, déantar aistriúchán ar an intriacht:

  • “Uh-oh! Unable to submit your request” = “Ochón! Níorbh fhéidir d’iarratas a sheoladh”
  • “Whoops! Be sure to enter a valid email address.” = “Úps! Bí cinnte gur chuir tú seoladh ríomhphoist bailí isteach.”

Úsáid mheafarach / chorparáideach “We”:

Úsáidtear an briathar saor sna cásanna seo.

  • “We are unable to send a verification mail at this time” =

“Ní rabhthas ábalta an ríomhphost deimhnithe a sheoladh”

Agus le rangabháil chaite i mBéarla a aistriú:

  • “Screen configuration has changed.” = “Athraíodh cumraíocht an scáileáin”
  • “Screen saver started” = “Tosaíodh an spárálaí scáileáin”

Ainmneacha na dTáirgí:

Ní aistrítear ná infhilltear ainmneacha dílse, mar shampla: Mozilla, Firefox, Adobe Reader, Open Office, Becky! Internet Mail, agus mar sin de.

Ceadúnas / Téacs Dlí:

Ní aistrítear aon téacs a bhfuil brí dhlí leis: ceadúnais, conarthaí, téarmaí seirbhíse, srl.

Ainm briathartha:

Úsáidtear na struchtúir seo chun obair nó próiseáil atá idir lámha ag an ríomhaire a chur in iúl:

  • “Loading inbox…” = “Bosca isteach á lódáil…”
  • “Loading…” = “Á lódáil…”
  • “Error saving file” = “Earráid agus an comhad á shábháil”
  • “Error loading library” = “Earráid agus an leabharlann á lódáil”

Caighdeán Oifigiúil: Gramadach agus litriú

Déanaimid iarracht cloí leis an gCaighdeán Oifigiúil, ó thaobh gramadaí agus litrithe de. Toisc gur minic go ndéantar aistriúchán i mbrabhsálaí, molaimid an litreoir GaelSpell a shuiteáil mar bhreiseán le Firefox agus obair logánaithe ar bun agat. Ní cheartóidh sé seo mílitrithe go huathoibríoch, ach cuideoidh sé leat mílitrithe a cheartú.

Ní raibh sé praiticiúil chuile fhocal, chomhfhocal agus téarma a chur le GaelSpell ar chúiseanna éagsúla, mar sin, má tú cinnte go bhfuil dul amú ar aon earráid a aimsíonn GaelSpell moltar deaschliceáil ar an earráid agus “Cuir leis an bhFoclóir é” a roghnú.

Gluais

Den chuid is mó, leanaimid na téarmaí oifigiúla atá ar fáil ar tearma.ie agus na múnlaí comhaimseartha atá ar fáil ar focloir.ie; ach is gá idirdhealú sa bhreis a dhéanamh, anois is arís, i gcásanna áirithe.

Style Guide Italian (it)

Regole generali di traduzione

La localizzazione (traduzione) dei software Mozilla, della documentazione della Knowledge Base e delle estensioni segue regole precise e consolidate.

Tutti i localizzatori che operano per Mozilla Italia utilizzano le stesse regole di stile per i programmi, per le estensioni e per la documentazione.

Esistono comunque casi in cui il buon senso può ugualmente produrre una traduzione consistente (o addirittura migliore) ignorando in modo consapevole queste regole.

In caso di dubbi su questioni di stile non affrontate in questo articolo, è possibile consultare questa pagina del Wiki di OpenOffice.org che contiene molti link utili per la traduzione della documentazione tecnica.

Le discussioni sulla localizzazione avvengono nella sezione localizzazioni del forum e nella sezione dedicata a SUMO (documentazione), in cui tutti gli utenti possono inoltrare eventuali segnalazioni o proposte di correzione.

Terminologia

Verificare scrupolosamente la correttezza dei termini utilizzati. Nel dubbio è possibile verificare sul Dizionario Hoepli o altri dizionari online, mentre in questo articolo sono elencati gli errori commessi più di frequente.

Diversi termini tecnici non vengono tradotti. Alcuni esempi di parole da non tradurre: menu, file, browser, server, cookie, firewall, proxy.

Casi notevoli

Vi sono alcune eccezioni a quanto detto precedentemente. Ad esempio la parola click in italiano verrà tradotta con clic (senza la k finale); si preferisce tradurre il verbo to click con fare clic (in luogo di cliccare). Altre eccezioni:

  • login = accesso
  • directory = cartella
  • frame = riquadro

Plurale dei termini tecnici

In italiano tutti i sostantivi inglesi al plurale rimangono sempre invariati.

  • OK: file, cookie, plugin, mouse
  • NO: files, cookies, plugins, mice

Alla fine della pagina è riportato un glossario con alcuni termini fondamentali e la relativa traduzione.

Uso delle maiuscole

Diversamente da quanto avviene nella lingua inglese, l’italiano ha regole più rigide per quel che riguarda l’utilizzo delle maiuscole. Utilizzare le lettere maiuscole nei seguenti casi:

  • nomi propri
  • abbreviazioni e acronimi
  • la prima lettera di ciascun termine che indichi il nome di un tasto della tastiera
  • la prima lettera della prima parola di un periodo
  • la prima lettera della prima parola di un titolo
  • la prima lettera della prima parola di una funzione o di un’opzione

Esempio:

  • OK: Come personalizzare la Barra degli indirizzi
  • NO: Come Personalizzare la Barra degli Indirizzi

Modi e tempi dei verbi

Descrizioni e messaggi del programma

Si tratta dei messaggi che vengono inviati dal programma all’utilizzatore. È sempre preferibile l’utilizzo dello stile impersonale, evitando quindi il discorso diretto.

  • OK: Visitare la pagina di download per scaricare il programma
  • NO: Vai alla pagina di download per scaricare il programma

Aggettivi e pronomi possessivi

Per esigenza di utilizzo della forma impersonale, in questi messaggi si tende a sostituire gli aggettivi e i pronomi possessivi (mio, tuo, suo, ecc.) con “proprio”, “propria”; in alcuni casi è consentito ometterli del tutto. Esempi:

  • OK: È necessario effettuare un backup del proprio profilo

  • NO: Devi effettuare un backup del tuo profilo

  • OK: All’apertura di Firefox verrà visualizzata la propria pagina iniziale.

  • NO: Quando apri Firefox, viene visualizzata la tua pagina iniziale.

  • OK: Se il computer non riesce a collegarsi ad Internet

  • NO: Se il tuo computer non riesce a collegarsi ad Internet

Forme progressive

Le forme al gerundio vanno tradotte con il sostantivo relativo all’azione compiuta. Esempi:

  • Loading… : Caricamento in corso…
  • Saving…: Salvataggio in corso…
  • Exiting…: Uscita dal programma in corso…

Voci di menu/etichette dei pulsanti

Si tratta delle azioni associate al pulsante o alla voce di menu (oppure il nome della funzione o della finestra di dialogo richiamata al clic del mouse) e possono generalmente essere considerate come i comandi impartiti dall’utilizzatore al programma.

La forma preferibile è la seconda persona dell’imperativo. Da evitare gli articoli determinativi in quanto lo spazio in genere è per due o tre parole. Al posto di preposizioni articolate è meglio usare preposizioni semplici. Esempi:

  • Salva pagina con nome…
  • Visualizza sorgente pagina
  • Aumenta zoom

Titoli di finestre

Descrivono l’azione compiuta nella finestra. In mancanza di un nome definito, utilizzare il sostantivo relativo all’azione in corso.

  • Creazione account
  • Salvataggio file

Tooltip (suggerimenti)

Si tratta dei messaggi descrittivi che compaiono in corrispondenza di un elemento dell’interfaccia al passaggio del puntatore del mouse. La forma da utilizzare è il presente indicativo, terza persona singolare. Gli articoli determinativi e indeterminativi vanno esclusi solo in casi di eccessiva prolissità (in questi casi potrebbe essere consigliabile anche l’uso di abbreviazioni). Il soggetto è implicitamente l’elemento sotto il cursore. Esempi:

  • Interrompe il caricamento in corso (per il pulsante “Stop”)
  • Apri una nuova scheda (per il pulsante “Nuova scheda”)

Altre regole

Ecco, in ordine sparso, una serie di regole che è buona norma tenere presente:

Forme di cortesia

Nella lingua inglese sono molto comuni (please, …); in italiano tali espressioni non vanno tradotte.

  • OK: Per continuare premere OK
  • NO: Per continuare si prega di premere OK

Enfasi

Le espressioni enfatiche non vengono tradotte e in quei casi si preferisce dare al contenuto una resa più impersonale.

  • OK: Impossibile salvare il file
  • NO: Impossibile salvare il file!

Personificazione dell’hardware e del software

Da evitare quando possibile, anche volgendo la frase al passivo.

  • OK: Verranno eliminati i dati personali
  • NO: Firefox eliminerà i dati personali

Messaggi di conferma

Molto spesso le finestre di dialogo conferma per una determinata azione contengono messaggi del tipo “Si è sicuri di volere….?”. Di norma tali espressioni non vengono tradotte.

  • OK: Eliminare il file?
  • NO: Si è sicuri di voler eliminare il file?

Per ulteriori approfondimenti sull’attività di localizzazione dei volontari italiani, fare riferimento alla Guida di localizzazione di Mozilla Italia.

Style Guide Japanese (ja)

Content

L10n ガイドライン

Mozilla の日本語ローカライズコミュニティでは Mozilla 製品が日本語化されたソフトであることを感じさせることなく、日本語で自然に使ってもらえるようにと意識してローカライズを行っています。Mozilla 製品の日本語を統一感のある高品位なものとするため、用語の対訳表などと合わせて日本語化のガイドラインを作成・公開しています。このガイドラインに反する箇所を見つけた場合は Gecko l10n リポジトリの Issues に報告してください。

本ガイドラインはあくまでも原則であり例外はありますのでご了承ください。

文体と表記規則

Mozilla の日本語ローカライズコミュニティでは製品全体を通して、自然で柔らかな分かり易い日本語となるように心がけています。そのために文体や表記規則などについて以下のような指針を定めています。

  • 言語差と意訳
    • 英語と日本語の語順や主述の違いに注意して、逐語訳ではなく自然な日本語表現とする。
    • 特に、英語構文に対応した英語直訳特有の言い回しなどは出来る限り避ける。
    • 英語は主語が必須の言語だが日本語は省略する言語であり、余分な主語は遠慮無く削除する。
    • その他英語との日本語との違いによる表現や説明の過不足を適時調整する。
    • 原文の表現が不適切あるいは不明瞭なところは独自表現に変えることも厭わない。
  • 翻訳の例
    • 原文: Update Succeeded.
    • 不適切な訳: 更新成功
    • 不適切な訳: 更新に成功しました。
    • 適切な訳: 更新を正常に完了しました。
    • 原文: You can click on this icon to see which sites Firefox blocked and to allow those sites to open popups if they are required for the site to function correctly.
    • 不適切な訳: あなたは Firefox がどのサイトでのポップアップをブロックしているか見たり、サイトが正常に機能するためにポップアップが必要とされる場合にそのサイトがポップアップを開くことを許可するためには、このアイコンをクリックすることができます。(問題外(^^;)
    • 不適切な訳: Firefox がどのサイトでのポップアップをブロックしているか確認したり、正常に機能するために必要なサイトでポップアップを開くことを許可するためには、このアイコンをクリックしてください。(単なる直訳例)
    • 不適切な訳: どのサイトでのポップアップがブロックされているか確認したり、サイトの閲覧にポップアップが必要なサイトを指定するためには、このアイコンをクリックしてください。(まだ不自然)
    • 適切な訳: このアイコンをクリックすると、ポップアップが禁止されているサイトを確認したり、必要に応じて特定サイトでのポップアップを許可したりできます。

文体と表現

  • 文体は敬体 (ですます調) で統一する。

  • 日本語が堅くならないよう必要以上の漢字は使用しない。

  • 固有名詞や専門用語あるいは慣例的なものを除き英語表記は使用しない。

  • カタカナ語についても同様に、自然な日本語に可能な限り置き換える。

  • 2016 年 8 月以降、「Web」は「ウェブ」に。

  • 表記の例

    • 悪い例: Plug-in が Install されているかチェックして下さい。
    • 良い例: プラグインがインストールされているか確認してください。
    • 例外: Cookie、DOM などは英語表記のまま残す

コンテクスト

  • 細部の表現については英語との対応に拘ることなく、以下のように文脈に応じて表現を揃えるようにしています。

  • ウィンドウ

    • タイトル名は体言止めを原則とする。全体のバランスに注意する。
  • メニュー項目

    • OS の慣用表現に従う他は簡潔な体言を基本とする
  • カテゴリ名

    • 体言止めを原則とし、コロンをつけたり設定項目の説明と続けて文にしたりはしない。
  • ボタンラベル

    • 動作や目的などを簡潔な体言で表す。可能であれば語数を揃える。
  • ツールチップ

    • 動作だけでなく目的語も含め、何をどのように処理するのか分かるものとする。
  • チェックボックス

    • 末尾では体言ではなく動詞を原則とする。コロンと入力欄が続くはこの限りではない。
    • やむを得ずラベルが複数の文になる場合を除き、句点は使用しない。
  • ラジオボタン

    • 前後の文脈に注意して簡潔で分かり易い表現とする。末尾の品詞は問わない。 止む終えずラベルが複数の文になる場合を除き、句点は使用しない。
  • プルダウンメニュー

    • 可能であれば共通部は前後の説明部に表記し、各項目は簡潔で分かり易いものとする。
  • テキスト

    • その他の部分のテキストについては文脈判断。文になるところでは句点を使用する。

英数記号と全角半角

  • 英数字や記号を使用する場合は特別な理由のない限り半角を使用する。

  • 日本語文中での句読点および疑問符や感嘆符については全角記号を使用する。

  • 英数字と日本語との間には半角空白を入れることを原則とする。

  • 記号と日本語の間については文脈や記号に合わせて空白の有無を決める。

  • メニュー項目やボタンラベルなどを表すときは二重引用符を使用する。

  • 全角空白および半角カナは使用しない。

  • 表記の例

    • 悪い例: Firefox は Mozillaプロジェクト(mozilla.org)による次世代Webブラウザです!
    • 良い例: Firefox は Mozilla プロジェクト(mozilla.org) による次世代ウェブブラウザです!

類似表現とかな漢字

  • 本動詞では文脈に応じて漢字、補助動詞についてはひらがなとする。
  • "すべて" はすべてひらがなとする。
  • "~することが~" はひらがなとする。
  • "~することができます" はなるべく "~できます" と簡潔にする。
  • 条件節で用いる "~するとき" はひらがな、"~する場合" は漢字とする。
  • "~するとき" と "~する場合" は時間的か条件的かである程度使い分ける。
  • 限定を表す副助詞 "~のみ" と "~だけ" は順に文語調、口語調である程度使い分ける。
  • 訳語の選択については訳語の選択基準として後述する。
  • その他表現に揺れのあるところは順次検討して使い分けの明確化や統一を行う。

カタカナ語と長音

  • 従来長音は伸ばしていなかったが、2016 年 8 月にルール変更。
  • -er、-or、-ar、-cy、-ry、-gy で終わる単語はすべて長音とする。Microsoft のような例外はなし。
    • 例: コンピューター、ブラウザー、ユーザー、サーバー、カレンダー、プライバシー、ディレクトリー
  • -ear、-eer、-re、-ty、-dy、-xy で終わる単語は長音としない。
    • 例: ボランティア、エンジニア、ソフトウェア、アクセシビリティ、セキュリティ、ボディ、プロキシ
  • 詳細ルール

その他

  • OS によって訳語の異なるものはそれに応じて訳し分ける。
  • 初心者の目にするところは特に説明的に分かり易く心がける。
  • 可能な限り技術的に正確で正しい表現となるよう心がける。

訳語の選択基準

特別な知識のない人でもヘルプを参照したりすることなく自然に利用できるソフトウェアを目指して Mozilla 製品のローカライズに取り組んでおります。 そのため、固有名詞や技術的な用語として用いられる場合を除き英語表記は使用しません。カタカナ語についてもそれが既に広く認知されているものや日本語に適切なものがない場合以外、日本語を用いて表すことにしています。また、技術的で知らない人に分かりにくい用語については一部説明的・補足的な訳語とするようにしています。

実際の語句については個別に検討していくことになりますのでここに明確な基準を書くことは出来ません。その代わりといっては何ですが、代表的な用語については Mozilla 用語集 を公開しておりますので参考にしてください。

表記ルール

mozilla.jp の表記ルールとして採用しているものを公開しています。mozilla.jp に限らず各サイトでの表記の参考にしてください。

英数字の表記

  • 特に理由がなければ半角を用いる
  • 見やすさのため、日本語と英数字の間には半角スペースを挿入する。(Microsoft
    • のドキュメントも同じルールを採用している)
  • サイト上では、アンカーの前後にも同じく半角スペースを挿入する。
  • ただし、句読点、括弧などの日本語
  • 約物 と英数字が隣接する場合は挿入しない。
  • 全角英数字を用いる例外: 社名など (例: 「Jストリーム」)

例: ブラウザーのパフォーマンスを劇的に向上させる新しい JavaScript エンジン「TraceMonkey」が Firefox 3.5 に搭載されました。

単位など

  • 日付
    • 西暦表記。文書内では YYYY 年 MM 月 DD 日
  • 数字
    • 半角英数字。3 ケタごとに区切り文字を入れる。例: 1,024
  • 記憶容量
    • 「バイト」はカタカナ。それ以外の接頭辞付き単位は大文字英語表記。数字と単位の間に半角スペースを入れる。例: 5 MB、100 KB
  • 人名・団体名
    • 原則として英語表記のままにする。

カタカナ語の表記

  • 半角カタカナは使わない。
  • 長音表記
    • -er、-or、-ar、-cy、-ry、-gy で終わる単語はすべて長音とする。Microsoft のような例外はなし。
      • 例: コンピューター、ブラウザー、ユーザー、サーバー、カレンダー、プライバシー、ディレクトリー
    • -ear、-eer、-re、-ty、-dy、-xy で終わる単語は長音としない。
      • 例: ボランティア、エンジニア、ソフトウェア、アクセシビリティ、セキュリティ、ボディ、プロキシ
    • 詳細ルール
  • その他カタカナ語の表記について
    • 「Web」は 2016 年 8 月以降は「ウェブ」と記載する。
    • 「Cookie」はそのまま。カタカナや複数形にはしない。
    • 「ウィルス」ではなく「ウイルス」
    • 「サインイン」「サインアウト」ではなく「ログイン」「ログアウト」
    • カタカナで構成された語句について、Microsoft は半角スペースを挿入しているが、MJ では挿入しない (例: 「オペレーティング システム」「ハード ディスク ドライブ」)。ただし、操作方法の説明などで Windows のメニューについて言及する場合はその限りではない (例: 「コントロール パネル」)。

約物の表記

  • カギ括弧以外は半角を用いて前後に半角スペースを挿入する。
  • 句読点は全角の「。」「、」を採用。
  • 三点リーダーは半角ドット 3 つ「...」を採用。
  • コロン「:」やセミコロン「;」は半角 (必要なら直後にスペース)
  • 感嘆符と疑問は全角「!」「?」。ただし連続する場合は半角「!?」。
  • スラッシュは半角「/」。
  • 中黒は全角「・」。
  • 波ダッシュ「〜」の入力には注意が必要。Mac のキーボードから入力すると Unicode 301C (波ダッシュ) で確定されるが、これは Windows XP でジャギーが見られる文字なので、避けなければならない。回避策としては、文字パレットから Unicode FF5E (全角チルダ) を入力する。(参考)
  • ダッシュ記号 の使い分けにも注意が必要。現状統一ルールがないので今後改善が必要。

メニュー等の表記

  • Microsoft の表記に準拠。半角大括弧を用いて前後に半角スペースを挿入する。
  • メニューの三点リーダーは省略する。

例: さらに、[検索バーの管理] をクリックすれば、順番を並べ変えたり、他の選択肢を追加したり、お気に入りの検索エンジンにキーワード (ショートカット) を割り当てることができます。

日本語の文体

  • 行頭に全角スペースは付けない。
  • 語尾は原則として「ですます調」を採用し、文書内で統一する。
  • 動詞の送りがなは本則に従う。○ 読み込み、貼り付け × 読込み、貼付け
  • 読みづらい漢字は適宜ひらがなにする。ただし、現状統一ルールがないので今後改善が必要 (「記者ハンドブック」準拠で良いか?)。
  • 「下さい」ではなく「ください」
  • 有り/無し OR あり/なし -* TBD
  • 例え (ば) OR たとえ (ば) -* TBD
  • 共に OR ともに -* TBD
  • 「〜に」は基本的に漢字。例外として「すでに」「さらに」「まれに」「たまに」はひらがなにする。-* TBD
  • 「全て」「殆ど」「幾つか」ではなく「すべて」「ほとんど」「いくつか」
  • 「於いて」「於ける」ではなく「おいて」「おける」
  • 「居る」ではなく「いる」
  • 「通り」ではなく「どおり」
  • 「出来る」ではなく「できる」
  • 「〜の為」ではなく「〜のため」
  • 「〜毎」ではなく「〜ごと」
  • 「とき」「ところ」「もの」「こと」
    • 特定の時刻や場所を表す場合は「時」「所」
  • 「但し」ではなく「ただし」
  • 「或いは」「又は」「及び」ではなく「あるいは」「または」「および」
  • 「2 か月」「5 か所」「10 か国語」
  • あまり丁寧すぎると浮いてしまうので、内容が改まったものでなければ、一般的な丁寧語で記述する。特にブログは多少カジュアルでも良い。
    • OK: 「皆さん」「公開します」「よろしくお願いします」
    • NG: 「皆様」「公開いたしました」「よろしくお願いいたします」

専門用語の表記

ブランディング

Mozilla 全体の ブランディング翻訳のスタイルガイド に留意すること。組織や製品の名称については Mozilla から発信する場合は基本的に英語表記とする (カタカナでの表記は一部メディアのルールで必要となる場合のみ)。

会社名

  • (正式) 一般社団法人 Mozilla Japan

  • (略) Mozilla Japan

  • (訳語) モジラジャパン

  • (正式) Mozilla Corporation

  • (訳語) モジラコーポレーション

  • (正式) Mozilla Foundation

  • (訳語) モジラファウンデーション

役員

  • (正式) Mitchell Baker

  • (訳語) ミッチェル・ベーカー

  • 肩書き

    • (正式) Chairman, Mozilla Corporation
    • (訳語) Mozilla Corporation 会長
    • (正式) Chief Lizard Wrangler
    • (訳語) トカゲ世話役主任 (Mozilla Japan の訳ではないが、伝統的にこの訳が使われている)
  • (正式) 瀧田佐登子

  • 肩書き

    • (正式日本語) Mozilla Japan 代表理事
    • (正式英語) Chair of the Board of Directors

製品名

  • (正式) Mozilla Firefox

  • (略) Firefox

  • デザイン仕様の場合は登録商標マーク ® を右肩につける

  • (訳語) ファイアーフォックス

  • ただし、製品・公式ページ内での製品の訳語の使用は認められていない。

  • (正式) Mozilla Thunderbird

  • (略) Thunderbird

  • デザイン仕様の場合は ™ マークを右肩につける

  • (訳語) サンダーバード

参考

Style Guides Korean (ko)

Mozilla 제품 번역 가이드

전체글글쓴이: Channy » 2012 08 05 15:14 47

Mozilla 제품 번역을 위한 인터페이스 및 메시지 등의 언어 리소스는 Firefox 나 Thunderbird 및 확장 기능 모두 동일합니다. dtd 파일과 properties 파일에 정의되어 있습니다 확장 기능 소스 코드 중. xul 파일에 사용되는 언어 리소스는 dtd 파일, js 파일에서 사용되는 언어 리소스는 properties라는 파일이라고 기억해두면 좋을 것입니다. 또한 확장 기능은. html 파일이 포함되어있는 경우도 있습니다.

1. 리소스 파일의 형식

리소스 파일은 각각 다음과 같은 형식입니다.

dtd 파일 : XML 형식으로 만들어져 있으므로 well-formed 되어야 합니다.

코드: 모두 선택<! - 주석 ->

<! ENTITY entity.name "표시할 문자열"> <! - 주석 ->

properties 파일: 코드: 모두 선택# 주석 entity.name = 표시할 문자열

위의 "표시할 문자열"부분을 번역 문자열입니다. 두 파일 모두 문자 코드는 UTF-8 (BOM 없음)에 저장합니다.

응용 프로그램에서 읽혀지는 언어 리소스는 확장 패키지에 포함된 chrome.manifest 파일에 정의되어 있으며, 각 로케일 이름 폴더로 저장되고 있습니다.

Mozilla 제품의 리소스 파일 위치는 각 모듈에 따라 위치가 정의됩니다.

  1. Firefox: browser 폴더
  2. Thunderbird: mail, editor 폴더
  3. Firefox Mobile: mobile 폴더
  4. Sunbird: calendar 폴더
  5. 공통 : toolkit, dom 폴더 등

2. 메시지 번역 방법

각 제품별로 메시지 번역 작업은 모두 aurora 단계에서 이루어집니다. 따라서, aurora 폴더가 기본적인 작업 폴더가 됩니다. Mercurial을 통해 자신의 작업 레포지터리를 만듭니다.

코드: 모두 선택$ hg clone http://hg.mozilla.org/releases/l10n/mozilla-aurora/ko/

번역할 파일 및 내용은 아래 위치에서 각 제품의 aurora 부분의 H/C 에서 C를 눌러 영문 및 한국어 비교 파일을 얻습니다.

https://l10n.mozilla.org/shipp ... ?locale=ko

예를 들어, calendar 번역 작업을 하기 위해서는 cal-aurora의 작업 해야될 내역을 살펴봅니다. 테이블에서 H/C 필드가 있고 여기서 C를 누르면 아래와 같은 링크가 나옵니다.

https://l10n.mozilla.org/dashb ... run=236897

각 영문 repo는 한국어 repo와 구조가 같습니다.

  1. Firefox, Mobile, Toolkit : http://hg.mozilla.org/releases/mozilla- ... ales/en-US
  2. Thunderbird, Sunbird, Editor:http://hg.mozilla.org/releases/comm-aur ... ales/en-US

3. 번역 작업 선정하기

먼저 자신이 어떤 제품의 번역 작업을 할지 서로 결정을 합니다. 만일 cal-aurora 작업을 한다는 점을 다른 분들에게 알리는 버그를 만듭니다.

각 버전 별 작업은 viewtopic.php?f=15&t=15040 에 공지됩니다.

  1. 버그 생성: https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/enter_bug. ... /%20Korean
  2. 버그 제목에 "Translation of calendar module for Aurora XX" 이런식으로 넣습니다.
  3. 버그 생성 후 Depend On: 에 Tracking bug의 번호를 입력해서 버그 연결을 합니다.

4. 번역 하기

만약 여러분이 calendar 제품을 번역하겠다고 한다면, 첫번째 번역할 스트링은 ko/calendar/chrome/calendar/calendar-event-dialog.dtd에 있는 event.attachments.menubutton.label이며, 첫번째 작업할 파일은 아래 파일이 될 것입니다. http://hg.mozilla.org/releases/comm-aur ... dialog.dtd

작업할 위치의 파일은 ko/calendar/chrome/calendar/calendar-event-dialog.dtd가 됩니다.

작업 파일에는 아래 코드가 없을 것입니다. 따라서 번역 후, 추가를 하면 됩니다. accesskey 같은 경우는 번역 안하고 추가만 하면 됩니다.

코드: 모두 선택

번역할 용어들은 애매한 경우, 이전에 번역된 메시지에서 검색해서 찾으면 도움이 됩니다. 아래 사이트에서 영문과 한글 용어를 검색해 보실 수 있습니다. http://transvision.mozfr.org/

작업해야 할 각 파일의 번역 작업이 끝나면, 리뷰를 받기위한 diff 파일을 만듭니다.

코드: 모두 선택$ hg diff > cal-aurora-16.patch

위와 같이 patch 파일을 만든 후, 앞에서 만들었던 버그에 파일 첨부(attach)를 하시면 됩니다. 업로드시 patch라는 마크에 표시하시면 자동으로 패치로 인식합니다.

예를 들어, https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=773786 에 첨부된 patch를 참고하세요. 그리고 review flag를 ? 로 하시고, channy@mozilla.or.kr 을 지정해 주세요. 그러면 제가 patch를 리뷰하고 반영을 해드리게 됩니다.

더 궁금한 점이 있으시면 댓글 달아 주십시오.


Channy 해커

전체글: 1005

가입일: 2002 03 26 17:41 59

사는 곳: 아름다운 제주

쪽지 보내기

웹사이트

Are you creative? http://www.creation.net

Style Guide Lao (lo)

ເພື່ອເຮັດໃຫ້ມີຄວາມສະດວກສະບາຍຕໍ່ຜູ້ຕ້ອງການເຂົ້າມາແປ Mozilla Firefox ໃຫມ່ ແລະ ເຮັດໃຫ້ການແປມີຄວາມເປັນເອກະພາບກັນ. ດັ່ງນັ້ນຂ້າພະເຈົ້າຈຶ່ງໄດ້ສ້າງວິທີການແປ ຫລື Style Guide ນີ້ຂື້ນມາ ແລະ ພ້ອມດ້ວຍ Glossary ສຳລັບຄຳສັບທີ່ບໍ່ມີຄວາມຫມາຍໃນພາສາລາວ. ແນ່ນອນວ່າ Style Guide ອາດຈະບໍ່ຄົບຖ້ວນສົມບູນ ຖ້າໃຜມີຄວາມຄິດທີ່ດີກ່ວາກໍ່ສາມາດສະແດງຄຳເຫັນໄດ້.

ພະລິດຕະພັນຂອງ Mozilla ທີ່ເຮົາຈະແປແມ່ນມີດັ່ງລຸ່ມນີ້:

* Mozilla Firefox for iOS
* Mozilla Firefox for Android Aurora
* Mozilla Firefox Aurora
* Mozilla.org
* SUMO

ລະດັບຄວາມສຳຄັນໃນການແປແມ່ນເລີມໄລເລ່ຍລົງມາຕາມລຳດັບ.

1. ເຄື່ອງມືໃນການແປ

ເຄື່ອງມືທີ່ເຮົາຈະນຳໃຊ້ເຂົ້າໃນການແປແມ່ນເຮົາຈະນຳໃຊ້ Pontoon ເປັນຫລັກເຂົ້າໃນການແປ. ທ່ານສາມາດເຂົ້າໄປລົງທະບຽນໄດ້ທີ່ https://pontoon.mozilla.org/lo/ ຫລັງຈາກລົງທະບຽນແລ້ວກະລຸນາຕິດຕໍ່ຕິດ Manager ຢູ່ Pontoon ໂດຍການສົ່ງອີເມວ ເພື່ອໃຫ້ Managers ອະນຸຍາດໃຫ້ເລີ່ມການແປ.

2. ການຂຽນທັບສັບ

ຄຳສັບລຸ່ມນີ້ແມ່ນຄຳສັບທີ່ບໍ່ຄວາມຫມາຍໃນພາສາລາວທີ່ເຮົາບໍ່ສາມາດແປໄດ້ ດັ່ງນັ້ນໃຫ້ຂຽນທັບສັບ ໄປເລີຍ. ໃນການຂຽນທັບສັບນັ້ນແມ່ນໃຫ້ຂຽນເປັນສາລາວ ຫລື ຂຽນເປັນພາສາອັງກິດເລີຍກະໄດ້ຖ້າຫາກວ່າ ຄຳສັບນັ້ນເປັນຊື່ສະເພາະ ຫລື ຄຳສັບທີ່ເຮົາບໍ່ສາມາດຂຽນເປັນພາສາລາວໄດ້ ຫລື ຖ້າຫາກຂຽນໄປແລ້ວຢ້ານ ຄົນອື່ນບໍ່ເຂົ້າໃຈ.

App = ແອັບ
Application = ແອັບພລິເຄຊັນ
Post = ໂພສ
Email = ອີເມວ
Offline = ອັອບລາຍ
Online = ອອນລາຍ
Search = ຊອກຫາ
Find =  ຄົ້ນຫາ
Share = ແບ່ງປັນ
Sign in = ເຂົ້າສູ່ລະບົບ
Firefox = Firefox
Mozilla = Mozilla
Sync = Sync
Links = ລີ້ງຄ໌
Tabs = ແທັບ

3. ວິທີການແປປະໂຫຍກທີ່ Code ປົນຢູ່ນຳ.

ໃນການແປປະໂຫຍກທີ່ມີໂຄດປົນຢູ່ນຳນັ້ນແມ່ນເຮົ່າຈະບໍ່ແປໃນສ່ວນທີ່ເປັນ Code ແຕ່ຈະປະໄວ້ໃນ ຮູບແບບເດີ່ມຂອງມັນ.ເຮົາຈະແປແຕ່ສ່ວນທີ່ເປັນປະໂຫຍກພາສາອັງກິດໃຫ້ຖືກຕາມຫລັກໄວຍາກອນຂອງ ພາສາອັງກິດ.

ຕົວຢ່າງ:

  • Playing audio – &formatS; ---> ກຳລັງເປີດອູດິໂອ – &formatS;
  • &vendorShortName; &brandShortName; ---> &vendorShortName; &brandShortName; ປະໄວ້ຮູບເດີ່ມ ບໍ່ຕ້ອງແປຫຍັງເລີຍ

Pontoon Screen Shot 1

  • About &brandShortName;, FAQs, feedback ---> ກ່ຽວກັບ &brandShortName;, ຄຳຖາມທີພົບເປັນປະຈຳ, ຄໍາຄິດເຫັນ

Pontoon Screen Shot 1

Style Guide Macedonian (mk)

Добрeдојдовте! Оваа страница го претставува официјалниот водич за локализација на македонската заедница на Mozilla. Овде ќе најдете основни информации за локализирање на проектите на Mozilla, за пристапот и правилата за преведување кон коишто се придржуваме.

Нашиот водич за локализација би требало да ви помогне доколку сакате да се вклучите во процесот на преведување, но не знаете од каде да започнете и како.

Први чекори

Пред да започнете со преведувањето ве советуваме да ги разгледате постоечките преводи на проектот во којшто сакате да вклучите. Особено важно е да добиете претстава за начинот на којшто се вршела локализацијата, пред да ја преземете вие или вашиот тим.

Јазик

Локализацијата на проектите на Mozilla за нашиот тим подразбира преведување на литературен македонски јазик.

Пристап

При преведувањето не се користат дијалекти или сленгови и тоа е едно од основните правила кон коишто се придржуваме.

Меѓу другото, важна е и употребата на:

  • идентични поими за идентични елементи,
  • идентичен пристап во идентични контексти,
  • соодветните знаци за интерпункција и
  • едноставни реченични форми.

Цел

Основната цел на локализацијата на проектите на Mozilla е да се овозможи тие да станат попристапни за нашиот регион и да може поедноставно да се користат од луѓето што зборуваат на македонскиот јазик. Тоа значи дека не преведуваме буквално, туку мисловно и се трудиме да го пренесеме значењето, дури и тоа да подразбира целосно менување на определена реченица, испуштање или пак додавање на нови зборови.

Целта ни е да го направиме проектот што го локализираме, поблизок до неговата корисничка група.

Преведување

Преведувањето на различните проекти на Mozilla е овозможено преку различни алатки за преведување, како на пример: Pontoon и Pootle.

Нашата заедница во моментов локализира преку Pontoon - многу едноставна и интуитивна алатка што бара мали технички предзнаење за користење и овозможува контекстуално преведување. Pontoon овозможува локализација на повеќе од 30 проекти и оваа бројка постојано се менува.

Поврзани страници

Корисни страници

Style Guide Malagasy (mg)

Introduction

This style guide is intended for translators working on Mozilla projects. It provides in-depth information about the quality standards expected by Mozilla for the translation of all product components. All translators should read this guide before commencing any translation work.

This guide addresses general translation issues and specifies certain rules of style and usage specific to your language. It should be used as a guideline to avoid common typographic errors, and to maintain consistent terminology and writing style across a project’s components and indeed a product range. The guide should be used in conjunction with the current and previous product-specific glossaries, glossaries of other products of a product range, and the industry standard platform-specific glossaries, such as those provided by Microsoft.

This document may be updated or completed in the course of translation. Where no specific instruction or recommendation is specified, translators should use the phrasing and style that comply with industry standards.

General Style Considerations

Style guidelines

Follow these basic rules:

  • Original American English text tends to be rather casual. For Malagasy, only Malagasy Official should be used, except when a dialectal word is widely used; both formal and colloquial phrase can be used as long as the meaning of the source text is conveyed accurately.
  • Try to avoid long, nested sentence constructions. If necessary, break up the original sentence and regroup it syntactically.
  • Use wording that is succinct, unambiguous, and free of jargon.
  • Produce a translation that sounds as it if was originally written in your language, i.e. avoid following the original source sentence structure too closely.
  • Always bear in mind who your target audience is (i.e. an experienced computer user, a beginner, or a combination of both groups).
  • Use a consistent style throughout all product components and across a product range, to ensure that all Mozilla products can be linguistically identified as part of a group of products.

Style guidelines specific to Mozilla products

  • Please refer to the reference documentation supplied by Mozilla and any Mozilla style guides and make a note of anything significant and specific that should be noted with respect to Firefox OS smartphones.

Persona

Who will be the user of Mozilla product, translated communication, documentation or web site?

Describe the user of Mozilla’s Firefox OS smartphones in as much detail as possible, ticking several categories and adding categories if necessary

☑ Young person (under 30)
☑ Teenager
☑ Young woman
☑ Child
☑ Male
☑ Female
☑ Male or female
☑ Professional person (specify occupation if appropriate)
☑ Non tech-savvy user
☑ Computer geek
☑ Engineer

These people would use both formal Malagasy (to higher ranked people like employee’s Manager) and colloquial Malagasy (to family and friends).

Reference terminology

The following terminology sources should be used as reference in the translation:

  • Product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency across all product components.
  • Previous version product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency between versions.
  • Glossaries of other Mozilla products, to ensure cross-product consistency.
  • Microsoft / Apple glossaries, to ensure adherence to the industry standards. It is your responsibility to make sure that you always have the latest Microsoft and Apple glossaries at your disposal. The glossaries can be found at: http://www.microsoft.com/Language and https://developer.apple.com/download/more/?=Glossaries

Terminology not found in the glossary or style guide

  • Please make a log of any terms not found in the glossary or style guide that are used frequently in the materials. Return this log to Rubric so that the terms can be incorporated into the glossary. This increases consistency in large projects.

Abbreviations

General Abbreviations

  • Avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations such as min. for minutes. Where no appropriate abbreviation exists, use the whole word.

Measurements and Numerals

  • Be careful of the difference in use between periods and commas as decimal markers in different languages.

  • Metric System Commonly Used? Yes

  • Temperature: Celsius

CategoryEnglishTranslationAbbreviation
Linear MeasureKilometerKilometatraSame as Enlish
MeterMetatraSame as Enlish
DecimeterDesimetatraSame as Enlish
CentimeterSantimetatraSame as Enlish
MillimeterMilimetatraSame as Enlish
CapacityHektolitatraEktomeetarSame as Enlish
LiterLitatraSame as Enlish
DeciliterDesilitatraSame as Enlish
CentiliterSantilitatraSame as Enlish
MilliliterMililitatraSame as Enlish
MassTonTaoninaSame as Enlish
KilogramKilogramaSame as Enlish
PoundLivatraSame as Enlish
GramGramaSame as Enlish
DecigramDesigramaSame as Enlish
CentigramSantigramaSame as Enlish
MilligramMiligramaSame as Enlish
English Units of MeasurementInchPosypo
FeetTànkPie
MileMailySame as Enlish
GallonGalaoSame as Enlish

Notes: n/a

Percentages

  • Percentages are like in English, e.g. 85 %.

Digit Groups

  • Country/region: Madagascar

  • Decimal Separator: ,

  • Decimal Separator Description: Comma

  • Decimal Separator Example: 0,6 ; 75,05

  • Thousand Separator: .

  • Thousand Separator Description: period/dot

  • Thousand Separator Example: 13.672 ; 1.765.234.987

Filename Extensions

  • Filename extensions and graphic formats referenced by filename extensions such as BMP, GIF, HTML, PNG, TIFF must not be translated.

Acronyms

Acronyms are made up of the initial letters of several words that are represented by these letters. Some well-known examples are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory).

Use recognised translations of acronyms where these exist, but avoid creating new, non-standard acronyms.

If the source text does not do so, and if possible, spell out an abbreviation or acronym the first time it is used in a document, followed by that abbreviation or acronym in parentheses.

Examples: Data Access Objects (DAO) ActiveX data objects (ADO)

Articles

Product Names

  • Mozilla product names are used without definite or indefinite articles. They are treated as proper names.

Copyrights and Trademarks

Product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Before translating any product or component name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way. If in doubt, please contact the Rubric Project Manager.

The same product may be marketed under different names in different countries. One solution is to add a note saying "Marketed as -------- in the UK etc" the first time the product is mentioned, and then continue to use the name as given in the text.

Translation of Version Strings

Please use the following guidelines when localizing version strings.

Localized term vs. English term

The preferred language in the computer world is English. Therefore, a translator frequently has to decide whether to use the (correct, but obsolete) translation or simply the English word.

Inflections

In Malagasy, inflections happen very often, where the root word is kept and suffixes, affixes and infixes are used. The main word concerned by inflections are verbs, so make sure, you understand the mode of the English verb before translating and keep in mind that if in English, a verb remains the same for command/order (imperative mode) and a choice/option (indicative mode), this is not the case in Malagasy.

English exampleMalagasy examplesPhenomenon
Go to (website)Hankao amin’ny (website)OPTION
Go to xxx to...Mankanesa ao amin’ny xxx h...ORDER
Select imageHifantina saryOPTION
Select image you want to...Fanteno ilay sary tianao h...ORDER

Plural Formation

If space allows it, plural article (ireo) can be added; if not, drop out the plural article.

EnglishMalagasy, singularMalagasy, plural
ToolFiasanaIreo fiasana
FilesRakitraIreo rakitra

Verbs and Verb Forms

Always use the right verb corresponding to the action that is described.

There are different ways of expressing continuous operations in Malagasy, choose the most appropriate form depending on the correct verb inflexion:

English exampleMalagasy example
The application is loading the file.Mamatratra ny rakitra ny rindranasa.
Sending file...Mandefa ny rakitra...
Connecting to server... Different from confirmation: Connected to server.Eo an-dàlana hifandray amin’ny mpizara... Mifandray amin’ny mpizara.
Downloading...Eo am-pidinana...

Headings

Headings should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly.

Capitalization

  • In English headings all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions (e.g. that, until, which) are capitalized.

  • In Malagasy, the first letter of proper nouns, business names, product names etc..., is capitalized.

English exampleMalagasy example
Star LibraryTranomboky Star
Mozilla SearchFikarohana Mozilla

Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in commands, dialog box titles, and dialog box options and the first letter of interface terms

English exampleMalagasy example
Open Save As dialog box.Sokafy ny boatin-dresaka Hitahiry ho.
Click on File, and then...Tsindrio Rakitra, avy eo...
Click on App icon.Tsindrio ny ikaona App.

Hyphenation and Compound formation

General Hyphenation Rules

In Malagasy, hyphen is used to divide words between syllables, to link parts of a compound word: Example: fitaovam-pamolavolana

When a hyphenated compound should not be divided between lines (e.g., MS-DOS), use a non-breaking hyphen (CTRL+SHIFT+HYPHEN). Both parts of the compound will be kept together on the same line.

Compounds

In Malagasy, noun and verb compounds are a frequent word formation strategy, where both hyphen (-) to join 2 consonants and apostrophe (’) are used to form to join a consonant with a vowel.

English exampleMalagasy example
in-appan’app
speech-to-textresaka-ho-soratra
sort codekaodin-gise

In Malagasy, compounds are derived from: any word category, excluding article, but in general, they are easily understood even if some have complex structures.

In Lists and Tables

Whenever possible, headings of lists and tables should consist of one or two words, preferably active nouns. They should be concise, even if the source uses a longer phrase.

Product Names

Application/product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Occasionally, feature names are trademarked, too (e.g. IntelliSense™). Before translating any application, product, or feature name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way.

Microsoft product names are usually trademarked and remain unlocalized. Product names and non-translated feature names are considered proper nouns and are used without definite or indefinite articles in English. For instance, attaching a genitive “s” to trademarked product names is not feasible as it could be interpreted as a modification of such names. Additions to a product or component name are either added with a hyphen or a periphrastic construction needs to be used. For example, instead of expressing a possessive relationship by using the genitive marker “s” in English, a periphrastic construction should be used:

  1. (-) Microsoft‟s products
  2. (+) Microsoft products
  3. (+) Products by Microsoft

Product names and non-translated feature names should also be treated as proper nouns in Malagasy. Please note use of personal article ‘i’ before proper noun or business name such as Google, Apple, depending on its place in the phrase.

English exampleMalagasy example
Windows Mail shares your Internet Connection settings with Internet Explorer(+) Windows Mail dia mizara ny tefinao Fifandraisana Internet amin’i Internet Explorer
Website addresses will be sent to Microsoft(+) Halefa amin’i Microsoft ireo adiresin-tranonkala

Compounds with Acronyms, Abbreviations or Numerals

The compounds below contain either an abbreviation or a numeral followed by a component name. The Malagasy example below show how such constructions should be translated.

English exampleMalagasy example
CD-ROM drive(+) kapila CD-ROM
2-D gridlines(+) tsipikarato 2-D
24 bit color value(+) sandan-doko 24 okte

Note: It is an acceptable principle that when a technical term of the source language does not have a straight equivalent in the target language and all other translation strategies are, for purposes of intelligibility, not applicable, the term should be used as it is in the interest of maintaining the meaning of the term to the user. (Also see the subchapter on English Terminology and the Malagasy Terminology for further comments in this respect).

Note also that the translation of the compounds above is similar in every respect with the translation of other compounds in this chapter.

Indexes

Capitalization, Prepositions and Articles

Avoid starting an entry with a preposition or an article because of their unfavorable effect on the overall sorting order and general legibility of the index.

Key Names

  • On the first mention, use the definite article and "key" in conjunction with the key name, for example, "the ESC key". On all subsequent references, refer to the key only by its name, for example, "Click ESC".
  • As a rule of thumb, be frugal in your use of the word "key". Use it if the key name appears alone in the sentence and the actual key name does not appear on the keyboard.

Prepositions

Translate English prepositions according to their context and not too literally.

Procedures and Syntax

Descriptors

Use the descriptor (menu, button, command, etc.) only if the source text uses it or if it is needed for clarifying the position of a term in the interface.

Procedural Syntax

  • In procedural text, which tells the user to perform certain actions in a certain number of steps, the order in which interface terms are to appear in the translation is usually top to bottom (i.e. menu, command, dialog box, dialog box controls). Maintain this sequence unless there are technical reasons preventing it.

Example: In the "Extras" menu, click "Settings" and then "Music files".

Procedural Headings

Status Bar Messages

  • Please make sure you adequately capture the meaning of messages when translating.

  • If you think a source status bar message is ambiguous, query it to make sure you provide the reader with the right information: if you cannot understand it, they are also not certain to. There is nothing more annoying than "help" that doesn't!

Usage of "Select"

Option English: Select Malagasy: Hifantina Command English: Select Malagasy: Fanteno

‘Select’ has double meaning and fits the need either for selecting one item or for selecting a section of text. For ‘Choose’, use ‘Hifidy’ and ‘Fidio’ instead. Usage of "Click"

The command form is mostly used: English: Click Malagasy: Tsindrio

Punctuation

Commas and Other Common Punctuation Marks

In Lists and Tables

  • Do not use a comma after bulleted points.
  • If the original source entry contains a period, leave it. If the source text does not contain a period, but you split the translation into several independent sentences, put a period at the end of each sentence.
  • Never put a period after just one word.
  • The result of this method may be that some entries within one table are with and some entries are without a final period. From a technical point of view this is acceptable.
  • The same convention applies to captions and callouts

Comma vs. Period in Numerals

  • English uses a period as decimal separator.
  • Malagasy uses comma as a decimal separator.
English exampleMalagasy example
5.25 cm(+) 5,25 cm
5 x 7.2 inches(+) 5 x 7,2 posy
Letter Landscape 11 x 8.5 in(+) Maody Marindrano 11 x 8,5 po

For thousands, English uses a comma while many other languages use a period (at Microsoft we normally do not use a space for this purpose, but we use a period instead to avoid wrapping problems). In Malagasy, a period is used.

English exampleMalagasy example
1,526(+) 1.526
$ 1,526.75(+) $1.526,75

Typographic Conventions

Consistent use of typographic conventions in documentation helps users locate and interpret information easily. Generally speaking, the source format should be followed as closely as possible, i.e. terms with a particular formatting in the source should have the same formatting in the translation.

If menu, command, option, etc. names are highlighted by bold print in the source, use bold print for the corresponding translated terms. If menu, command, option, etc. names are put in quotes in the source, use quotes for the corresponding terms in the translation.

Note that in software strings, you must use two double quotes (""xxx"") to denote names within a string. If you only use a single double quotes ("xxx"), this will cause problems with the compilation, as strings are generally denoted by double quotes.

Style Guide Marathi (mr)

Intro Style guides define the standard against which we determine a translation's quality. They contain rules that are both defined by Mozilla and by Mozilla's localization communities on how to best translate text in Mozilla products, websites, and other projects. Style guides are used to both translate and evaluate a translation's quality. By following these rules, a translator has a better chance of producing a high quality translation that represents Mozilla values and culture. Some examples of international style guides created by other organizations are:

https://help.apple.com/applestyleguide/

https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/language/StyleGuides?rtc=1

https://www.facebook.com/translations/style_guides

This style guide is broken up into two main parts: the first contains rules that are language-specific and must be defined by each Mozilla l10n community (covering language-specific style, terminology, and units); the second contains general rules that Mozilla has defined for translators of all languages that can help you translate well (covering principles of accuracy and fluency). Please adapt part one of this style guide to your l10n community's rules for style, terminology, and units. Wherever possible, refer to existing national standards for units, spelling, and grammar in your community's adaptation of the first part of this style guide.

Language-specific Mozilla style

Style

  1. Formality and Tone should be respectable. For example yours should be translated as ‘आपला’not as ‘तुमचा’

  2. Natural expression should be considered before translating in order to have an easy understanding for the user.

  3. Handling cultural references, idioms, and slang

  4. For style consistency we use FUEL

Terminology

1.Difficult concepts/ terminologies should be made easy to comprehend otherwise should be transliterated.

2.New term bases should also be given a thought as it gives a new perspective to a difficult word.

Units and Grammar

1.The Units and Unit Conversion should be as it is. It should not be converted from Romans as the numbers are taken by default. And there is currently no mechanism to consider the numbers is Marathi

Spelling And Grammar Checks

Tense, Word Forms,Pluralization, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Punctuation, Emphasis, Hyphens and compounds, Prepositions and articles, Diacritics and Special characters, Quotes, Whitespace.

User Interface Elements

Titles

Should be brief and precise. Localizers can assume that source content reaches 2/3 of the total available line space. This allows localization text to expand and not be truncated or resolved through ellipsis. Title on the final page (meaning no more click through) should allow enough room to display full text.

Buttons

Capitalize the first letter of each word. Limit to one or two words. Use verbs that precisely describe the button's action. For example, "Cancel", "Clear History", "Add Email", "Select All", etc. Value Selector Lists: Capitalize the first letter of the first word and the first letter of any proper nouns. Limit to one or two words.

Articles

Avoid them where possible. Articles (such as the word "the" in English) should be avoided wherever possible. User interface elements have limited space available for text. Avoiding articles will help ensure that your translations will be accommodated within the user interface.

Ellipsis

Ellipsis are often inserted automatically in the UI where strings are truncated. Ellipsis should only be used at high level of UI pages, but not be on the final page (after a series of click-through) where detailed instruction is given. Ellipsis should not be used as a way to solve truncation issue. Focus on making the UI short and precise. The sequence of the sentence structure in another language may not translate well, when a sentence is half finished as such.

General Mozilla l10n style

  1. Accuracy

  2. Meaning-based translation

  3. Should not be translated

  4. Shortcuts and accesskeys

  5. Variables

  6. Brands, copyright, and trademark

  7. Legal content

  8. Fluency

Mozilla l10n Style Guide - Polish (pl)

Content

SUMO (support.mozilla.org) Localization Style Guide - Polish

This guide described common and suggested practices to be used while localizing the support content available on the SUMO (support.mozilla.org) site.

You can also refer to the documentation on the SUMO site.

If you want to introduce changes to this document, please consult the SUMO localizers first

General style

The general style is rather informal, maintaining the relaxed manner of adressing the users of the English original.

Instructions (lists, etc.)

Much of SUMO's content is prescriptive or instructional. Please try to maintain a direct way of addressing the reader, using the first person singular, e.g.

EnglishPolish
1. Click {button Save}.1. Kliknij {button Zapisz}.
2. Close the panel to go back to the main window.2. Zamknij panel, by wrócić do głównego okna.
3. The open tab should now automatically refresh.3. Otwarta karta powinna zostać automatycznie odświeżona.

Gender neutrality

As much as possible, please try to keep the gender variant of instructions or suggestions as neutral, e.g.

'[...] that you may have installed previously [...]' = '[...] który mógł być uprzednio zainstalowany [...]' (as opposed to '[...] który mogłeś uprzednio zainstalować [...]')

or

'If you are a user of [...]' = 'Jeśli używasz [...]' (as opposed to 'Jeśli jesteś użytkownikiem/użytkowniczką [...]')

Terminology

Brand names

EnglishPolish
FirefoxFirefox, program Firefox (+odmiany słowa "program")
Firefox for AndroidFirefox dla Androida, aplikacja Firefox dla Androida (+odmiany słowa "aplikacja")
Firefox for iOSFirefox dla (systemu) iOS, aplikacja Firefox dla (systemu) iOS (+odmiany słowa "aplikacja")
Pocket for Firefox(usługa) Pocket dla Firefox
Sync(usługa) Sync
Firefox Rocket(aplikacja) Firefox Rocket
Firefox for Fire TV(aplikacja) Firefox for Fire TV
Firefox Focus(aplikacja) Firefox Focus

Frequently used terms

Whenever possible or necessary, please refer to the following resources for existing user translations: or technical terminology translations:

EnglishPolish
article (= a support page)strona (avoid 'artykuł')
linkodnośnik
(to) tap (= interaction with touch screens)stukanie, stuknij, itd.
(to) press and hold (= interaction with touch screens)przyciśnięcie i przytrzymanie, przyciśnij i przytrzymaj, itd.
featurefunkcja (programu), funkcjonalność, opcja, możliwość ('Firefox has a feature [...]' = 'Firefox oferuje możliwość [...]')
frameworktechnologia
touch deviceurządzenie dotykowe
smartphonesmartfon
cookieciasteczko, plik ciasteczek
tabkarta
windowokno
panelpanel
promptkomunikat
notificationpowiadomienie
permissionuprawnienie

Portuguese (Brazilian) (pt-BR)

L10n é mais do que simplesmente traduzir um material, seja o site da Mozilla, e as campanhas que ela realiza, ou os softwares que ela fornece (como o Firefox ou o Thunderbird). Localizar é o processo de traduzir o conteúdo de um idioma (por exemplo o inglês, en-US) para o seu idioma nativo (no nosso caso, Português do Brasil ou pt-BR), adequando os termos para que a comunidade falante do idioma possa compreender tanto para usar o material quanto compreender a mensagem que está sendo passada, que é o mais importante!

Iniciando

Para participar como voluntário do time de localização você tem três opções, realizar localizações no Pontoon, no SUMO ou na MDN. Cada um tem um nível de complexidade diferente do outro e uma linguagem própria. Escolha uma das áreas que mais você tem interesse. Se você quer ver os sites das Mozilla e os produtos (família Firefox e o Thunderbird) localizados, acesse o Pontoon, se gosta de ajudar as pessoas na resolução de problemas ou configurações do Firefox e Thunderbird, acesse o SUMO. E se você gosta mais da área de desenvolvimento e quer ajudar a disponibilizar material de qualidade para outras pessoas aprenderem desenvolvimento para a Web, acesso a MDN.

Recursos

  • Glossário – contém os termos mais comuns presentes nos sites da Mozilla e suas localizações/traduções utilizadas.
  • Guia de estilos – contém os tipos de erros comuns em traduções e dicas de como evitá-los.

Entre em contato

Se você encontrar alguma ambiguidade ou divergência nesses materiais, não hesite em contatar o time de localização para Português do Brasil.

Style Guide Portuguese (Brazilian) (pt-BR)

Este guia de estilos irá ajudá-la(o) a contribuir na tradução do Firefox e outros projetos da Mozilla para o Português do Brasil.

Nós levantamos alguns tipos de erros comuns em traduções e achamos que seria uma boa ideia listá-los e detalhar como evitá-los para você começar com o pé direito e ter suas traduções ajudando milhões de pessoas com qualidade. =)

Erros de precisão

São divididos em quatro tipos: Tradução, Adição, Omissão e Texto não traduzido, todos estes tipos são explicados abaixo.

Tradução

Certifique-se que a sua tradução mantenha o mesmo significado do texto original em Inglês. Dessa forma, você estará garantindo que as ideias do autor original do artigo serão mantidas e que as informações estão corretas. Se for necessário, explique um termo que não foi traduzido para que o usuário - normalmente alguém que está lendo o artigo porque precisa de ajuda - entenda tudo o que está escrito.

Por exemplo, em um artigo do SUMO:

  • Original: Download this Python library.
  • Tradução incorreta: Baixe essa livraria de Python.
  • Tradução correta: Baixe essa biblioteca Python.

Adição

A sua tradução deve manter o sentido do texto original, não adicione novos conceitos ou ideias que não fazem parte dele.

Por exemplo, em um produto:

  • Original: Download this Python library.
  • Tradução incorreta: Baixar e instalar essa biblioteca Python.
  • Tradução correta: Baixar essa biblioteca Python.

Caso a explicação de um termo seja longa, procure fazer um link para outro artigo do SuMo ou externo que trate do assunto.

Por exemplo, em um artigo do SUMO:

[[Customize the New Tab page|Personalize uma nova aba]] para ver ...

Nesse exemplo, será criado um link que direciona para a página Customize the New Tab page (em Português do Brasil, se já estiver traduzida).

Omissão

Sempre traduza todo o conteúdo do texto original. Por exemplo: se o texto original descrever um processo, confira se todos os passos foram traduzidos e se nenhum detalhe de cada passo foi perdido na tradução.

Por exemplo em um produto:

  • Original: Download this Python library.
  • Tradução incorreta: Baixar essa biblioteca.
  • Tradução correta: Baixar essa biblioteca Python.

Texto não traduzido

Evite deixar trechos do texto original no artigo após terminar a tradução. Além de ser esteticamente desagradável, a função do artigo é ser uma versão em Portuguẽs: portanto, não deve conter trechos do texto original.

Por exemplo em um artigo do SUMO:

  • Original: Download this Python library.
  • Tradução incorreta: Baixe essa library Python.
  • Tradução correta: Baixe essa biblioteca Python.

Erros de fluência

Ortografia

É muito importante que o Português seja utilizado corretamente nas traduções, para isso, certifique-se que a ortografia está correta através do corretor ortográfico do seu navegador (instale aqui), ou copie o texto para o seu editor de texto favorito (Libreoffice Writer, Microsoft Word, etc) e faça as correções necessárias. Em casos em que o verificador ortográfico não funcionar (como em expressões inglesas que não podem ser traduzidas, nomes de variáveis, CSS e tags de marcação de texto) consulte a terminologia.

Gramática

Use a gramática normativa do Português. Caso tenha dúvidas, consulte: http://portugues.uol.com.br/gramatica/

Erros de terminologia

Traduza termos de forma consistente, use o projeto de terminologia e o dicionário Transvision caso tenha dúvidas. Por exemplo, traduza "tab" sempre como "aba", e não "guia" e principalmente não traduza o mesmo termo de formas diferentes no mesmo projeto.

Erros de estilo

Prefira um tom casual: preferimos usar termos mais informais em casos ambíguos (ativar vs. habilitar). Não use gírias, mas também não escreva como se o artigo fosse endereçado ao papa.

Para produtos (Firefox e Firefox para Android), siga a pontuação do texto original. Para artigos (SUMO, snippets) essa regra não é tão importante, sinta-se livre para usar a pontuação que produz um texto fluido e natural.

Produtos usam voz passiva (Iniciar uma conversa…, Exibir todo o histórico, etc). Artigos do SUMO usam a voz ativa (Clique no menu Ferramentas, etc).

Para textos que são exibidos em menus e interface de produtos em geral, tente ser breve, para evitar que o texto seja cortado. O Pontoon mostra o número de caracteres da sua tradução comparado com o texto original.

Algumas strings possuem strings auxiliares que controlam o tamanho do elemento gráfico onde o texto vai ser exibido. Nesses casos, é possível testar e escolher um tamanho mais adequado para a string em Português. Por exemplo, trackingProtection.state.width em browser/chrome/browser/aboutPrivateBrowsing.dtd

Erros de design

Quebra de texto

As vezes é melhor reduzir ou abreviar uma palavra para manter o sentido entre o Inglês e o Português. Não existem regras rígidas sobre ser ou não apropriado, mas ao testar a tradução no contexto você pode decidir entre abreviar uma palavra, deixá-la cortada ou usar uma tradução menor. Isso é especialmente importante quando as últimas palavras de uma sentença são importantes e você quer evitar que elas sejam cortadas. As vezes é melhor abreviar as palavras iniciais para manter as últimas palavras intactas.

Tags de marcação de texto e código

Tags de marcação são comuns em strings de produtos da Mozilla. Uma regra geral é que qualquer texto entre os sinais de "menor que" e "maior que" (<>) não deve ser traduzido. Se uma string contém codigo HTML, normalmente isso demonstra a formatação em que o texto é exibido. Por exemplo, uma string em Inglês pode ser "Firefox is the <em>best</em> browser!". Algumas vezes faz sentido manter a marcação na mesma palavra em Português mas em outras será necessário colocar as marcações em outra palavra na tradução. Se uma string contém o marcador de nova linha (\n em PHP e <br> em HTML) será necessário adequar o posicionamento dela para garantir que a tradução está corretamente formatada.

Manipulação de variáveis

Qualquer palavra que comece com '&' o '%' não deve ser traduzida pois são variáveis utilizadas nos produtos para referenciar outras strings. Alguns exemplos comuns de variáveis e placeholders (codigos utilizados para determinar onde conteúdo externo deve ser inserido) são '&brandShortName' (que normalmente resulta em 'Firefox'), '%1$S' ou '%@'.

Aceleradores

Para aceleradores comuns nós tentamos usar a primeira letra da tradução ou a primeira letra da segunda palavra para ter uma visibilidade melhor. Por exemplo, "A" em "Abrir" no menu Arquivo do Firefox.

Quando itens do mesmo menu têm conflitos, nós tentamos priorizar os itens mais usados para que eles tenham os aceleradores melhores.

Tente manter consistência entre menus idênticos ou parecidos.

Leia a documentação sobre aceleradores do XUL para entender o que torna um acelerador bom ou ruim: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/XUL_Accesskey_FAQ_and_Policies

Erros de veracidade

Em produtos da Mozilla nós tentamos não traduzir certos trocadilhos que encontramos. Por exemplo, a Awesomebar (algo como "barra incrivel") foi traduzida como barra de localização.

Nos materiais de marketing da Mozilla tentamos encontrar a melhor expressão ou gíria no Português que tem o mesmo tom e significado na nossa cultura.

Quando encontramos metáforas que são específicas para a cultura americana (por exemplo, uma metáfora sobre baseball sendo usada para descrever uma funcionalidade do Firefox), nós reescrevemos a metáfora para que ela seja mais aplicável para a cultura brasileira (por exemplo, mudando a metáfora para uma sobre futebol).

Notas

Este guia de estilos foi criado utilizando o método Multidimensional Quality Metrics

Glossário

Este glossário contém os termos mais comuns presentes nos sites da Mozilla e suas localizações/traduções utilizadas no idioma Português do Brasil.

Para termos presentes nos produtos Mozilla, como a família Firefox e o Thunderbird, consulte também o Transvision.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Abuse | Abuso | Masculino | Denunciar abuso de marcas registradas. | | Activate | Ativar | --- | Ativar esta extensão | | Activism / Activist | Ativismo / Ativista | --- | Quero saber mais sobre ativismo. | | Add-on / Addon | Extensão | Feminino | Desenvolvimento de extensões | | Advocacy | Ativismo | Masculino | Nossa política pública e trabalho de ativismo. Mozilla Advocacy não é traduzido porque é o nome do produto. | | Allow | Permitir | --- | O Firefox Nightly recebe atualizações diárias e lhe permite acessar recursos meses antes de estarem disponíveis. | | App | Aplicativo | Masculino | Pesquise e navegue direto no aplicativo. | | Awesome Bar | Barra de Endereços Inteligente | Masculino | A barra de endereços inteligente exibe resultados do seu histórico. |

B

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Bookmark / Bookmarks | Favorito / Favoritos | Masculino | Acesse seu histórico, favoritos e muito mais. | | Browser | Navegador | Masculino | O meu navegador favorito é o Firefox. | | Bug | Problema | Masculino | Informe um problema agora. | | Bug Report | Relatório de Problemas | Masculino | Envie seus relatórios de problemas. | | Build (substantive) | Compilação | Feminino | Execute o script de compilação. | | Build (verb) | Compilar | --- | Compilar e instalar o Firefox OS. |

C

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Collapse | Minimizar | Feminino | Minimizar o menu | | Common Voice | Common Voice | Masculino | Apoie o projeto Common Voice. | | Contributor | Contribuidor(a) | --- | Seja um contribuidor(a). | | Copyright | Direitos Autorais | Masculino | Como a Mozilla está envolvida na reforma dos direitos autorais. | | Crash | Travar | --- | Aff! Sua aba travou. | | Crash Report | Relatório de Travamento | Masculino | Permitir que o Firefox envie relatórios de travamento para a Mozilla. | | Customize | Personalizar | --- | Personalizar barra de ferramentas |

D

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Debug | Depurar | --- | Copiar o registro de depuração | | Default | Padrão | Masculino | Definir como mecanismo de pesquisa padrão. | | Delete | Excluir | --- | Excluir cookies recentes. | | Developer | Desenvolvedor(a) | --- | Baixe o navegador Firefox criado para desenvolvedores. | | Device | Dispositivo | Masculino | Sincronização entre dispositivos. | | Digital Inclusion | Inclusão Digital | Feminino | Inclusão digital significa praticar o respeito. | | Disable / Disabled | Desativar / Desativado | --- | Você deve desativar o DRM para reproduzir o vídeo nesta página. A reprodução de vídeo foi desativada. | | Disallow | Não Permitir | --- | | | Do Not Track | Não Me Rastreie | Masculino | Como eu ativo o Não Me Rastreie no Firefox? | | Download / Downloading | Baixar / Baixando | --- | Baixar a última versão. Baixando atualizações. | | Drag space | Borda de janela | Feminino | Clique na borda de janela para selecionar. |

E

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Early Adopters | Entusiastas | --- | O Firefox Nightly é indicado para contribuidores avançados e entusiastas. | | Email | E-mail | Masculino | Por favor, insira um endereço de e-mail. | | Enable | Ativar | --- | Você deve ativar o DRM para reproduzir o vídeo nesta página. | | Encryption | Criptografar | Feminino | FileVault – uma maneira gratuita e integrada de criptografar seu disco de inicialização no Mac. | | Engage / Engagement | Envolver / Envolvimento | Masculino | Como você pode se envolver na reforma dos direitos autorais. |

F

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Fake News | Fake News | Feminino | Aprenda a detectar fake news. | | FAQ | Perguntas Frequentes | Feminino | Seção de perguntas frequentes. | | Filelink | Armazenamento on-line | Masculino | Os armazenamentos on-line facilitam o envio de arquivos grandes pelo Thunderbird. | | Firefox | Firefox | Masculino | O novo Firefox | | Firefox Beta | Firefox Beta | Masculino | O novo Firefox Beta | | Firefox Developer Edition | Firefox Developer Edition | Masculino | O novo Firefox Developer Edition | | Firefox Focus | Firefox Focus | Masculino | O novo Firefox Focus | | Firefox for Android | Firefox para Android | Masculino | O novo Firefox para Android | | Firefox for iOS | Firefox para iOS | Masculino | O novo Firefox para iOS | | Firefox Health Report | Relatório de integridade do Firefox | Masculino | Confira o relatório de integridade do Firefox | | Firefox Mobile | Firefox para Dispositivos Móveis | Masculino | Um moderno navegador para dispositivos móveis da Mozilla, | | Firefox Nightly | Firefox Nightly | Masculino | O novo Firefox Nigthly | | Full Screen | Tela inteira | Feminino | Sair da tela inteira |

G

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Gatekeepers | | | | | Guidelines | Diretrizes | Feminino | Quando e como usar estas diretrizes |

H

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Hint | Sugestão/dica | --- | Uma nova geração do mecanismo de CSS (dica: é rápido) | | Homepage | Página Inicial | --- | Definir como página inicial |

I

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Internet Health Report | Relatório de Saúde da Internet | --- | Leia o Relatório de Saúde da Internet | | Issue | | | |

L

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Laptop | Notebook / Computador | Masculino | Navegue facilmente entre o seu computador e o seu telefone. | | Legacy | Legado / Legada | --- | Mostrar extensões legadas | | Library | Biblioteca | | Mostrar o menu Biblioteca | | Live Bookmarks | Favoritos | | Mostrar o menu Favoritos | | Log In | Entrar | | | | Logged | Conectado | | | | Logout | Sair | | |

M

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Master Password | Senha mestra | | Usar uma senha mestra | | MDN | MDN | Feminino | Contribuindo através da MDN | | Mobilizer | Facilitador(a) | | | | Mozilla | Mozilla | Feminino | | | Mozilla Developer Network | Mozilla Developer Network | Feminino | Contribuindo através da Mozilla Developer Network | | Multiprocess | Multiprocesso | | Nossa nova e poderosa plataforma multiprocesso gerencia todas suas abas sem deixar seu computador lento. |

N

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Net Neutrality | Neutralidade da Rede | Feminino | Saiba mais sobre a Neutralidade da Rede. | | New Private Tab | Nova aba privativa | Feminino | Acessar nova aba privativa | | New Tab | Nova aba | Feminino | Acessar nova aba | | Newsletter | Boletim Informativo | Masculino | Inscreva-se no nosso boletim informativo. | | Non Profit | Organização sem fins lucrativos | Feminino | A Mozilla é uma organização sem fins lucrativos. |

O

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Offline | Off-line | | Você está off-line. | | Online | On-line | | Você está on-line. | | Open Web | web aberta | | Comprometido com você, sua privacidade e uma web aberta. |

P

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Patch | Ajuste | | | | Performance | Desempenho | Masculino | | | Preview | Pré-visualizar | | | | Private Browsing | Navegação Privativa | Feminino | Título de sessão - Iniciais maiúsculasEm frases comuns - Iniciais de acordo com a posição na frase |

R

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Release | Versão / Lançamento | | Notas de versão / Notas de lançamento | | Report | Relatório | | |

S

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Search | Pesquisar | | Pesquisar endereço | | Search Bar | Barra de pesquisa | | Adicionar a barra de pesquisa na barra de ferramentas | | Search Engine | Mecanismo de pesquisa | | Atualize automaticamente os mecanismos de pesquisa | | Sidebar | Painel | | Mover o painel para a direita. | | Sign In | Entrar | | Entrar na Conta Firefox | | Sign Off | Sair | | Sair da Conta Firefox | | Sign up | Registrar | | Produto - Registre-se para ter uma Conta Firefox. | | Sign up | Inscrever | | Boletim informativo - Inscreva-se, leia e fique informado. | | Submit | Enviar | | Enviar dados | | Surveillance | Vigilância | Feminino | |

T

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Third Party | Terceiros | | | | Toolbar | Barra de ferramentas | | | | Trackers | Rastreadores | | | | Tracking Protection | Proteção contra rastreamento | | | | Troubleshooting | | | | | Turn off | Desativar | | Desativar a sincronização de abas com os seus outros dispositivos. | | Turn on | Ativar | | Ativar a sincronização de abas para ver uma lista dos seus outros dispositivos. |

U

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Unencrypted | | | | | Unsafe | | | | | User Control | | | |

V

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | View | | | |

W

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Web Literacy | Alfabetização Web | | | | WebExtension | | | | | Webmaker | | | |

Z

| Inglês | Tradução | Gênero | Exemplo | |--------------------------- |------------------------------------- |----------- |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Zoom | Zoom | | | | Zoom In | Ampliar | | | | Zoom Out | Diminuir | | |

Ghidul stilistic în cadrul localizărilor românești pentru Mozilla

În primul rând ca localizator/traducător ar trebui să vă asigurați de cunoașterea foarte bună a limbii române. Este necesară și o cunoaștere bună a limbii engleze scrise.

Regula principală

Dacă nu are sens pentru mine, atunci în mod clar traducerea este greșită.

Principii generale

  • Claritatea -- Preferăm claritatea mesajului chiar cu sacrificarea traducerii directe, în special în cazurile în care sensul original este ceva mai dificil de redat în limba română. Este important ca programele să fie înțelese de utilizatori și de audiența adresată. Nu se acceptă totuși modificarea mesajului traducerii dincolo de intenția textului din limba originală (engleza), traducerea propriu-zisă trebuie să fie cât mai clară fără a pierde esența textului original. Dacă ar fi necesară reformularea textului original, acest lucru ar trebui raportat prin Bugzilla prin deschiderea un bug.
  • Diacritice -- Limba română utilizează diacritice și folosirea acestora nu este opțională. Mai mult de atât, trebuie utilizate diacriticele corecte, cu virgulă: Șș Țț (corect) și nu sedilă: Şş Ţţ(greșit). Obsevați forma diacriticei de sub literă.

Ce nu trebuie tradus

Deseori, șirurile conțin elemente ce sunt relevante pentru programatori și care ar trebui identificate de localizatori, chiar dacă nu trebuie să înțelegem precis rolul lor. De cele mai multe ori, acestea reprezintă șabloane pentru alt text (de ex. &brandName; ce poate să însemne „Firefox” sau „Thunderbird” pentru acele șiruri din interfață comune celor două programe).

Situația e mai complicată pentru că uneori acele șiruri reprezintă entități HTML, precum &amp; (&) sau &hellip; (…) , care reprezintă caractere de text, nu termeni programatici. Ampersandul de obicei se traduce ca „și”, dar sunt excepții.

Mai multe informații de pe ghidul L10n.ro.

Mărcile Mozilla

Mărcile Mozilla, numele produselor etc. sunt nume proprii și în general nu se traduc. Spre ex. „Mozilla Foundation” este o entitate înregistrată din SUA și numele acesteia nu se traduce sub nicio formă.

Termeni

  • Majoritatea termenilor din IT au o traducere specifică în română. Este foarte importantă menținerea consecvenței acestor traduceri. Dacă nu știți traducerea adecvată consultați Transvision pentru exemple din șirurile deja traduse. Din păcate, nu toți acești termeni sunt încă definitivați și încă mai sunt inconsistențe între programe, dar încercăm să menținem aceeași terminologie peste întreg proiectul Mozilla.

Greșeli frecvente

Ghid de exprimare corectă

Greșeli frecvente din traducerea de programe

Forme de plural

Forma de adresare

Sunt trei moduri de adresare: personală, politicoasă și impersonală. Istoric și în unele proiecte de programe libere se preferă o adresare politicoasă (când calculatorul apelează utilizatorul -- de ex. „Doriți schimbarea culorii?” sau „Comanda dumneavoastră a fost acceptată”), personală (când utilizatorul adresează o comandă programului -- de ex. „Tipărește”) și impersonală (când este vorba de butoanele meniurilor unei aplicații -- de ex. „Vizualizare”).

La Mozilla din motive de consistență, simplitate și pentru scurtarea traducerilor s-a decis de ceva timp folosirea exclusivă a adresării personale, dar respectuoasă (fără tutuiri). Sunt în continuare proiecte în cadrul Mozilla în care puteți remarca adresare politicoasă. Pe viitor vom încerca să le reparăm și să folosim strict adresare personală peste tot. În foarte puține cazuri atunci când contextul este incert se mai poate folosi adresarea impersonală.

Exemple:

Butoane sau elemente de meniu:

Text original:  Open
Traducere:      Deschide

Text original:  Save
Traducere:      Salvează

Text original:  Search Files
Traducere:      Caută fișiere

Când calculatorul solicită utilizatorul să ia o decizie, sau când calculatorul înștiințează utilizatorul cu privire la o acțiune pe care acesta (utilizatorul) trebuie să o ia:

Text original:  Do you want to continue?
Traducere:      Dorești să continui?

Text original:  Please try again later.
Traducere:      Te rugăm să încerci din nou mai târziu.

Text original:  You have exceeded the number of registration attempts for this session.
                Please try again later.
Traducere:      Ai depășit numărul de încercări de înregistrare pentru această sesiune.
                Te rugăm să încerci din nou mai târziu.

Când calculatorul raportează o stare sau o acțiune pe care o realizează fără intervenția utilizatorului se folosește forma reflexivă, calculatorul fiind o entitate abstractă, nu o persoană sau un personaj:

Text original:     Could not open file %s
Traducere corectă: Nu s-a putut deschide fișierul %s (sau Imposibil de deschis fișierul)

Text original:     Receiving data from %s
Traducere corectă: Se primesc date de la %s

Text original:     Saving configuration
Traducere corectă: Se salvează configurația

Pentru butoane care conduc la meniuri adiționale (fără acțiune imediată), sau poziții de meniu care deschid submeniuri, sau meniuri care constituie titluri ale unor submeniuri, se recomandă folosirea formei impersonale:

Text original:     Manage...
(context: buton a cărui singură acțiune este deschiderea unui meniu adițional)
Traducere recomandată: Gestionare...

A se vedea și discuția imperativ versus impersonal în meniuri cu puncte-puncte pe marginea acestei reguli.

Pentru titlurile ferestrelor se folosește forma impersonală:

Text original:  Saving configuration
Traducere:      Salvarea configurației

Text original:  Manage Media Usage Rights
Traducere:      Gestionarea drepturilor de utilizare media

Trebuie evitate expresiile cacofonice în traducerile reflexive, folosiți modul impersonal:

Text original:     Press OK to save the session
Traducere corectă: Apasă Ok pentru a salva sesiunea

Prescurtările

Trebuiesc evitate prescurtările gen „dvs.” în loc de „dumneavoastră”, ori nu-i în loc de nu e sau nu este. În mod uzual acestea sunt întâlnite în expresii cu multe cuvinte, dialoguri explicative, de configurare, sau de eroare, (foarte) rar în meniuri, de aceea lungimea cuvintelor nu constituie o problemă critică.

Genul

Trebuiesc evitate discriminările pe bază de sex și formulările deranjante de genul el/ea, prin folosirea, pe cât posibil, a unui limbaj impersonal. De asemenea, pentru a evita frustrarea utilizatorului la vederea unui program care i se adresează nesigur, în ambele genuri, este mai bine să se evite genul când se poate.

Text original:     Are you sure you want to delete this bookmark?
Traducere corectă: Sigur dorești să ștergi acest semn de carte?

Contextul

Este o informație suplimentară despre locul în care apare textul respectiv (nu apare mereu). În exemplul de mai jos, fiind vorba de „Nickname”, uzual traducerea este cu „Pseudonim”, așadar traducerea corectă este cea la masculin.

Text original:     (not yet valid)
(context: un nume ce nu este valid)
Traducere corectă: (încă nu este valid)

Pluralul

Deși mulți nu suntem conștienți de acest lucru, limba română are două forme de plural (una fără „de”, cealaltă cu „de”) și forma de singular. La șirurile cu forme de plural trebuie așadar 3 traduceri: singularul, pluralul fără „de” și pluralul cu „de”.

1 ou, 2 ouă, 3 ouă, ... 10 ouă, 20 **de** ouă, ..., 101 ouă, 102 ouă, 120 **de** ouă.

Pentru mai multe detalii citiți pagina dedicată acestui subiect.

Majusculele

Nu trebuie folosite majuscule pentru fiecare cuvânt într-un meniu, titlu, etc (doar în limba engleză cuvintele încep cu majuscule în titlu).

Text original:           Save As...
Traducere corectă:       Salvează ca...

Text original:           Control Center
Traducere corectă:       Centru de control

Topica expresiilor

Topica expresiilor trebuie în general inversată:

Text original:           An error occurred.
Traducere corectă:       S-a produs o eroare.

Text original:           Something wrong has happened.
Traducere corectă:       S-a întâmplat ceva prost.

Acceleratori

Acceleratorii sunt scurtăturile din meniuri și panourile de configurare, sunt identificați prin cuvinte ce conțin o literă subliniată, iar acea intrare de meniu sau configurare poate fi activată folosind combinația de taste Alt + tasta subliniată. Ei sunt marcați în textele de tradus prin precedarea literei subliniate fie cu _ (linie joasă) fie cu & (ampersand).

Litera de după accelerator este cea care apare subliniată în elementul de meniu. De ex. pentru șirul E_ditează, d va apărea subliniat.

Se încearcă păstrarea acelorași taste ca din engleză, iar atunci când nu există o literă corespondentă în cuvântul tradus, vom elimina acceleratorul din cuvântul tradus (practic se elimină „&” sau „” din traducerea românească chiar dacă vedeți „&” sau „” în engleză). Pentru Firefox, netraducerea acceleratorului va avea ca efect afișarea literei într-o paranteză la sfârșit: de ex. Editează (x). Fiți fără griji, nu este nicio problemă dacă „&” sau „_” lipsesc din traducerea românească.

Ghilimele

În limba română singurele ghilimele acceptate sunt „text” și „text «altceva» text” (pentru citat în citat) adică: ghilimele deschise, ghilimele închise și ghilimele franceze.

Folosirea apostrofului (') sau a ghilimelelor duble (") din repertoriul ASCII este greșită. Detalii despre ghilimelele folosite în limba română se pot găsi la http://www.acad.ro/alteInfo/ghilimele.doc

Neologisme

Folosirea cratimei în neologisme

Articolul hotărât enclitic (singular și plural) se leagă cu cratimă numai în împrumuturile neadaptate: - a căror finală prezintă deosebiri între scriere și pronunțare: bleu- ul [blöul]; - care au finale grafice neobișnuite la cuvintele vechi din limba română: dandy-ul (nu dandiul), dandy-i ; gay-ul, gay-i; hippy-ul, hippy-i; party-ul; playboy-ul, playboy-i; story-ul, story-uri.

Se recomandă atașarea fără cratimă a articolului la împrumuturile - chiar nedaptate sub alte aspecte - care se termină în litere din alfabetul limbii române pronunțate ca în limba română: gadgetul [gheğetul], weekendul [uĭkendul], inclusiv în cazul unor anglicisme ceva mai vechi, scrise și conform DOOM1 fără cratimă: westernuri ș.a.

http://acad.ro/alteInfo/nouDOOM.doc

Câteva exemple:

web-ul = greșit
webul = corect

link-ul / link-urile = greșit
linkul / linkurile = corect

blog-ul / blog-urile = greșit
blogul / blogurile = corect

ping-uri = greșit
pinguri = corect

trackback-uri = greșit
trackbackuri = corect

server-ul = greșit
serverul = corect

widget-uri = greșit
widgeturi = corect

tag-urile = greșit
tagurile = corect

e-mail-ul = greșit
e-mailul = corect

spam-ul = greșit
spamul = corect

Genul neologismelor

Neologismele din domeniul IT sunt preluate cu genul neutru, ele fiind inanimate.

driver / drivere
browser / browsere
player / playere

Adaptarea la situații extreme

Ce facem când întalnim o situație unde termenii traduși, puși cap la cap nu par să dea sensul dorit:

Tile children
(Tapetează copii?)

Ok, după ce s-a dus zâmbetul, încercați să deduceți sensul expresiei, din context; în exemplul de față este vorba despre afișarea ferestrelor „copil” astfel încât să ocupe tot spațiul disponibil; în acest caz, expresia cea mai intuitivă pentru utilizator este:

Ferestre alăturate

sau eventual

Ferestre în mozaic

Astfel, urmează morala: nu trebuie să vă feriți de traduceri mai „îndrăznețe”, atunci când sensul unei expresii poate fi îmbunătățit. Aveți însă grijă ca în cazurile în care expresia mai apare și în alte locuri (fișiere), traducerea să fie făcută într-o manieră consecventă.

Linkuri externe

Acest articol are la bază alte articole mai vechi

Ghidul traducătorului de software de pe l10n.ro.

Linkuri utile

http://www.hallo.ro/ - Dicționar englez-român
http://www.dexonline.ro/ - Dicționar explicativ român (consultați doar sursele oficiale)
http://www.seelrc.org:8080/grammar/pdf/stand_alone_romanian.pdf - Gramatica detaliată a limbii române.

Liste de discuții

Grupul de discuții mozilla.ro

Diacritice

Style Guide Scottish Gaelic (gd)

Read the PDF here

Style Guide Serbian (sr)

sr logo

Увод

Овај водич је намењен свим новим, а и старијим члановима Mozilla Србија заједнице, који желе да се прикључе тиму локализације ове заједнице, ради олакшања превођења. Водич садржи упутства о прављењу налога на Pontoon платформи за превођење, начину на који се преводе одређене речи, правопису и другим стварима везаним за локализацију Mozilla производа.

Pontoon

Локализација Mozilla производа се врши преко платформе Pontoon. На њој се налазе сви производи који су јавно доступни корисницима, Firefox, Firefox за Android, Thunderbird, Mozilla.org, итд.

Прављење налога

Како бисте започели са локализацијом, неопходно је прво да направите налог на Pontoon сајту који уједино можете користити и као Firefox налог.

Кликните на мени иконицу у горњем десном углу, а затим кликните на “Sign in” поље.

Pontoon 1

Затим ћете бити упућени на страницу за прављење Firefox налога.

Pravljenje naloga

Унесите потребне податке и након што завршите са прављењем налога и потврђивањем истог путем верификационе е-поште коју добијете, можете приступити сајту Pontoon.

Након свега овога, спремни сте за локализацију!

Превођење

Отворите Pontoon страницу српске заједнице.

Pontoon 2

На страници нашег језика се налазе готово све информације о пројектима које преводимо. Општи подаци о језику су означени црвеном бојом, статистике локала и пројеката су означене плавом бојом, а листа пројеката је означена зеленом бојом.

Сада изаберите пројекат који желите да преводите, или који вам је доделио лидер тима локализације.

Pontoon 3

На левој страни се налази листа речи/реченица целог пројекта (и преведене и непреведене). На десној страни се налази поље за превођење, историја превода изабране речи/реченице, како је преведено на другим језицима и сличне информације. Када унесете превод у бело поље, притисните на дугме “Suggest” (на слици стоји дугме “Save” зато што тај члан има виши чин на овој платформи, који му омогућава да одмах преводи, без чекања да неко одобри његов превод). Ваш предлог ће бити сачуван и послат на преглед. Сачекајте да неко од ревизора локала прегледа ваш превод. У међувремену можете наставити са даљим превођењем пројекта.

Правопис

Писмо

Писмо које се користи за превођење Mozilla-них пројеката је ћирилица. Постоје и изузеци када се речи не преводе, већ остају у изворном облик (имена брендова, стручних скраћеница и сл.).

Обраћање кориснику

Када преводите реченицу којом се Firefox (тј. ви) обраћа/те кориснику, преводите у форми персирања кориснику, тј. користите “ви”, “вама”, “ваше” и слично, али са малим словом (великим само у случају да реченица почиње том речју). На овај начин добијамо превод у којем не морамо да бринемо о роду корисника.

Постоји још једна ствар код обраћања корисника, а то је да се енглеско Please wait, преводи као Сачекајте, уместо Молимо вас, сачекајте.

Имена

Имена брендова, програма, компанија (нpr. Firefox, Android, Gmail, итд.) се не преводе, већ се остављају на оригиналном (најчешће енглеском) језику. Дакле Firefox је Firefox, a не Фајерфокс. Када се име мења по падежима, онда се користи знак цртице “-” заједно са одговарајућим словом (нпр. “Проверите подешавања вашег Firefox-а”)

Велико слово

У српском правопису, великим словом се пишу почетне речи у реченици, лична имена и презимена, надимци и атрибути, имена градова, река, планина и слично. Када се ради о превођењу Mozilla-них производа, сва ова правила се и ту примењују. Такође је потребно избегавати писати великим словом одређене енглеске речи које су писане великим словом. Пример: User Interface се пише као кориснички интерфејс. Слово к ће бити велико само у случају да реченица почиње том речју.

Скраћенице

Стручни термини и изрази, имена страних организација и брендова, који су написани у скраћеном облику, тј. као скраћеница, се не преводе и остају на оригиналном језику (нпр. HTTP, HTTPS, SEO, API…).

О водичу

Овом водичу су допринели чланови наше заједнице Марко Андрејић и Марко Костић уз подршку волонтера из других глобалних Mozilla заједница.

Водич је урађен по узору на водич “Гномов правопис и језик превода (2011)”.

Овај водич је издат под Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0) лиценцом. Више о овој лиценци, можете прочитати овде

Style Guide Sinhala (si)

Mozilla පරිවර්තන මඟපෙන්වීම

පරිවර්තන මඟපෙන්වීමේ අපි පරිවර්තනයක තත්වය තිරණය කරන මිනුම සඳහන් වේ. Mozilla නිමැයුම්, වෙබ් පිටු සහ අනෙකුත් ව්යාපෘතීන්හි පරිවර්තන කරන්නේ කෙසේද යන්න පිළිබඳ Mozilla සහ Mozilla පරිවර්තන කණ්ඩායම් විසින් පිහිටුවන ලද නීති රීති මෙහි අඩංගු වෙයි. පරිවර්තන මඟපෙන්වීම පරිවර්තන කිරීම සඳහා මෙන්ම පරිවර්තනයක තත්වය නිර්ණය කිරීම සඳහාද භාවිතා වෙයි. මෙම නීති රීති පිළිපැදීම මඟින් Mozilla අගයන් සහ සංස්කෘතිය නිරූපනයවන තත්වයෙන් වඩාත් උසස් පරිවර්තනයක් කිරීම අවස්ථාව පරිවර්තකයෙකුට ලැබේ.

මෙම මඟපෙන්වීම කොටස් දෙකකින් සමන්විත වෙයි: පළමු කොටසේ Mozilla සිංහල පරිවර්තන ප්‍රජාව විසින් පිළියෙළ කරන ලද භාෂා මූලික නීති රීති (භාෂා මූලික විලාස, පාරිභාෂික වචන සහ මිනුම් ඒකක ආදිය ආවරණයවන පරිදි) සඳහන්වන අතර දෙවන කොටසේ ඔබට වඩාත් හොඳින් පරිවර්තන කිරීම සඳහා Mozilla විසින් සියළු භාෂා සඳහා නිර්ණය කරන ලද සාමාන්‍යය නීති රීති (නිරවද්‍යතාව සහ ව්‍යක්තභාවය පිළිබඳ මූලධර්ම ආවරණයවන පරිදි) සඳහන් වෙයි.

භාෂා-මූලික Mozilla පරිවර්ථන සැකසුම

පරිවර්ථන සැකසුම නිර්ණය කිරීමේදී භාෂාවේ විධිමත් බව හා Mozilla l10n ව්‍යාපෘතියට විධිමත් හඬ භාවිතය නිර්ණය කිරීමේ දී සැලකිය යුතු ප්‍රධාන කරුණු සලකා බලමු.

මෙම ව්‍යාපෘතිය ඉලක්ක කරන පරිශීලකයා කවුද? ඔහුගේ පසුබිම කුමක්ද? ඉලක්කගත පරිශීලකයා මෙම ව්‍යාපෘතිය සමඟ අන්තර්ක්‍රියා කිරීමට අදහස් කරන්නේ කෙසේද? උදාහණයක් ලෙස, ඔවුන් සරල, මිත්‍රශීලී අන්තර්ක්‍රියාවක් බලාපොරොත්තු වන්නේද? අපගේ භාෂාව සඳහා වන සියළු Mozilla L10n ව්‍යාපෘති සඳහා විධිමත් භාෂාව ගැලපෙන්නේද, එසේ නොවන්නේ කුමන අවස්ථා වලදීද? අපගේ භාෂාව සඳහා වන සියළු Mozilla L10n ව්‍යාපෘති සඳහා අවිධිමත් භාෂාව ගැලපෙන්නේද, එසේ නොවන්නේ කුමන අවස්ථා වලදීද?

මූලිකව, දේශීයකරණයේදී අනවශ්‍ය ලෙස විධිමත් බව ඉහල හෝ පහළ දැමීම සිදු නොකළ යුතුයි. මෙයට උදාහරණය වන්නේ, "ක්ලික් කරන්න" (අවිධිමත්) "කරුණාකර මෙහි ක්ලික් කරන්න" (වඩා විධිමත්). තවද භාෂාවේ භාවිතය සම්පූර්ණ ව්‍යාපෘතිය තුළම එකාකාරී විය යුතුයි.

ස්වභාවික ප්‍රකාශනය (Natural expression)

ස්වභාවික ප්‍රකාශනයන් භාවිතයෙන් ඔබේ දේශීයකරණය එය කියවන්නාට වඩා ස්වබාවික බවක් එක් කරයි. ඔබගේ පරිවර්ථනය පිළිගත් භාශා නියාමකයන්ගෙන් බාහිරව දේශීය හා ස්වභාවික ප්‍රකාශනයන් අඩංගු කර ඇති විට ලැබෙන ප්‍රථිපලය දුර්වල වේ. පරිවර්ථනයේදී මේ පිළිබඳව වඩාත් සැලකිලිමත් වීමට නිර්දේශ කරන්නෙමු. උදාහරණයක් වශයෙන් "From Scratch" යන්න සරල පරිවර්ථනයේදී "සීරීමෙන්" යනුවෙන් යෙදෙන නමුත් එහි සත්‍ය තේරුම "මුල සිට ඇරඹීම" වේ.

සිංහල භාෂාවේ සහ ඉංග්‍රීසි භාෂාවේ ව්‍යාකරණ වෙනස නිවැරදි ලෙස පරිවර්තනය විය යුතුය. එබැවින් පරිවර්තනයේදී ලබාදීමට උත්සාහ කරන අදහස නිවැරදිව සටහන් වීමට නම් මෙම වෙනස්කම් පිළිබඳව සැළකිලිමත් වීම වැදගත්ය. පහත උදාහරණයේදී “#1” මඟින් සංඛ්‍යාවක් දක්වන අතර ඒ අනුව එහි ස්ථානය වෙනස් කර නිවැරදි අදහස ලබාදිය යුතුය.

  • “Downloading and verifying add-on…;Downloading and verifying #1 add-ons…”
  • “ඇඩෝන බාගත කරමින් හා පිරික්සමින් සිටියි…;ඇඩෝන #1 බාගත කරමින් හා පිරික්සමින් සිටියි…”

ක්‍රියාපද පරිවර්තනයේදී ඉදිරිපත් කිරීමට බලාපොරොත්තු වන අදහසට හානියක් නොවන පරිදි හැකි තරම් කෙටිකර දැක්වීමෙන් මෙනුවේ හෝ දෝෂ සටහනේ එය දර්ශණය වීම පහසු කරවනු ඇත.

උදාහරණ ලෙස “Analyse” පරිවර්තනයේදී “විශ්ලේෂණය” ලෙස දැක්වීම ප්‍රමාණවත් වන අතර “විශ්ලේෂණය කරන්න” ලෙස දැක්වීම අවශ්‍ය නොවේ. “Back to Top” පරිවර්තනයේදී “යළි ඉහළටම” ලෙස දැක්වීම ප්‍රමාණවත් වන අතර “යළි ඉහළටම යන්න” ලෙස දැක්වීම අවශ්‍ය නොවේ.

Guidelines

In this section, form guidelines for how to perform a natural sounding localization. This might take some time and experience to find the right examples to include or create the right guidelines for your language.

Handling cultural references, idioms, and slang

Cultural references, idioms, and slang require a full understanding of these references between the cultures of your source and target languages. An example of a cultural reference in English would be the phrase, "kick-off meeting." This is a reference that uses an American football term. It means a meeting to begin a project. To translate it, you can follow one of two approaches:

Find an equivalent reference phrase in your language. Remove the cultural reference and translate the core meaning (e.g., "a commencement meeting")

Define a policy for handling these cultural references, idioms, and slang that you can make standard across all projects. Consider resources you can refer back to in order to find cultural equivalents and list them in this section of your style guide (e.g., a slang dictionary in your language).

Style consistency

පරිවර්තන ව්‍යාපෘතියක් පුරාවටම Mozilla සහ තෙවැනි පාර්ශවීය සන්නාම සහ විලාස මඟපෙන්වීම්වලට ගරුකල යුතුයි. Mozilla මූලික සන්නාම නීති සඳහා වැඩිදුර විස්තර සඳහා https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/styleguide/identity/firefox/branding/ වෙත පිවිසෙන්න. උදාහරණයක් ලෙස "Firefox" වැනි සන්නාම නාම කොහෙත්ම පරිවර්තනය නොකළ යුතුයි. සන්නාම මඟපෙන්වීම් නැති අනෙකුත් සන්නාම පරිවර්තනය කළ යුතුද නැත්ද යන්න සිංහල පරිවර්තන ප්‍රජාව ලෙස අප තීරණය කල යුතුයි. සන්නාම නාම පරිවර්තනය කිරීමට තීරණය කිරීමට පෙර සන්නාම නාම පිළිබඳ සුපරික්ෂාකාරී වන්න (Mozilla හෝ අනෙකුත් තෙවැනි පාර්ශවීය සන්නාම සඳහා). එවැනි සන්නාම පරිවර්තන පිළිබඳ මෙම පිටුව යාවත්කාල කිරීමට කාරුණික වෙන්න.

පරිවර්තනයේදී දැනට භාවිතාවන, විශ්වාසිත සහ අදාල සිංහල වචන මූල භාචිතා කිරීමට වගබලාගන්න. පහත සඳහන් කරුණු නොකිරීමට කාරුණික වෙන්න:

ව්‍යාපෘතියේ නොගැළපෙන පාරිභාෂික වචන භාවිතය

වචන මූලයේ නොගැළපෙන පාරිභාෂික වචන භාවිතය ඔබගේ සියළු ව්‍යාපෘතිවල නොගැළපෙන පාරිභාෂික වචන භාවිතය වෙනත් මාතෘකාවකට අදාල පාරිභාෂික වචන භාවිතය (උදාහරණයක් ලෙස Firefox හි වෛද්‍ය පාරිභාෂික වචන භාවිතා නොකරන්න).

Tips on translating difficult concepts Translating terms representing difficult concepts is a tricky task. Here are some ideas to help you translate terms that do not have equivalents in your language:

Understand the meaning of the term in English. Definitions of a few key terms http://techterms.com/category/internet Know your product and understand the function of the feature. Consider similar ideas for those functions in your culture. Associate a culturally specific image with the meaning and function of the term.

Developing new term bases What is your community's process for identifying and creating a new termbase? Here are a few things to keep in mind:

Avoid overly borrowing English expressions Referencing another language from the same language family may inspire you to come up with your own terms Consider the product target audience (age, level of literacy, education, social and economic status) Will you use loan words from another language or coin new terms in your language to maintain language purity? Is there government requirement or policy to encourage creating new terms for new concepts, or will loan words be sufficient to reach broader masses and expedite new technology adoption? If there are two acceptable scripts commonly used by the general public, what is the commonly used script on the web or government sites? What is the script used by major web technology companies?

Units and Grammar Many elements of unit or grammar do not exist or apply to all languages. If you find one of these elements that does not apply to your language, please remove it from your style guide. For those definitions of units and grammar that apply document the reference used or how it will be applied to the translation.

The translation should strive to achieve proper unit conversions for currency, measurements, etc. for the target audience.

Units and Unit Conversion Date Format How are the date formats for weeks and months expressed in the following forms:

Reference material can be find here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Date_format_by_country

Calendar view:

Which date is considered the first day of the week, Sunday or Monday? Is Lunar calendar observed? Other regional calendar observed?

Time Format How is time expressed in your language? Including 0-24 hr expression, hour, minute and second.

Numerals How are numerals and percentages expressed in your language?

  • මිනිත්තු 5 කට පෙර
  • ජනවාරි 9 දින පව 9:16 ට

Currency

රුපියල් 10ක්, රු 100 ක්

Units Do you use the imperial, metric or nautical system for measuring weight, distance, etc.? Source strings will use the imperial system (e.g., miles, pounds, feet, gallons, etc.). Target translations should convert imperial metrics to their measurement system.

Names

What are the order of family name and given name in your language? Here is the guideline on the naming convention from w3c.org: Address and Postal Code Format What is the format in your language?

  • Example: most Asian countries start from big to small: [Country] [postal code][state/province][city][district][street number and name][building and suite numbers][addressee]
  • Countries of European languages start from small to big: [addressee][street number and name][building and suite numbers][district][city][state/province][postal code][Country]

Telephone Number format

Space separators between digits can be different for area codes such as State (Province) and City

Spelling And Grammar Checks

Many languages have national or international standards that define spelling and grammar rules. When defining these rules for your community, make reference to those standards wherever possible. Do you have automated tests for spell checking and grammar? List those tools and dictionaries here and how regularly they should be used.

Tense

Do you have standards for verb forms that indicate or express the time, such as past, present, or future, of the action or state? What is your policy on tense consistency for certain use cases? For example, for phrases that ask a user to make an action (like "Download Firefox"), do you use a future tense, a command tense, or a neutral tense? (See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_tense)

Word Forms Pluralization What is the appropriate form of expressing pluralization in your language? List all forms of plural forms and examples if there is more than one. Additional discussions can be found Here. https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Mozilla/Localization/Localization_and_Plurals and here: http://www.unicode.org/cldr/charts/latest/supplemental/language_plural_rules.html

Abbreviations

An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word. in English, abbreviations are made by removing most vowels and only using the first 3-5 consonants followed by a period (e.g., abbreviation = abbr.). (see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbreviation)

Abbreviate text if space is an issue or to make the text easier to read at a glance.

Units of time:

  • Century – 20 වන ශතවර්ශය
  • Decades – 80 දශකය, 90 දශකය
  • Months – ජන, පෙබ, මාර්, අප්‍රේ, මැයි, ජුනි, ජූලි, අගෝ, සැප්, ඔක්, නොවැ, දෙසැ
  • Dates – ජන 10, මාර් 11
  • Days – ඉරිදා, සදුද, අඟ, බදා, බ්‍රහ, සිකු, සෙන හෝ ඉ, ස, අ, බ, බ්‍ර, සි, සෙ
  • Hours – මිනි, තත්, පෙ.ව., ප.ව. (උදා: පෙ.ව. 1, ප.ව. 2.30)
  • Other common usages:
  • Examples – උදා: උදාහරණ
  • info (no period) – ඉඩ අවශ්‍ය පරිදි ඇත්නම් ‘තොරතුරු’ ලෙස භාවිත කරන්න.
  • US - එ.ජ. හෝ එ.ජ.ඇ.

Acronyms

There is no standard translations of widely accepted acronyms such as CD, DVD, MB, TCP, SMS in Sinhala. So keep them remain in English (see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acronym )

Punctuation

Do you use different punctuation rules in your Firefox localization than what your language standard defines?

  • Example: do you use a period at the end of every user interface element translation or only some? What is the international/national standard for punctuation in your language?

Emphasis

Capitalization is not available in Sinhala.

  • Save, save - සුරකින්න
  • Edit, edit - සකසන්න

please keep original terms as it is in English, in case of entire word in capital letters.

The use of bold, italic, or underline types to express emphasis.

First translate (without considering text formatting) and then make relevant text formatting in respective words or strings.

Hyphens and compounds

What is the appropriate way of using hyphens and compounds in your language? ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compound_%28linguistics%29)

Prepositions and articles

What is the appropriate form of expressing prepositions and articles in your language?

Diacritics and Special characters

Does your language use any special or accented characters and will they be applied and preserved in sort orders, and other aspects of the translation? (see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diacritic)

Quotes

Does your language have a standard use for quotation marks, parenthesis, or brackets?

Whitespace

Does your language require the use of white space around words, sentences, paragraphs, etc.? If so, in what ways? (see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sentence_spacing_in_language_and_style_guides)

User Interface Elements

  • Titles : Should be brief and precise. Localizers can assume that source content reaches 2/3 of the total available line space. This allows localization text to expand and not be truncated or resolved through ellipsis. Title on the final page (meaning no more click through) should allow enough room to display full text.
  • Buttons: Capitalize the first letter of each word. Limit to one or two words. Use verbs that precisely describe the button's action.
    • For example, "Cancel", "Clear History", "Add Email", "Select All", etc.
  • Value Selector Lists: Capitalize the first letter of the first word and the first letter of any proper nouns. Limit to one or two words.
  • Articles: Avoid them where possible. Articles (such as the word "the" in English) should be avoided wherever possible. User interface elements have limited space available for text. Avoiding articles will help ensure that your translations will be accommodated within the user interface.
  • Ellipsis: Ellipsis are often inserted automatically in the UI where strings are truncated. Ellipsis should only be used at high level of UI pages, but not be on the final page (after a series of click-through) where detailed instruction is given. Ellipsis should not be used as a way to solve truncation issue. Focus on making the UI short and precise. The sequence of the sentence structure in another language may not translate well, when a sentence is half finished as such.

General Mozilla l10n style

Accuracy Meaning-based translation When it comes to translation, meaning is everything. A translator needs to understand the source text's meaning exactly. You then find its most closely linked equivalent in your own language, without adding or subtracting meaning in your translation. Finding meaning-based equivalents between languages can be difficult. To help concentrate your thoughts, ask yourself questions like:

  • What does this word/sentence/string mean in English?
  • What is the message the author is trying to send?
  • How would I express that meaning in my own language?

Sometimes translation memory and machine translation tools can offer bad suggestions for a translation. If you use either as part of your translation workflow, make sure to correct the suggestions before submitting them. Avoid literal translation at all costs. Watch out for words that might sound or look the same between English and your language, but have a different meaning. Should not be translated Shortcuts and accesskeys

In Firefox and other software it's possible to use keyboard shortcuts to invoke a specific command. For example, to open a file in Firefox you can press the combination of keys CTRL+O (Cmd+O on Mac). The accelerator key depends on the operative system, but the letter itself is normally localizable. This is what is called a shortcut, or commandkey. For example, the Open File… menu item is stored as

<!ENTITY openFileCmd.label "Open File…"> <!ENTITY openFileCmd.accesskey "O"> <!ENTITY openFileCmd.commandkey "o">

The commandkey is stored in openFileCmd.commandkey (sometimes the string has .key in the identifier). Normally you should not localize this key, since shortcuts are often common across the entire operative system (e.g. CTRL+S to Save) or similar products (CTRL+T to open a new tab in most browsers). But it needs to be localized if the letter is not available in your keyboard layout. For example, in Italian the character [ can be accessed through ALT+è, a command key [ would not work.

In the code fragment above you see also an accesskey defined for Open File…. Accesskeys are used to access a UI element from the keyboard. Example: if File menu has an accesskey F, and the Open file… menu has O, you can press ALT+F to access the menu, and then O to open a file.

If the label is File, and the accesskey is F, it will be displayed as "File" on Windows and Linux, with an underscored F. If the accesskey was "O", so a character not available in the original label, it will be displayed underlined between parenthesis: "File (O)".

One important thing to determine is if, for your locale, it makes sense to have localized accesskeys: for example, if most users will use a keyboard with a different layout (English), it might make sense to keep the English original accesskey instead of using a letter available in your localization.

Accesskeys, like commandkeys, have their own lines within .dtd and .properties files and are usually identified by .accesskey in the string ID. Variables

Variables should never be translated. You can recognize a variable within a string by its beginning with a specific character (e.g., $, #, %, etc.) followed by a combination of words without spacing. For example, $BrandShortName and %S are variables. You can move a variable around within a string, if the translation of the string requires it. Brands, copyright, and trademark

Brand names, as well as copyright and trademarks should never be translated, nor transliterated into a non-Latin based script. See the Mozilla branding guide for more details.

Translating culture-specific references

At times there will be English content included in Mozilla products or web projects (e.g., marketing campaigns) that makes references to American culture and concepts. When translating these, it is best to find an equivalent cultural reference within your own culture that accurately conveys the meaning of the English reference. For example, an American might say, "Good job, home run!" A home run is a baseball reference for a successful outcome. An appropriate translation would be an equivalent metaphor within your culture. Using soccer as an example, you might translate "Good job, home run!" into "Good job, nice goal!" in your language.

[Add a note about Mozilla culture.] Legal content

Mozilla projects will often contain legal content in the form of user agreements, privacy statements, etc. When reviewing the translation of legal content, Mozilla localizers should do so according to the criteria concerning accuracy, fluency, style, and terminology found within this style guide and according to Mozilla culture and values. Fluency

To produce a fluent translation, not only should the translation follow the language's standard grammar, punctuation, and spelling rules, but it should avoid being ambiguous, incoherent, or inconsistent, and unintelligible.

To avoid ambiguity, the translator must thoroughly understand the meaning behind the source text, including any references that text might include. For example, if the English source text uses the word, "it", the translator must know what "it" is to avoid an ambiguous translation. Clearly understanding the source text will also allow a translator to make the source text's logical connections in their own translation. This helps to keep the translation coherent.

Inconsistency can pop up in many forms. A translator must be consistent in their use of abbreviations, references, and links within each localization project. They must also be consistent with Mozilla and the localization communities' style guides and approved terminology. Abbreviations, like terminology, should come from either a standard reference (like a dictionary of abbreviations) or should follow your language's rules for creating abbreviations. Once used, the abbreviation must remain consistent every place that it is used in the translation. Cross-references (or links) must also be consistently used within a translation. If a text contains a hyperlink URL to a support article in English, the translation should also contain a hyperlink to a translation of that support article (if available) or the English version. Links should not redirect to other pages nor should they be broken and unusable.

Finally, there are times that a translation simply doesn't make sense. It's hard to put your finger on what exactly is wrong with it, but you know it is unintelligible and not fluent. While this is uncommon, it's important to report these unintelligible translations and offer suggestions to correct them.

Style Guide Slovenian (sl)

sl Logo

Slogovni priročnik za slovensko L10n ekipo

Najlepša hvala, da nam pomagaš pri prevajanju Mozillinih izdelkov in vsebine! Naše delo je odvisno od prostovoljk in prostovoljcev, kot si ti, in veseli smo vsakega novega člana.

Nočemo se zadovoljiti s površnimi in dobesednimi prevodi, ki jih lahko skropucamo med preklapljanjem z ene računalniške igre na drugo (čeprav so marsikje pogosti). Uporabnikom želimo svoje programe in storitve ponuditi v njihovem jeziku s kvalitetnimi prevodi. Ta priročnik vsebuje nekaj nasvetov, kako lahko izboljšaš svoje prevode, ter opiše pogoste napake, katerim se je treba izogibati.

Seveda od tebe, sploh, če si začetnik pri prevajanju, ne zahtevamo že od samega začetka popolnih prevodov - drugi smo tu, da ti pomagamo. Tvoje prevode bomo spočetka pregledovali in po potrebi popravili, ti pa preleti popravke, poišči ponavljajoče se napake in jih vzemi na znanje za prihodnje prevode. Iz izkušenj se naučimo več kot iz vsakega priročnika!

ml10n Logo

Kakšen jezik naj uporabljam?

Jezik se lahko razlikuje glede na kontekst - naše delo zajema prevajanje od spletne strani s kampanjo za prenos Firefoxa pa do bolj tehničnih navodil in pravnih obvestil. Jezik je treba temu primerno prilagoditi, osnovno pravilo pa je: Mozilla smo ljudje in z uporabniki želimo komunicirati karseda naravno, kot človek s človekom. Jezik naj bo zato:

  • Čimbolj priljuden in sproščen ter ne pravniški ali robotski.
  • Razumljiv tudi računalnikov neveščemu uporabniku ter ne preveč žargonski.
  • Čimbolj živ in raznolik (to naredi vsako branje prijetnejše).

Pri slovenski Mozilli smo zagreti zagovorniki slovenjenja izrazov. Zato se trudimo izogibati tujkam in sposojenkam ter poskušamo vse termine prevesti v slovenščino. Npr. certifikat/digitalno potrdilo, e-mail naslov/e-poštni naslov, kompatibilen/združljiv, verzija/različica ...

Terminologija

Firefox in drugi programi so seveda polni imen za svoje funkcije (»Add-on Manager«, »bookmarks«, »search engine« …). Poleg tega se v skoraj vsakem besedilu na temo računalnikov pojavljajo določeni izrazi, kot so »download«, »toolbar«, »setting«, »checkbox« in tako dalje.

Za veliko slednjih obstaja cel kup različnih prevodov v slovenščino, od katerih je ponavadi pravilen le en, drugi pa veljajo za žargonske, pogovorne ali kako drugače neustrezne. Popolnejši seznam angleških izrazov in slovenskih prevodov zanje sestavljamo tu: https://goo.gl/pKWLmq

Za izraze v Firefoxu, Thunderbirdu, operacijskem sistemu in drugih programih vedno uporabljamo slovenske različice, ki so v slovenskih prevodih že uveljavljene. Npr. termin »Add-on Manager« je v Firefoxu preveden kot »upravitelj dodatkov«, zato uporabljamo ta prevod in ne izumljamo svojih, kot je »upravljalnik dodatkov« ali »skrbnik za dodatke«. Ime Windows se nikjer v sistemu ne sklanja (povsod piše »v sistemu Windows«), zato se tega držimo tudi v naših prevodih in ne pišemo »v Windowsu« ali »v Windowsih«.

  • Če nismo prepričani, kako se imenuje kak del vmesnika Firefoxa ali Thunderbirda, preverimo v programu samem ali poiščemo prevod z orodjem Transvision: https://transvision.mozfr.org/

Slovnica in sestava stavkov

Slovnici angleščine in slovenščine sta precej različni in slovenski stavki imajo pogosto drugačno strukturo kot angleški. Če torej pri prevajanju orješ besedo za besedo kot traktor, bodo prevodi skoraj vedno zveneli nenaravno in včasih celo nesmiselno. Veliko boljše prevode dobiš, če prebereš poved(i), razmisliš, kako bi to povedali po slovensko, in tako tudi napišeš prevod.

Ni nujno, da je vse prevedeno dobesedno – prej obratno. Važno je, da je prevod moč brati z enako lahkoto, kot če bi bilo besedilo že v izvirniku napisano v slovenščini. Če dobesedno prevajamo določene besedne zveze in če se ne oziramo na posebnosti slovenščine, si bralec že po prvem stavku misli »Kakšen 'most smartest' prevajalec«.

Če prevajaš daljše besedilo, si po opravljenem delu vzemi nekaj minut prediha, nato pa svoj prevod še enkrat preberi ter se prepričaj, da se tudi v slovenščini bere tekoče, smiselno in da zveni naravno. Ko se tako vživiš v vlogo bralca, lahko začutiš pomanjkljivosti besedila in narediš še zadnje popravke.

Primer, ki ni za dobesedno prevajanje

»Be sure to regularly visit the Plugin Check page to keep your plugins up-to-date.«

Prevod »Prepričajte se, da redno obiščete stran za preverjanje vtičnikov, da obdržite vtičnike posodobljene« se ne sliši najbolje. V njem nas lahko zmoti naslednje:

  • Besedna zveza »Be sure/make sure« v tem kontekstu ni ravno primerno za slovenščino in jo lahko nadomestimo s čim primernejšim (npr. velelnikom »redno obiskujte« ali »priporočamo, da redno obiskujete«).
  • Neskončna veriga veznikov »da, da, da« daje vtis četrtošolčevega spisa in jo lahko razbijemo z drugimi vezniki.
  • Če so naši obiski strani ponavljajoči, jo redno obiskujemo, ne redno obiščemo - uporabiti moramo nedovršno obliko glagola.

Bolj smiseln prevod bi bil na primer: »Priporočamo, da redno obiskujete stran za preverjanje vtičnikov in poskrbite, da ostanejo vaši vtičniki posodobljeni.«

Ali: »Redno obiskujte stran za preverjanje vtičnikov in ohranite svoje vtičnike posodobljene.« kar je jedrnateje in primerneje za npr. promocijsko kampanjo za stran preverjanja vtičnikov.

Če je kak stavek težko smiselno prevesti

V kolikor se kakega stavka ne da prevesti tako, da bi se v slovenščini slišal smiselno, namesto njega vnesi svojega. Dokler besedilo ohrani pomen, bo tudi to v redu. Preberi si kontekst, po potrebi preveri, kaj je sporočilo tega besedila, in to ubesedi na svoj način.

Primer: »When you restart Firefox and restore your previous session, Firefox will wait until you select a tab before loading it. This keeps Firefox running quickly and smoothly.«

Dobesedni prevod bi se glasil: »Ko ponovno zaženete Firefox in obnovite prejšnjo sejo, bo Firefox počakal, da izberete zavihek, preden ga bo naložil. To ohranja tek Firefoxa hiter in gladek.«

Pri takšnem prevodu predvsem pri drugem stavku morda komu ne bi bilo jasno, kaj želimo z njim povedati. Glede na to, kakšne so posledice hkratnega nalaganja ogromno zavihkov po obnovi seje (Firefox za nekaj časa lahko docela zmrzne), lahko stavek prevedemo tudi tako: »Ko ponovno zaženete Firefox in obnovite prejšnjo sejo, bo Firefox zavihke naložil šele, ko kliknete nanje. To prepreči, da bi se Firefox zaradi hkratnega nalaganja velikega števila zavihkov prenehal odzivati.«

Preneseni pomeni, »marketing language«

Če besedilo uporablja prenesene pomene (»idiome«) ali je napisano v »marketing languageu« (reklamnem slogu), jih ne prevajaj dobesedno, saj je potem prevod lahko precej neumen. Raje uporabi slovenske stalne besedne zveze ali napiši prevod v »običajnem«, slogovno nevtralnem jeziku.

Primer: »Learn these simple tricks and browse the web like a boss.«

Dobesedni prevod »Naučite se teh preprostih trikov in brskajte po spletu kot šef« bi pripisali kakemu zelencu s 24ur.com.

Bolje bi bilo na primer: »Naučite se teh preprostih trikov in si olajšajte brskanje po spletu.«

Vrstni red besed

Vrstni red besed v povedi v slovenščini ni strogo določen, a ima stavek glede na vrstni red besed različne prizvoke. Običajno velja, da na konec povedi postavimo besedo, ki jo želimo poudariti.

Primer – okno s seznamom piškotkov: »The following cookies are stored on your computer:«

Možen prevod: »Naslednji piškotki so shranjeni na vašem računalniku:«

Nekoliko bolje je: »Na vašem računalniku so shranjeni naslednji piškotki:«

Prilastki

Prilastki so v slovenščini postavljeni drugače kot v angleščini.

»HTML tags« ali »JPG file« nikoli ne prevedemo kot »HTML oznake« ali »JPG datoteka«, temveč prilastek postavimo na desno: »oznake HTML«, »datoteka JPG«

V primerih, ko je angleška oblika že povsem prevladala, pa prilastek pustimo, kjer je, in besedi ločimo z vezajem – tako na primer prevod »PIN code« kot »koda PIN« zveni nekoliko čudno, lahko pa napišemo »PIN-koda«.

Pogoste napake pri prevajanju – neupoštevanje kompleksnosti slovenščine

Pri hitrem in površnem prevajanju pogosto pride do naslednjih nevšečnosti:

Predlogi

Predlog »from« lahko prevedemo kot »iz« ali »z/s«, glede na to, ali je nekaj »v« ali »na« nečem.

  • »from the menu« -> »iz menija«
  • »from the webpage« -> »s spletne strani«

Podobno velja za druge – »to« -> »v«/»na« ...

Zaimki

Pri zaimku »it« moramo paziti, da ga ustrezno prevedemo kot »ga« ali »jo«, glede na spol tega, na kar se nanaša.

Kaj je kaj

Zaradi različnih zakonitosti slovenščine lahko nek angleški stavek prevedemo v stavke s čisto različnimi pomeni.

Na primer, »Default Search Settings« lahko prevedemo kot »Nastavitve privzetega iskalnika« ali pa tudi »Privzete nastavitve iskanja«. Zato moramo na podlagi konteksta (kje in za kaj je prevod uporabljen) izbrati pravega.

Samostalnik in glagol sta lahko v angleščini enaka. Npr.

  • »Archive« -> »Arhiv« ali »Arhiviraj«
  • »Open Tabs« -> »Odprti zavihki« ali »Odpri zavihke«

Glagolski vid

Primer: »Windows periodically checks for updates.«

Napačen, a vseeno pogost prevod: »Windows občasno preveri, ali so na voljo posodobitve.«

Bolje je, če »preveri« napišemo v nedovršni obliki: »Windows občasno preverja, ali so na voljo posodobitve.«

Povratni svojilni zaimek (svoj)

Napačno: »Zaščitite vašo zasebnost.« Pravilno: »Zaščitite svojo zasebnost.«.

Drugi uporabni napotki

(Vir: večinoma https://wiki.lugos.si/slovenjenje:pravila)

Računalnik je stroj – izogibanje prvi osebi ednine

Računalnik je stroj in ne oseba, torej se, če se le da, uporablja brezosebno obliko.

»Cannot save your settings« se prevede v »Nastavitev ni bilo mogoče shraniti.« in ne »Vaših nastavitev nisem mogel shraniti.«

»Connecting…« se prevede v »Povezovanje …« (in ne »Povezujem …«)

Računalnik nima kaj prositi

Glagola »prosim« ne pišemo, saj gre za anglicizem. V slovenskih navodilih za uporabo zadošča velelnik. »Prosimo« lahko uporabimo, kadar so prosilci skupina ljudi ali organizacija.

Primer: »Please select your timezone.«»Izberite svoj časovni pas.«

Imena funkcij

Imena funkcij pišemo z malo začetnico, čeprav so v angleščini pisana z veliko.

»Click the button to open Private Browsing« prevedemo v »Kliknite gumb, da odprete zasebno brskanje« in ne »...da odprete Zasebno brskanje«.

Datumi, zneski ipd.

V angleščini je običajno mesec naveden pred dnevom, v slovenščini pa obratno. Spremenljivke postavimo v pravilen vrstni red in če so ločene s poševnicami ali vezaji, jih nadomestimo s pikami (za pikami pustimo presledek!).

July 25 → 25. julij

2016/7/25 → 25. 7. 2016

#y/#m/#d → #d. #m. #y

Podobno velja za zneske denarja in njihove valute. €200 → 200 €

Style Guide Spanish, international (es)

Content

SUMO/Guía

Convenciones de traducción

A continuación se recogen unas cuantas convenciones de traducción.

Títulos

Siempre que se traduzca un título al Español que contenga un gerundio en inglés, se tiene que traducir por un infinitivo al Español, por ejemplo:

Installing Firefox

habría que traducirlo por:

Instalar Firefox

(y nunca como Instalando Firefox)

En los títulos, nunca utilices puntos para terminar las frases: ni en los títulos de los documentos ni en los encabezados de secciones en el artículo.

Además, ten en cuenta que la norma en español es traducir los títulos sólo con la primera letra de la primera palabra en mayúscula (excepto si es nombre propio) y las demás palabras todas en minúscula, así por ejemplo:

Importing From Safari On Windows

debería ser:

Importar desde Safari en Windows

(no Desde o En, nota la mayúscula)

Tratamiento al lector

La convención es utilizar siempre tratamiento de tú (Puedes seleccionar el archivo que quieres abrir) en lugar de usted (Puede seleccionar el archivo que quiere abrir). En general, es preferible evitar algunas construcciones específicas a determinados países (por ejemplo, el uso de "Podés seleccionar el archivo que querés abrir" en Argentina o Uruguay) usando el español más genérico.

Formato de los enlaces

Los enlaces en el wiki de SUMO se escriben así:

[[página|descripción]]

Pero, como el sistema tiene relacionados los artículos en los distintos idiomas y, al mismo tiempo, sabe qué idioma prefiere el visitante, si mantenemos las referencias a las páginas en inglés, modificando únicamente la descripción (si es que en inglés existe), nos será más fácil asegurar que todos referenciamos un mismo artículo traducido desde cualquier sitio. Por ejemplo, si el artículo en inglés tiene este texto:

...if you need help about installing Firefox, you can read [[Installing Firefox in Windows]].

conviene que lo traduzcamos así:

...si necesitas ayuda sobre cómo instalar Firefox, puedes leer [[Installing Firefox in Windows]].

Así, si en otro artículo que referencie el documento de instalación en Windows, alguien se confunde al traducir el título y pone "Instalando Firefox en Windows", al mantener la referencia al documento en inglés original no acabaremos teniendo dos traducciones distintas para el mismo artículo.

En el caso de que en inglés la frase con enlace esté de esta manera:

...you can see more about privacy in the [[Options Window|panel Privacy in Options Window]]

habría que traducirlo como:

...puedes ver más acerca de la privacidad en el [[Options Window|panel Privacidad de la ventana de Opciones]]

Documentar en es para múltiples variantes es-*

Sólo hay un idioma "es" en SUMO, pero tenemos que documentar para distintas variantes (es-AR, es-ES, etc.) y cada uno usa distintos términos en español para algunos términos en inglés (por ejemplo, "add-ons" se traduce como "agregados" en es-AR y como "complementos" en es-ES).

Para minimizar las diferencias y el esfuerzo para los traductores, hemos acordado que, quien traduzca un documento, use en estos casos su término local, añadiendo con una barra los términos de las otras variantes. Por ejemplo, una página traducida podría ser así:

El administrador de agregados/complementos te permite gestionar tus extensiones y temas.

En la página SUMO/Glosario verás las diferentes variantes del español que actualmente hay en SUMO.

Imágenes

Es preferible que no localices las imágenes sustituyéndolas por una con una localización al Español. La mayoría de las imágenes en inglés son suficientemente descriptivas y además, siempre se pone una explicación (escrita) de lo que muestran las imágenes.

Aunque si quieres sustituir alguna de ellas por una versión traducida, puedes hacerlo, pero POR FAVOR, no llames al archivo igual que en la versión en-US, porque entonces estarás sustituyendo la imagen también en el documento en inglés.

Botones, etiquetas, ventanas…

La regla general en inglés es que se escriban los botones, ventanas, títulos, enlaces con cada palabra comenzando en mayúscula, por ejemplo:

Private Browsing

Page Information

esto es erróneo en español, y hay que traducirlo sólo la primera palabra en mayúscula, así por ejemplo:

Navegación privada

Información de la página

Si estos nombres son utilizados en una oración, hay que mantener el formato del español, por ejemplo:

Puedes navegar de forma privada yendo al menú Herramientas y posteriormente seleccionando Navegación privada.

Esto se hace así porque hacen referencia a elementos de la interfaz que están traducidos de esta manera en el programa

Guía de estilo para La Guarida y Firefox y Tú

Tratamiento al usuario

Se tratará al usuario de tú. Por ejemplo:

  • Get the easy setup code on your Android phone -> Obtén el código de configuración fácil en tu teléfono Android

Convenciones ortográficas y léxicas

  • En los elementos de la interfaz del usuario solo se escribe en mayúscula la primera palabra. Por ejemplo:
    • Bookmarks Toolbar -> Barra de herramientas de marcadores
    • Bookmarks -> Marcadores
  • Los títulos de los artículos y secciones se escriben en mayúscula solo la primera palabra. Por ejemplo:
    • 4 Reasons to Try the Updated Firefox for Android -> Cuatro razones para probar la versión actualizada de Firefox para Android
  • Los nombres de idioma y los adjetivos de nacionalidad se escriben en minúscula. Por ejemplo:
    • Spanish -> español
  • Se evitará el uso de anglicismos innecesarios. Por ejemplo:
    • e-mail -> correo electrónico

Para cualquier duda, consulta la documentación del proyecto en Recursos para traductores

Puntuación

  • Sustituye la raya por los dos puntos :
  • Los títulos y encabezados nunca deben acabar en.

Coherencia

Etiquetas

La función de las etiquetas es precisamente ordenar y catalogar la información. Es imprescindible que todos usemos siempre las mismas:

Fast Firefox -> acelera Firefox
Firefox Update -> actualiza Firefox
Firefox Tabs -> pestañas Firefox
Speed -> Velocidad
Customize Firefox -> Personalizar Firefox
Firefox Toolbar -> Barra de herramientas de Firefox
Firefox Tip -> Consejos para Firefox
Bookmarks -> Marcadores
App Tabs -> Pestañas de aplicaciones
Firefox in 5 Minutes -> Firefox en 5 minutos
Plug-ins -> Plugins
Firefox Shortcuts -> Accesos directos de Firefox
Security -> Seguridad
Do Not Track -> No rastrear
History -> Historial
Firefox Reset -> Restablecer Firefox
Search -> Búsqueda

Características

Awesome Bar/ Awesome Screen -> Barra Alucinante/Pantalla Alucinante
url -> URL (mayúscula y siempre singular)
menu bar -> barra de menús

Guía de estilo de Mozilla Guía de estilo de SUMO

Style Guide Spanish, Chile, (es-CL)

Introducción

Bienvenido a la guía de estilo para la localización de es-CL. Aquí encontrarás las reglas y la terminología que utilizamos para tener una línea definida en el estilo de traducción, manteniendo así la coherencia y consistencia en el programa:

Esta guía se divide en dos partes, la primera trata sobre el estilo y las reglas específicas del lenguaje que usamos para la localización. La segunda parte hace alusión a las reglas generales que Mozilla definió para todo traductor (incluyendo principios de precisión y fluidez), una ayuda para ayudarte a traducir mejor.

Estilo y reglas específicas del lenguaje

Estilo

El estilo de es-CL, en términos generales, se caracteriza por ser directo con sus usuarios. A continuación encontrarás los detalles con respecto a la manera en que nos aproximamos al lector.

Formalidad y Tono

Para la localización de es-CL usamos un tono relativamente informal y nos dirigimos a la segunda persona en la formulación de las oraciones (a un "Tú" en vez de a un "Usted"), esto es para aparentar una cercanía con el lector, recurso que nos es pertinente bajo el contexto social chileno.

Expresiones naturales

Es importante usar expresiones que le parezcan naturales al lector, de forma de que se transmita el mensaje exactamente como se quiere expresar y le brinden comodidad y gracia al usuario. La exacta transmisión de lo que quiere expresarse en una forma natural puede requerir experiencia y conocimiento socio-cultural.

Expresiones culturales y jergas

En es-CL nos parece adecuada la utilización de jergas y expresiones idiomáticas o culturales, ya que estas suelen fomentar el tipo de relación que queremos llegar a tener con el usuario. Es importante usarlas con precisión y discreción, de modo de que no se dificulte la comprensión del mensaje a transmitir. El uso de estas expresiones requiere evidentemente de un conocimiento cultural y un correcto entendimiento tanto del mensaje a traducir como del mensaje a transmitir.

Consistencia

Es importante que los traductores sepan como mantener la consistencia en las traducciones, para esto hemos creado un glosario con algunas palabras conflictivas con sus respectivas traducciones según es-CL. Es relevante que se revise constantemente la consistencia, para esto existen herramientas como Transvision que pueden usar los controladores de calidad para dejar todo en un estilo similar de traducción.

Unidades de conversión

Formato de fecha

El formato para escribir fechas es el siguiente: Día/Mes/Año

Números

Los números se expresan con su respectivo símbolo. Con la coma (,) se separan los decimales y los miles, con un punto (.).

ejemplo: 1,23 (separación de decimales) y 1.000 (separación de miles)

Moneda

Para el precio de las aplicaciones u otros utilizamos el símbolo $.

Unidades

Para medir unidades de distancia, peso y otros utilizamos el sistema métrico.

Nombres

Para los nombres de personas se escriben primero los nombres y después el apellido.

Ortografía y gramática

La ortografía y gramática que usamos es la normativa del español, con algunas palabras exclusivamente chilenas añadidas.

Abreviaciones

No usamos abreviaciones de palabras debido a que pueden complicar el entendimiento del mensaje

Los conceptos escritos en ingles que no tienen traducción en es-CL, se dejan tal como están (no se abrevian).

Puntuación

La mayoría de los mensajes deben terminar con un punto, pero en este ítem se debe considerar la cadena en la fuente original. Generalmente si la cadena termina con punto, la cadena traducida también lo hará, en caso contrario no lo hará.

Mayúsculas

Solo escribimos la primera palabra de cada cadena con mayúsculas, a menos que se mencionen nombres propios, nombres de compañía, marcas, productos y títulos de libros en cuyo caso estas también llevan mayúsculas.

Títulos : Deben ser breves y precisos. Los localizadores deben asumir que 2/3 de la cadena es de contenido. Esto ayuda a que las cadenas se vean enteras y no sean cortadas por los tres puntitos (...).

Reglas generales L10n de Mozilla

Precisión

Traducción basada en el significado

Al traducir, el significado es lo más importante. Un traductor debe entender exactamente lo que quiere decir el texto, para después escribir la traducción equivalente en el idioma a localizar. Lograr esto puede ser difícil, por lo que te recomendamos preguntarte la siguientes preguntas:

  • ¿Que significa esta palabra/oración/cadena en ingles?
  • ¿Cual es el mensaje que el autor esta tratando de transmitir?
  • ¿Como expresaría eso en mi idioma?

Usualmente la memoria de traducción y la traducción automática pueden ofrecer sugerencias incorrectas. Si usas alguna de estas herramientas asegúrate de corregir estas sugerencias antes de enviar tu trabajo. Intenta evitar la traducción literal, muchas veces no es la forma adecuada de localizar. Fíjate bien en las palabras que se escriben igual en ingles que en español, pero tienen distinto significado.

No debe traducirse

Teclas de acceso rápido

Las teclas de acceso rápido permiten al usuario saltar inmediatamente a alguna parte de una página web, estas se pueden modificar para que se adapten a diferentes idiomas. Las teclas de acceso rápido tienen sus propias lineas dentro de los archivos .dtd y .properties, estas pueden ser identificadas porque tienen en su nombre ".acceskey".

Variables

Las variables no deben ser traducidas. Puedes reconocer una variable en una cadena cuando esta empieza con un carácter especial ($, #, %, etc.) seguido de una combinación de letras sin espacios. Por ejemplo, $BrandShortName y %S son variables. Puedes mover una variable dentro de la cadena si la traducción lo requiere.

Marcas y copyright

Marcas, nombre de empresas y copyrights no deben ser traducidos. ve a href="https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/styleguide/communications/translation/">la guía para marcas para más detalles.

Contenido legal

Los proyectos de Mozilla se referirán muchas veces a contenido legal, en forma de acuerdos de usuario, normas de privacidad,etc. Para traducir estas, los localizadores deberán traducir con precaución y acorde a los criterios de precisión y fluidez contenidos en esta guía, y siempre en consonancia con los valores y cultura de Mozilla.

Fluidez

Para producir una traducción fluida, esta no solo debe seguir la gramática, puntuación y ortografía correcta, si no que también debe evitar ser ambigua, incoherente, inconsistente e ininteligible.

Para evitar la ambigüedad, el traductor debe entender el significado detrás de la fuente, incluyendo todas las implicancias que el texto pretende sugerir. Por ejemplo, si la palabra "it" es mencionada en el texto fuente, el traductor debe comprender a lo que se esta haciendo alusión. Esto ayuda a mantener la traducción coherente.

Finalmente, en la revisión, hay veces en que las traducciones de algunas cadenas no tienen sentido y si no sabes exactamente como arreglarlas, pero sabes que carecen de inteligibilidad y fluidez, entonces puedes reportarlas a otros traductores.

Style Guide Spanish, Spain (es-ES)

Convenciones de traducción

  • La traducción de productos usa el tratamiento formal del usuario ("Choose an option:" → "Elija una opción:"), si bien se debe intentar, siempre que sea posible, utilizar formas impersonales.

  • Por el contrario, la traducción de contenido web, aunque sea relativa a un producto, usa el tratamiento informal ("When you use Firefox, you browse safer" → "Cuando usas Firefox, navegas más seguro").

  • Antes de traducir un término que puede encontrarse en otros paquetes de software, se debe buscar en el glosario (p.e.: Print Preview). La traducción presente en el glosario de Mozilla tiene preferencia sobre otras traducciones frecuentes.

  • Las mayúsculas deben llevar tilde cuando sea necesario.

  • Uso Indiscriminado De Mayúsculas: muchas cadenas de productos Mozilla tienen demasiadas palabras en mayúsculas. El acuerdo actual sobre en qué condiciones se mantienen las mayúsculas es que, como normal general, no se respetan las mayúsculas que no sean inicio de frase o nombres propios, cumpliendo así las normas de ortografía española. En cuanto a qué partes de los productos Mozilla se consideran entidades propias y, por tanto, con nombres propios, actualmente se consideran las siguientes:

    • Mozilla
    • Navigator
    • Composer
    • Mail & News
    • ChatZilla
  • y no se consideran como tales las siguientes:

    • Address Book
    • Bookmarks
    • Manager (Cookie Manager, Form Manager, Certificate Manager...)
  • No obstante, está por decidir si todos los nombres anteriores, incluyendo los de entidades propias, se traducen o no.

  • A diferencia del inglés americano, en español los signos de puntuación van fuera de paréntesis, comillas, etc. Ej.:

    • Original en inglés: This will cancel the process (you can always do it later.)
    • Traducción: Esto cancelará el proceso (siempre podrá hacerlo más adelante).
  • Hay muchos mensajes parametrizados, bien con secuencias del tipo #1, #2, etc., bien con indicadores del tipo %COLNAME%. Hay que llevar especial cuidado en mantener inalterados todos los parámetros.

  • También hay mensajes que se extienden por más de una línea, por lo que incluyen saltos de línea. En la vista Chrome no se pueden apreciar los saltos, por lo que los mensajes largos, con palabras aparentemente pegadas, o con parámetros que parecen tener como nombre #1Location, #2Filename, etc. es preferible utilizar la edición en ventana ([Alt]+[E]).

  • En la traducción de la ayuda pueden encontrarse referencias a un glosario de términos (p.e.: 'For short definitions, click authentication'. Puesto que los términos pueden variar en su traducción al español, se ha optado por mantener el nombre del enlace interno en el archivo glossary.xhtml. Por tanto, la traducción de la secuencia anterior, ya que es acuerdo de este proyecto traducir authentication por identificación, sería 'Para definiciones, haga clic en identificación'.

  • También en la traducción de la ayuda es frecuente encontrar encabezados de sección de la forma Customizing Mozilla, Creating web pages with Composer, Navigating web pages, etc. La traducción de esta forma -ing debe ser al infinitivo, no al gerundio. Por tanto, los ejemplos anteriores se traducirían como Personalizar Mozilla, Crear páginas web con Composer y Navegar por las páginas web, respectivamente.

Cuestiones abiertas

  • Traducción de Locale: las propuestas son Configuración de zona, Configuración regional, Configuración de región y Configuración internacional. La fase de votación finalizó con empate entre Configuración de zona y Configuración regional.
  • Traducción de User-Agent (en el correo y grupos de noticias): las propuestas son Agente de usuario y User-Agent (mantener original para las cabeceras de correo, por considerarse términos universales). La fase de votación finalizó con empate.

Style Guide Swahili (sw)

Introduction

This style guide is intended for translators working on Swahili Mozilla projects. It provides in-depth information about the quality standards expected by Mozilla for the translation of all product components. All translators should read this guide before commencing any translation work.

This guide addresses general translation issues and specifies certain rules of style and usage specific to your language. It should be used as a guideline to avoid common typographic errors, and to maintain consistent terminology and writing style across a project’s components and indeed a product range. The guide should be used in conjunction with the current and previous product-specific glossaries, glossaries of other products of a product range, and the industry standard platform-specific glossaries, such as those provided by Microsoft.

This document may be updated or completed in the course of translation. Where no specific instruction or recommendation is specified, translators should use the phrasing and style that comply with industry standards.

General Style Considerations

Style guidelines

Follow these basic rules:

  • Original American English text tends to be rather casual. For Swahili language the general style should be clear, friendly and concise. Being friendly does not mean using overly colloquial language – it is crucial to consistently maintain a professional tone, but use contemporary, up-to-date style and common words. Use language that resembles conversation observed in everyday settings as opposed to the formal, technical language that is often used for technical and commercial content.
  • Try to avoid long, nested sentence constructions. If necessary, break up the original sentence and regroup it syntactically.
  • Use wording that is succinct, unambiguous, and free of jargon.
  • Produce a translation that sounds as it if was originally written in your language, i.e. avoid following the original source sentence structure too closely.
  • Always bear in mind who your target audience is (i.e. an experienced computer user, a beginner, or a combination of both groups).
  • Use a consistent style throughout all product components and across a product range, to ensure that all Mozilla products can be linguistically identified as part of a group of products.

Style guidelines specific to Mozilla products

Please refer to the reference documentation supplied by Mozilla and any Mozilla style guides and make a note of anything significant and specific that should be noted with respect to Mozilla.

Reference terminology

The following terminology sources should be used as reference in the translation:

  • Product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency across all product components.
  • Previous version product-specific glossary, if any, to ensure consistency between versions.
  • Glossaries of other Mozilla products, to ensure cross-product consistency.
  • Microsoft / Apple glossaries, to ensure adherence to the industry standards. It is your responsibility to make sure that you always have the latest Microsoft and Apple glossaries at your disposal. The glossaries can be found at: http://www.microsoft.com/Language and https://developer.apple.com/download/more/?=Glossaries

Terminology not found in the glossary or style guide

  • Please make a log of any terms not found in the glossary or style guide that are used frequently in the materials. Return this log to Rubric so that the terms can be incorporated into the glossary. This increases consistency in large projects.

Abbreviations

General Abbreviations

  • Avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations such as min. for minutes. Where no appropriate abbreviation exists, use the whole word.
  • Note: Kiswahili time is counted differently from the am/pm system used in Europe and the US. However, computer systems have not yet been designed that correctly localize time for the East African market. Therefore, computer users currently use the am/pm system when they are interacting with technological components.

Measurements and Numerals

  • Be careful of the difference in use between periods and commas as decimal markers in different languages.

Numbers (includes currency, dates and times) We use numbers in text, when referring to currency, and in time stamps and dates.

In offline files, use numerals for numbers greater than ten. Numbers one through ten should be written out in full. On the UI and in series of numbers or measurements, use all numbers (even 1).

From 0 to 9999, digits should be together with no separator, while from 10 000 onwards a nonbreaking space should be used to set off groups of 3 digits.

  • 10

  • 100

  • 1000

  • 10 000

  • 100 000

  • 1 000 000

  • Use a comma as decimal separator.

Currency

Use the numerical form and stick to the English source. If you need to mention currency or time alongside another type of number, spell out the other number to make the currency or time more prominent (ex: buy two deals and save $20 – nunua matoleo mawili na uokoe $ 20 ).

Note: Don't localize amounts from US Dollars to Ksh (or other currencies) yourself unless it is clearly an example that has been made up.

Time stamps and dates

Use the numerical form and write the numbers as compactly as possible. Use 12 hour clock.

  • 5 minutes ago ( dakika 5 zilizopita)
  • January 9 at 9:16pm ( Januari 9 saa 9: 16pm)

Filename Extensions

Filename extensions and graphic formats referenced by filename extensions such as BMP, GIF, HTML, PNG, TIFF must not be translated.

Acronyms

Acronyms are made up of the initial letters of several words that are represented by these letters. Some well-known examples are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory).

Use recognised translations of acronyms where these exist, but avoid creating new, non-standard acronyms.

Examples: Data Access Objects (DAO) ActiveX data objects (ADO)

In Swahili, many acronyms are standardized and remain untranslated. They are only followed by their full spelling in English if the acronym needs to be explained to Kiswahili-speaking audiences. In other cases, where the acronym is rather common, adding the fully spelled out form will not add any value but only confuse users. In these cases, the acronym can be used on its own.

Example:

  • ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
  • ISO (International Standards Organization)
  • ISDN
  • DSL
  • CD
  • DVD

Articles

Product Names

  • Mozilla product names are used without definite or indefinite articles. They are treated as proper names.

Copyrights and Trademarks

Product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated.

Before translating any product or component name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way.

Also, bear in mind that the same product may be marketed under different names in different countries.

If in doubt, please contact the Rubric Project Manager.

Translation of Version Strings

Please use the following guidelines when localizing version strings.

Gender-neutral Translation

In Kiswahili, gender is most often never specified. . In a sentence such as “Mwanafunzi wa darasa hilo alisherekea,” you have no linguistic clues as to the gender of the student (mwanafunzi).

Only a few verbs in Kiswahili are gender specific. If you need to mention marriage, use a variant of “kufunga ndoa” to indicate that someone is married, rather than “kuoa” (male) or “kuolewa” (female). The other gender-specific verbs involve sexual situations.

Kiswahili does not distinguish gender for nouns, except for pairs that are explicitly about gender: "man/woman", "boy/girl" mvulana/msichana, "sister/brother" dada/kaka, etc.

Genitive

Is used in grammatical contexts to denote special word categories. It is used in formation of compound terms through formation of conjunctions. Nouns can be modified by other nouns or other categories. There is prototypically a head word that comes before the connector and another one following.

Convention 1 (e.g. Attaching a genitive “s” to (trademarked) product names is not feasible, as it could be interpreted as a modification of such names.)

Example:

en-US sourceKiswahili target
Tom’s computerKompyuta ya Tom

Localised Term vs. English Term

Inflections

The examples below show how English loanwords inflect for number in Kiswahili

Example:

en-US sourceKiswahili target
Videos Files DisksVideo Faili Diski

Plural Formation

Kiswahili Plurals are grammatical numbers that refer to more than one of the referent in day to day life.

In Kiswahili, to form the plural of nouns and adjectives depends on the noun class. Kiswahili nouns are divided into 11 classes that generally follow the syntax rules. For most nouns, the prefix before the root tells whether it’s in singular or plural. However, there are some nouns that don’t change in their structure* the change is realized in the syntax. For example we have the noun class of all the nouns that have life* mostly human beings. E.g. Mtu (singular person) watu (plural for people). This class is called M-WA. In this class many nouns have prefix m* in the singular and wa* in the plural. However there are very many irregular nouns that don’t follow this rule. E.g. Rafiki (friend) Daktari (doctor)

Example:

en-US sourceKiswahili target
Friends TeachersMarafiki

Verbs and Verb Forms

For US English Mozilla voice, verb tense helps to convey the clarity of Mozilla voice. Simple tenses are used. The easiest tense to understand is the simple present, like we use in this guide. Avoid future tense unless you are describing something that will really happen in the future and the simple present tense is inapplicable. Use simple past tense when you describe events that have already happened.

Kiswahili verbs are often given in the stem form in dictionaries. Two examples of verb stems are 'lala' meaning 'sleep' and 'sema' meaning speak. Various markers are then added or prefixed to the verb stem to change the meaning. One such prefix is ku which is equivalent to the English infinitive or 'to' form of the verb.

So: ku + verb stem gives the infinitive. 'kulala' means to sleep 'kusema' meas'to speak' Verbs in Kiswahili must end in a suffix and this is shown with the verb 'kujua' meaning to know (verb stem 'jua'). ku (verb prefix) ju (verb stem) a (suffix) The suffix isn't always 'a' and verbs of Arabic origin end in 'e', 'i' or 'u'. 30

Headings

Headings should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly.

Capitalization

  • In English headings all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions (e.g. that, until, which) are capitalized.

In Lists and Tables

  • Whenever possible, headings of lists and tables should consist of one or two words, preferably active nouns. They should be concise, even if the source uses a longer phrase.

Hyphenation and Compound formation

General Hyphenation Rules

The hyphen is used to divide words between syllables, to link parts of a compound word, and to connect the parts of an inverted or imperative verb form.

Example:

US EnglishKiswahili
Auto-connectUnganisha-kiotomatiki

English Compounds

Generally, compounds should be understandable and clear to the user. Overly long or complex compounds should be avoided. Keep in mind that unintuitive compounds are ultimately an intelligibility and usability issue.

Noun and verb compounds are a frequent word formation strategy in English. Product user interfaces, online help, and documentation contain a number of such examples. However, not all languages use compounding to create complex word meanings.

Kiswahili makes frequent use of compounds. However, you should avoid making up new compound terms, unless the meaning is obvious, because end users will usually not have an easy way to disentangle the invented phrase. You should certainly leave spaces between the words that make up a compound, and the use of “-a” (wa/ cha/ la/ za/ ya, etc) will often clarify the meaning of the new term.

Example:

en-US sourceKiswahili target
Internet Accounts Workgroup Administrator File Transfer ProtocolAkaunti za Wavuti

Product Names

Mozilla product names and non-translated feature names are used without definite or indefinite articles in the English language. We treat them in this way;

Product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Occasionally, feature names are trademarked, too (e.g. IntelliSense™). Before translating any application, product, or feature name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way. This information needs to be obtained from the Product Group.

Indexes

Capitalization, Prepositions and Articles

  • Avoid starting an entry with a preposition or an article because of their unfavorable effect on the overall sorting order and general legibility of the index.

Prepositions

Translate English prepositions according to their context and not too literally.

Procedures and Syntax

Descriptors

  • Use the descriptor (menu, button, command, etc.) only if the source text uses it or if it is needed for clarifying the position of a term in the interface.

Procedural Syntax

  • In procedural text, which tells the user to perform certain actions in a certain number of steps, the order in which interface terms are to appear in the translation is usually top to bottom (i.e. menu, command, dialog box, dialog box controls). Maintain this sequence unless there are technical reasons preventing it.

Example: In the "Extras" menu, click "Settings" and then "Music files". Procedural Headings

Status Bar Messages

  • Please make sure you adequately capture the meaning of messages when translating.
  • If you think a source status bar message is ambiguous, query it to make sure you provide the reader with the right information: if you cannot understand it, they are also not certain to. There is nothing more annoying than "help" that doesn't!

Punctuation

Commas and Other Common Punctuation Marks

In Lists and Tables

  • Do not use a comma after bulleted points.
  • If the original source entry contains a period, leave it. If the source text does not contain a period, but you split the translation into several independent sentences, put a period at the end of each sentence.
  • The same convention applies to captions and callouts

Comma vs. Period in Numerals

  • English uses a period as decimal separator.

Typographic Conventions

In software strings, you must use two double quotes (""xxx"") to denote names within a string. If you only use a single double quotes ("xxx"), this will cause problems with the compilation, as strings are generally denoted by double quotes. Avoid using quotes whenever possible.

Style Guide Tagalog (tl)

Intro

Style guides define the standard against which we determine a translation's quality. They contain rules that are both defined by Mozilla and by Mozilla's localization communities on how to best translate text in Mozilla products, websites, and other projects. Style guides are used to both translate and evaluate a translation's quality. By following these rules, a translator has a better chance of producing a high quality translation that represents Mozilla values and culture.

This style guide is broken up into two main parts:

  • the first contains rules that are language-specific and must be defined by each Mozilla l10n community (covering language-specific style, terminology, and units);
  • the second contains general rules that Mozilla has defined for translators of all languages that can help you translate well (covering principles of accuracy and fluency).

Language-specific Mozilla style

Rule of Thumb

  • DO NOT translate technical terms to Tagalog/Filipino.
  • DO NOT translate proper nouns such as company brands and trademarks to Tagalog/Filipino.
  • DO NOT transliterate. In Tagalog/Filipino, words are spelled in accordance to how a Filipino enunciates them; examples include drayber (“driver”), diskusyon (“discussion”) and iskul (“school”). Alternatively, words are spelled as they were in the source language. In a strictly formal Tagalog/Filipino translation, purists resort to transliteration only when source words—particularly technical, scientific, medical and legal word forms—definitely have no direct, exact and accurate equivalents in the target language. For uniformity sake, we should avoid transliterating.
  • LEAVE AS IS words, phrases or terms that are hard to be translated in Tagalog/Filipino, particularly the technical ones (DO NOT transliterate).

Style

The Mozilla Philippines Community localization style encompasses various elements, such as formality, tone, natural expression, handling cultural references, idioms, or slang, and maintaining consistency with Mozilla and 3rd party branding and style guides. The Mozilla Philippines Community define these style elements for localizing Mozilla projects.

Formality and Tone

  • Target users of this project are people who speak and read Tagalog/Filipino.
  • Formal language version of Tagalog/Filipino is appropriate for all Mozilla L10n projects.

Content Principles

  • Keep it simple

    • Stick to common words that people use in everyday speech.
    • Be concise. Write short sentences that are easy to understand.
  • Get to the point

    • Keep terms and messaging consistent across all channels, on and off Mozilla.
    • Don't bury information or gloss over it.
    • Don't use language that's vague or possibly misleading.
  • Talk like a person

    • Translate like you're talking to someone one-on-one. Minimize the use of online translation tools. Translate naturally.
    • Stay neutral. Avoid language that's opinionated, cutesy, irreverent or otherwise over the top.
    • Don't sound like a robot. Even the smallest bits of interference content should be approachable.
  • Be brief

    • Use as few words as possible while still being clear.
    • Make sure every word has a job to do.
    • Replace jargon with everyday terms.

Natural expression

Using natural expressions make our localization sound natural to a native speaker.

  • Use the "i-[verb]" format during translation:
    • [EN] Bookmark this page. | [TL] i-Bookmark ang pahinang ito.
    • [EN] Cut | [TL] i-Cut
    • [EN] Paste | [TL] i-Paste
    • EXCEPTION: [EN] Copy | [TL] Kopyahin

Handling cultural references, idioms, and slang

Cultural references, idioms, and slang require a full understanding of these references between the cultures of your source and target languages. An example of a cultural reference in English would be the phrase, "kick-off meeting." This is a reference that uses an American football term. It means a meeting to begin a project. To translate it, you can follow one of two approaches:

  • Section contents to be populated.

Style consistency

Finally, adherence to Mozilla and third-party branding and style guides should be respected throughout a localization project. More information on Mozilla-specific branding rules can be found here:https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/styleguide/identity/firefox/branding/. For example, some brand names should never be translated, such as "Firefox". For other brands that do not have any branding guidelines, your localization community must define whether to translate them. Be extra careful to check on branding rules before deciding to translate a name or not (whether for Mozilla or for a third-party) and to list them here in your community's l10n style guide.

Terminology

The Mozilla Philippines L10n Term Bases and Glossary is under development as Project ATOMPH (App for the Translation Of MozillaPH).

Tips on translating difficult concepts

Translating terms representing difficult concepts is a tricky task. Here are some ideas to help you translate terms that do not have equivalents in your language:

  • Understand the meaning of the term in English. Definitions of a few key terms [2]
  • Know your product and understand the function of the feature.
  • Consider similar ideas for those functions in your culture.
  • Associate a culturally specific image with the meaning and function of the term.

Units and Grammar

For the sake of uniformity, the following formats are to be used in MozillaPH L10n:

Date

  • Calendar / Era: Roman / Christian (Anno Domini, AD)
  • Name of Days:
    • Monday
    • Tuesday
    • Wednesday
    • Thursday
    • Friday
    • Saturday
    • Sunday
  • Short Name of Days:
    • Mon
    • Tue
    • Wed
    • Thu
    • Fri
    • Sat
    • Sun
  • Name of Months:
    • January
    • February
    • March
    • April
    • May
    • June
    • July
    • August
    • September
    • October
    • November
    • December
  • Short Name of Months:
    • Jan
    • Feb
    • Mar
    • Apr
    • May
    • Jun
    • Jul
    • Aug
    • Sep
    • Oct
    • Nov
    • Dec
  • Year Format: English
  • Default Short Date Format: MM-dd-yyyy
  • Currency
    • Symbol: PHP
    • Format: PHP x,xxx.xx
  • Time
    • Time Format: English
    • 24-hour Format: NO (12-hour format)
    • Time Separator: colon (:)
    • String for AM Designator: AM
    • String for PM Designator: PM
    • Century: use "ika-" followed by the number (e.g. ika-21)
  • Number
    • When written as English Roman Numeral: as is.
    • When used as part of a sentence (spelled-out) or as an ordinal number: Translate to Tagalog
    • Examples:
      • [EN] Close one tab. | [TL] Isara ang isang tab.
      • [EN] Close the second tab. | [TL] Isara ang pangalawang tab.
    • When written as part of a telephone number: as is. Addresses
    • Country / Region:
    • [EN] Republic of the Philippines | [TL] Republika ng Pilipinas
    • [EN] The Philippines | [TL] Pilipinas
    • Address Format:
      • House or Building Number
      • Building Name
      • Street Name
      • Village or Subdivision Name
      • Barangay Name
      • City or Town Name
      • Province Name
      • Postal Code

Measurement Units

Follow the rules on how to translate numbers

Percentages

The Tagalog language follows the English rules for percentages. In Mozilla localization, the percentage symbol (%) is frequently used a placeholder. DO NOT modify or remove placeholders. Follow general software localization guidelines and rules.

Spelling And Grammar Checks

Spelling checks will be part of Project ATOMPH. Grammar checking tools and guides: https://languagetool.org/ http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W11-3402

Word Forms

Pluralization

In Tagalog/Filipino, we use the term "mga" before a noun to denote the common pluralization form:

  • Example: [EN] Letters | [TL] Mga titik
  • Example: [EN] Bookmarks | [TL] Mga Bookmark

Abbreviations

Here are some of the commonly used abbreviations in Tagalog/Filipino:

  • [EN] et cetera = etc. | [TL] at iba pa = atbp.
  • [EN] example = ex. | [TL] halimbawa = hal.

Acronyms

English acronyms can be used in Tagalog/Filipino for simplicity and practicality.

Punctuation

Tagalog/Filipino follows the universal standards in the use of punctuations.

Emphasis

  • Each sentence in Tagalog/Filipino begins with a capital letter.
  • Proper nouns are written with their first letters capitalized.

Hyphens and compounds

Tagalog/Filipino uses the English standards on the use of hyphens and compounds.

Prepositions and articles

What is the appropriate form of expressing prepositions and articles in your language?

Diacritics and Special characters

An official spelling system that uses diacritical marks for indicating long vowels and final glottal stops was introduced in 1939. Although it is used in some dictionaries and Tagalog/Filipino learning materials, it has not been generally adopted by native speakers.

Quotes

Tagalog/Filipino follows the Universal Standard for quotes and brackets.

Whitespace

Tagalog/Filipino requires a space in between words and after each punctuation mark.

User Interface Elements

  • Titles : Should be brief and precise. Localizers can assume that source content reaches 2/3 of the total available line space. This allows localization text to expand and not be truncated or resolved through ellipsis. Title on the final page (meaning no more click through) should allow enough room to display full text.

  • Buttons: Capitalize the first letter of each word. Limit to one or two words. Use verbs that precisely describe the button's action. For example, "Cancel", "Clear History", "Add Email", "Select All", etc.

  • Value Selector Lists: Capitalize the first letter of the first word and the first letter of any proper nouns. Limit to one or two words.

  • Articles: Avoid them where possible. Articles (such as the word "the" in English) should be avoided wherever possible. User interface elements have limited space available for text. Avoiding articles will help ensure that your translations will be accommodated within the user interface.

  • Ellipsis: Ellipsis are often inserted automatically in the UI where strings are truncated. Ellipsis should only be used at high level of UI pages, but not be on the final page (after a series of click-through) where detailed instruction is given. Ellipsis should not be used as a way to solve truncation issue. Focus on making the UI short and precise. The sequence of the sentence structure in another language may not translate well, when a sentence is half finished as such.

General Mozilla l10n style

Accuracy Meaning-based translation When it comes to translation, meaning is everything. A translator needs to understand the source text's meaning exactly. You then find its most closely linked equivalent in your own language, without adding or subtracting meaning in your translation. Finding meaning-based equivalents between languages can be difficult. To help concentrate your thoughts, ask yourself questions like:

  • What does this word/sentence/string mean in English?
  • What is the message the author is trying to send?
  • How would I express that meaning in my own language?

Sometimes translation memory and machine translation tools can offer bad suggestions for a translation. If you use either as part of your translation workflow, make sure to correct the suggestions before submitting them. Avoid literal translation at all costs. Watch out for words that might sound or look the same between English and your language, but have a different meaning. Should not be translated Shortcuts and accesskeys

In Firefox and other software it's possible to use keyboard shortcuts to invoke a specific command. For example, to open a file in Firefox you can press the combination of keys CTRL+O (Cmd+O on Mac). The accelerator key depends on the operative system, but the letter itself is normally localizable. This is what is called a shortcut, or commandkey. For example, the Open File… menu item is stored as

<!ENTITY openFileCmd.label "Open File…"> <!ENTITY openFileCmd.accesskey "O"> <!ENTITY openFileCmd.commandkey "o">

The commandkey is stored in openFileCmd.commandkey (sometimes the string has .key in the identifier). Normally you should not localize this key, since shortcuts are often common across the entire operative system (e.g. CTRL+S to Save) or similar products (CTRL+T to open a new tab in most browsers). But it needs to be localized if the letter is not available in your keyboard layout. For example, in Italian the character [ can be accessed through ALT+è, a command key [ would not work.

In the code fragment above you see also an accesskey defined for Open File…. Accesskeys are used to access a UI element from the keyboard. Example: if File menu has an accesskey F, and the Open file… menu has O, you can press ALT+F to access the menu, and then O to open a file.

If the label is File, and the accesskey is F, it will be displayed as "File" on Windows and Linux, with an underscored F. If the accesskey was "O", so a character not available in the original label, it will be displayed underlined between parenthesis: "File (O)".

One important thing to determine is if, for your locale, it makes sense to have localized accesskeys: for example, if most users will use a keyboard with a different layout (English), it might make sense to keep the English original accesskey instead of using a letter available in your localization.

Accesskeys, like commandkeys, have their own lines within .dtd and .properties files and are usually identified by .accesskey in the string ID. Variables

Variables should never be translated. You can recognize a variable within a string by its beginning with a specific character (e.g., $, #, %, etc.) followed by a combination of words without spacing. For example, $BrandShortName and %S are variables. You can move a variable around within a string, if the translation of the string requires it. Brands, copyright, and trademark

Brand names, as well as copyright and trademarks should never be translated, nor transliterated into a non-Latin based script. See the Mozilla branding guide for more details.

Translating culture-specific references

At times there will be English content included in Mozilla products or web projects (e.g., marketing campaigns) that makes references to American culture and concepts. When translating these, it is best to find an equivalent cultural reference within your own culture that accurately conveys the meaning of the English reference. For example, an American might say, "Good job, home run!" A home run is a baseball reference for a successful outcome. An appropriate translation would be an equivalent metaphor within your culture. Using soccer as an example, you might translate "Good job, home run!" into "Good job, nice goal!" in your language.

[Add a note about Mozilla culture.] Legal content

Mozilla projects will often contain legal content in the form of user agreements, privacy statements, etc. When reviewing the translation of legal content, Mozilla localizers should do so according to the criteria concerning accuracy, fluency, style, and terminology found within this style guide and according to Mozilla culture and values. Fluency

To produce a fluent translation, not only should the translation follow the language's standard grammar, punctuation, and spelling rules, but it should avoid being ambiguous, incoherent, or inconsistent, and unintelligible.

To avoid ambiguity, the translator must thoroughly understand the meaning behind the source text, including any references that text might include. For example, if the English source text uses the word, "it", the translator must know what "it" is to avoid an ambiguous translation. Clearly understanding the source text will also allow a translator to make the source text's logical connections in their own translation. This helps to keep the translation coherent.

Inconsistency can pop up in many forms. A translator must be consistent in their use of abbreviations, references, and links within each localization project. They must also be consistent with Mozilla and the localization communities' style guides and approved terminology. Abbreviations, like terminology, should come from either a standard reference (like a dictionary of abbreviations) or should follow your language's rules for creating abbreviations. Once used, the abbreviation must remain consistent every place that it is used in the translation. Cross-references (or links) must also be consistently used within a translation. If a text contains a hyperlink URL to a support article in English, the translation should also contain a hyperlink to a translation of that support article (if available) or the English version. Links should not redirect to other pages nor should they be broken and unusable.

Finally, there are times that a translation simply doesn't make sense. It's hard to put your finger on what exactly is wrong with it, but you know it is unintelligible and not fluent. While this is uncommon, it's important to report these unintelligible translations and offer suggestions to correct them.

Style Guide Telugu (te)

Read the PDF here

Style Guide Thai (th)

เรื่องพื้นฐาน (Basic)

ชื่อ

ห้ามแปลชื่อผลิตภัณฑ์ เครื่องหมายการค้า หรือคุณสมบัติเป็นภาษาไทย ใช้ภาษาอังกฤษตามเดิม เช่น Firefox, Android, iOS หรือ Firefox Account ทั้งนี้จะมีผลิตภัณฑ์บางอย่างที่แปลเป็นภาษาไทยได้ ซึ่งจะต้องแปลตามที่ตกลงกันในอภิธานศัพท์ซึ่งอยู่ในหน้านี้

ตัวเลข

หากต้นฉบับเป็นตัวเลข ใช้ตัวเลขอารบิกเสมอ และใช้ลูกน้ำ ( , ) เป็นตัวคั่นทุกหลักพัน แต่หากต้นฉบับเป็นคำ ให้ใช้คำ ดังตัวอย่าง

ต้นฉบับคำแปล
1,000,000 downloads1,000,000 การดาวน์โหลด
A million downloadsหนึ่งล้านการดาวน์โหลด

วัน

ใช้การเรียงลำดับ วัน เดือน ปี โดยใช้ปีคริสต์ศักราช ดังตัวอย่าง

ต้นฉบับคำแปล
Monday, April 21, 2014วันจันทร์ที่ 21 เมษายน 2014
August 23, 201223 สิงหาคม 2012
02 Jun 142 มิ.ย. 14

เวลา

ใช้ระบบ 24 ชั่วโมง ดังตัวอย่าง

ต้นฉบับคำแปล
Saturday, May 4 2012 at 2:01 pmวันเสาร์ที่ 4 พฤษภาคม 2012 เวลา 14.01 น.
8:00 am – 4:00 pm8.00 – 16.00 น.
8:00 am – 4:00 pm8.00 – 16.00 น.

เครื่องหมายวรรคตอน

ห้ามใช้มหัพภาค ( . ) ที่ท้ายประโยคเพื่อปิดประโยค

ต้นฉบับคำแปล
This is a string.นี่คือสตริง

ไม่ควรใช้จุลภาคหรือลูกน้ำ ( , ) ในการแบ่งคำภาษาไทย แต่ถ้าคำนั้นเป็นภาษาอังกฤษให้พิจารณาตามความเหมาะสม

ต้นฉบับคำแปล
Your browsing, download, form and search historyการเรียกดู, การดาวน์โหลด, แบบฟอร์ม และประวัติการค้นหา

ควรใช้ทวิภาคหรือจุดคู่ (:) แบบไม่เว้นวรรคด้านหน้า และเว้นวรรคด้านหลัง 1 ครั้ง

ต้นฉบับคำแปล
Note: This is a messageหมายเหตุ: นี่คือข้อความ

การใช้ไม้ยมก ( ๆ ) ควรใช้แบบเว้นวรรคด้านหน้าและหลัง แต่สามารถใช้แบบทั้งเว้นวรรคด้านหลังเครื่องหมายอย่างเดียวได้ โดยจะต้องเว้นวรรคด้านหน้าเสมอ

ต้นฉบับคำแปล
and much moreและอื่นๆ อีกมากมาย
and much moreและอื่น ๆ อีกมากมาย

ควรใช้ปรัศนีหรือเครื่องหมายคำถาม ( ? ) แบบไม่เว้นวรรคด้านหน้า แต่สามารถใช้แบบทั้งเว้นวรรคทั้งหน้าและหลังเครื่องหมายได้

คำย่อ

หน่วยเวลา

ต้นฉบับคำแปล
Sun.อา.
Mon.จ.
Tue.อ.
Wed.พ.
Thu.พฤ.
Fri.ศ.
Sat.ส.

เดือน: ม.ค., ก.พ., มี.ค., เม.ย., พ.ค., มิ.ย., ก.ค., ส.ค., ก.ย., ต.ค., พ.ย., ธ.ค.

ชั่วโมง นาที และวินาที: ชม. นาที วินาที แต่ในกรณีที่พื้นที่ในการแสดงผลไม่พอ สามารถใช้ น. กับ วิ สำหรับหน่วยนาทีและวินาทีได้

ต้นฉบับคำแปล
APRเม.ย.
1 h 30 m1 ชม. 30 นาที

คำย่ออื่น ๆ ในภาษาอังกฤษ

ต้นฉบับคำแปล
URLURL
SIMSIM
PDFPDF
OKตกลง

ลักษณะการแปล 3 แบบ

  1. แปล เช่น Developer -> นักพัฒนา
  2. แปลแบบทับศัพท์ เช่น Server -> เซิร์ฟเวอร์ (ไม่ใช้คำว่า “แม่ข่าย”)
  3. ไม่แปล เช่น Firefox Quantum -> Firefox Quantum

หลักการที่ชุมชนใช้จะเป็นตามลำดับข้างต้น หากแปลเป็นภาษาไทยได้ให้แปล แต่หากแปลแล้วไม่เป็นที่คุ้นเคยหรือฝืน ให้แปลแบบทับศัพท์ตามสมัยนิยมที่แพร่หลาย หรือไม่แปลเลยหากเป็นชื่อเฉพาะ/เครื่องหมายการค้า ซึ่งศัพท์เฉพาะของ Mozilla ได้อธิบายไว้ในอภิธานศัพท์ที่อยู่ในหน้านี้แล้ว

สมัยนิยม เช่น ในอดีตแปลคำว่า “File” เป็น “แฟ้ม” แต่ในปัจจุบันคำว่าแฟ้มไม่เป็นที่แพร่หลายแล้ว จึงแนะนำให้แปลทับศัพท์ว่า “ไฟล์”

ประเด็นในคำแปล Share = แชร์, แบ่งปัน - ควรแปลหรือแปลแบบทับศัพท์?

การพิจารณาคำแปล

น้ำเสียงของคำ (Tone of voice)

เป็นทางการหรือไม่เป็นทางการ จริงจังหรือไม่จริงจัง โดยทั่วไปแล้วมักจะมีความต่างทางวัฒนธรรม มุกตลกในภาษาอังกฤษอาจไม่สามารถแปลเป็นไทยได้ ในหลายครั้งมีการเล่นคำ แต่เวลาแปลให้แปลเป็นคำปกติ

จุดสำคัญของการแปล คือจะต้องคงความเป็นกลางทางน้ำเสียงของคำไว้

ความสม่ำเสมอของคำแปล (Consistency)

คำแปลนั้นไม่สามารถทำให้สม่ำเสมอได้ทั้งหมด แต่ควรทำให้สม่ำเสมอมากที่สุด โดยใช้เครื่องมือ https://transvision.mozfr.org/consistency/?locale=th ต้นฉบับเดียวกันควรแปลแบบเดียวกันให้ได้มากที่สุด มิฉะนั้นคำแปลจะกระจัดกระจายและทำให้ผู้ใช้ไม่ทราบว่าต้นฉบับเป็นคำเดียวกัน

หากตัดสินใจว่าจะเปลี่ยนคำแปลใดคำแปลหนึ่งควรเปลี่ยนสตริงทั้งหมดที่มี ดูคำแปลที่คล้ายกันก่อนการแปลจะช่วยให้คำแปลเป็นไปในทิศทางเดียวกันมากขึ้น https://transvision.mozfr.org/consistency/?locale=th&repo=gecko_strings&filter=all

ความสามัญ (Generic)

“Browsing history” หากใน Firefox แปลว่า “ประวัติการท่องเว็บ” หากมีคำเดียวกันนี้ใน Thunderbird จะไม่สามารถแปลแบบเดียวกันได้ เพราะบริบทไม่ใช่การท่องเว็บ เพราะคำว่า “ท่องเว็บ” ไม่สามัญเพียงพอจะนำไปใช้ได้ทั่วไป จึงควรแปลว่า “ประวัติการเรียกดู” ซึ่งทำให้คงความสม่ำเสมอและเป็นมาตรฐานเดียวกันได้

อย่างไรก็ตาม บางกรณีก็มีข้อยกเว้น เช่น “Reviews” บางที่ที่เป็นการรีวิวโดยผู้ใช้จำเป็นต้องแปลว่า “บทวิจารณ์” แต่หากเป็นการตรวจทานโดยผู้ดูแลเราจะแปลว่า “การตรวจทาน” ขึ้นอยู่กับบริบท

ความเข้าใจง่าย (Easy to understand, Intuitive)

ใช้ภาษาระดับกลางที่เข้าใจได้ทุกคน ไม่ว่าจะมีความรู้ด้านเทคโนโลยีหรือไม่ ไม่แปลเป็นคำที่ยากต่อการเข้าใจ หรือต้องแปลจากไทยเป็นไทยอีกรอบ

เคารพต้นฉบับ (Retain source)

หากต้นฉบับเขียนตัวเลขเป็นตัวอักษร “Three” ควรแปลว่า “สาม” หากต้นฉบับใช้ตัวย่อ เช่น “Wed.” ควรแปลว่า “พ.” เว้นแต่จะไม่มีตัวย่อนั้นในภาษาไทยจึงเขียนตัวเต็ม ในกรณีส่วนใหญ่หากต้นฉบับเขียนตัวย่อเป็นตัวใหญ่หมด เช่น “SD” เราจะคงคำนั้นไว้เมื่อแปล เช่น “SD Card” เป็น “การ์ด SD” ยกเว้น “OK” แปลว่า “ตกลง” การเคารพต้นฉบับนั้น จะทำในกรณีที่ต้นฉบบับสามารถแปลเป็นภาษาไทยแล้วไม่ผิดเพี้ยนจากหลักไวยากรณ์มากนัก แต่หากต้นฉบับแปลมาแล้วผิดจากหลักไวยากรณ์ภาษาไทยมากเกินไป หรือไม่ตรงตามข้อตกลงของชุมชน จะต้องปรับเปลี่ยน

ยึดตามไวยากรณ์ (Grammar)

การสะกดคำถูกต้อง โดยทั่วไปคำที่สะกดผิดไม่สามารถขึ้นได้

ยึดตามข้อตกลงของชุมชน (Community agreement and glossary)

การควบคุมคุณภาพ

  • คำบางคำ เช่น Picture, Photo, Image ดูจากคำแปลเก่าที่เคยแปล ในแถบ Machinery
  • ไม่คิดคำแปลขึ้นมาใหม่ที่ไม่เหมือนของเดิม เพราะจะทำให้เสียความสม่ำเสมอ เว้นแต่มีเหตุผลจำเป็นในการทำเช่นนั้น
  • ไม่แปะคำแปลจากเครื่องมือแปลภาษา เช่น Google Translate โดยไม่ผ่านการกลั่นกรอง
  • คุณภาพของคำแปลสำคัญกว่าปริมาณ พยายามแปลสตริงที่สำคัญกว่าก่อน
  • สร้างเอกสารกลางสำหรับอ้างอิง
  • หากคำแปลที่เสนอไม่ได้รับการตรวจทานนานเกินไปสามารถแจ้งผู้ดูแลได้ทาง Telegram เพราะบางครั้งอาจมีการตกหล่นเนื่องจากปริมาณสตริงที่มีจำนวนมาก
  • ปรับลำดับประโยค (ประธาน กริยา กรรม) ในการแปล เพื่อให้เป็นธรรมชาติมากขึ้น เช่น What is Pontoon? = Pontoon คืออะไร? (ไม่ใช้ “อะไรคือ Pontoon?” เพราะไม่เป็นธรรมชาติ และไม่มีความจำเป็นต้องคงลำดับของคำตามภาษาต้นฉบับ)
  • ตัดคำเมื่อจำเป็น เช่น ต้นฉบับ “It” จะไม่แปลว่า “มัน” แต่จะตัดทิ้งเลยไม่แปล เพราะภาษาไทยไม่นิยมคำว่า “มัน”
  • ตัดรูปพหูพจน์ออกจากคำ เพราะภาษาไทยไม่มีพหูพจน์ เช่น
ต้นฉบับคำแปลหมายเหตุ
URLsURLตัดตัว s ออกจากคำแปล

อภิธานศัพท์ (Glossary)

อภิธานศัพท์สำหรับผลิตภัณฑ์ของ Mozilla ใช้เพื่ออ้างอิงในการแปลผลิตภัณฑ์และคุณลักษณะต่าง ๆ ของ Mozilla โดยมากจะเป็นเครื่องหมายทางการค้า อภิธานศัพท์นี้มีจุดประสงค์เพื่อให้การแปลใช้ชื่อผลิตภัณฑ์ของ Mozilla ตรงกัน

ต้นฉบับคำแปล
MozillaMozilla
Mozilla Foundationมูลนิธิ Mozilla
Mozilla WebThingsMozilla WebThings
FirefoxFirefox
Firefox Browserเบราว์เซอร์ Firefox
Firefox for iOSFirefox สำหรับ iOS
Firefox for AndroidFirefox สำหรับ Android
Firefox Accountบัญชี Firefox
Firefox Developer EditionFirefox รุ่นนักพัฒนา
Firefox NightlyFirefox Nightly
Firefox SyncFirefox Sync
Firefox FocusFirefox Focus
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อ้างอิง

Style Guide Turkish (tr)

Türkçe Yerelleştirme Yönergeleri

Mozilla ürünlerinin Türkçeye çevrilmesi ve yerelleştirmesi çalışmaları yıllardır devam etmektedir. Bu süre boyunca, çevirilerin tutarlılığını sağlamak adına gönüllü çevirmenlerimiz aşağıdaki kuralları benimsemiştir. Yerelleştirme çalışmalarına yeni katılan gönüllülerimizin de bu yönergelere uygun hareket etmesi, çeviri kalitesinin en üst düzeyde tutulmasını sağlayacaktır.

Firefox, Android için Firefox, iOS için Firefox, Thunderbird ve Lightning gibi yazılımların, ayrıca diğer Mozilla uygulamalarının ve web sitelerinin çevirileri https://pontoon.mozilla.org/tr/ adresindeki Pontoon aracında yürütülmektedir. Pontoon’a Firefox Hesabınızla giriş yaparak çeviri önerilerinizi göndermeye başlayabilirsiniz.

Başlarken e-posta grubumuza üye olarak kendinizi tanıtan bir e-posta göndermenizi de öneriyoruz. Mümkünse bildiğiniz dillerden, eğitiminizden veya teknik deneyiminizden de bahsedin.

  • Çevirilerimizde Dil Derneği‘nin sözlüğü ve yazım kılavuzu esas alınır.
  • Türkçe Mozilla ürünlerinde kullandığımız tutarlı bir terminoloji vardır. Bir terimin Türkçe karşılığından emin değilseniz, o terimi içeren diğer çevirileri bulabileceğiniz Transvision aracımıza göz atmanızı öneririz.
  • Microsoft tarafından hazırlanan Türkçe Biçem Rehberi teknik çeviri konusunda önemli bilgi ve öneriler içermektedir.
  • Terminolojide bir değişiklik öneriyorsanız, o terimin geçtiği tüm çevirileri düzeltip göndermeden önce önerinizi e-posta grubumuzda paylaşmanızı rica ederiz.
  • Sizin için kolay görünen çevirileri yapıp, doğru çevireceğinizden emin olmadıklarınızı başka gönüllülere bırakmanızı öneririz. Bu şekilde hepimiz daha verimli çalışabiliriz.
  • Tüm çeviriler deneyimli çevirmenlerimiz tarafından gözden geçirildikten sonra Mozilla’ya gönderilmektedir. Bu nedenle hata yapmaktan korkmamanızı, ama onaylanmayan veya düzeltilen çevirileriniz için de bize küsmemenizi rica ederiz.

Büyük harflerin kullanımı

İngilizcede her kelimesinin ilk harfi büyük yazılan komutlar, seçenekler, düğme adları vb. Türkçeye çevrilirken sadece ilk harfi büyük, devamı küçük yazılır.

Örnek:

  • İngilizce: New Private Window
  • Doğru çeviri: Yeni gizli pencere
  • Yanlış çeviri: Yeni Gizli Pencere

Pencere ve iletişim kutusu başlıklarında her kelimenin ilk harfi büyük yazılır. (Başlık olarak olarak kullanılacak dizgilerin adlarında genellikle “title” terimi geçer.)

Özel adlar

Mozilla, aşağıdaki marka adlarının Türkçeye çevrilmeden, olduğu gibi kullanılmasını talep etmektedir: Sync, Marketplace, Persona, Telemetry, Hello

Çekim ekleri

Bazı dizgilerde değişkenlere çekim eki eklenmesi gerekir. Çekim ekini doğrudan değişkene eklemek yerine değişkenin ne olduğunu açıklayan bir kelimeye eklenmesi tercih edilmelidir.

Örnek:

  • İngilizce: Exit %S
  • Doğru çeviri: %S tarayıcısından çık
  • Yanlış çeviri: %S’tan çık

Neden? %S yerine her zaman “Firefox” gelmeyebilir. Örneğin “Firefox Developer Edition” adı kullanıldığında çekim eki değişecektir.

Noktalama işaretleri

“Ve” bağlacının yerini tutan “&” işareti Türkçe çevirilerde kullanılmaz, onun yerine “ve” yazılır.

Aşağıdaki İngilizce wiki sayfaları da yerelleştirme süreciyle ilgili ayrıntılı bilgi almanıza yardımcı olacaktır:

Style Guide Ukrainian (uk)

Intro

This style guide defines the standard against which we determine a translation's quality. It contains rules that are both defined by Mozilla and by Mozilla's localization communities on how to best translate text in Mozilla products, websites, and other projects. The style guide is applicable to both translation and evaluation of the translation quality. By following these rules, a translator has a better chance of producing a high-quality translation that represents Mozilla values and culture.

Style

The localized text should be as if it were originally written in Ukrainian. It has to be accurate, correct, and clear. To achieve that, try to avoid wordiness and word-by-word translation. Use correct and consistent grammar in all texts.

  • Accuracy: As a rule, all English text needs to be translated. In some cases though, text can be omitted or added; there should be a specific reason for that, and you might need to check it with a project team. The translated text will correctly reflect product functionality.
  • Localization: Localization means that the translated text needs to be adapted to the local language, customs, and localization standards. For example, in many cases, you would need to use Ukrainian names rather than English, e.g. Edward — Володимир, New York — Харків. Do not translate every word, but use the style that is natural for Ukrainian.

Example: In the message "No line, thank you" not every word needs to be translated:

 (+) Без лінії
 (–) Без лінії, дякуємо
  • Consistency: Please ensure that all terminology is used consistently both within one component and across different components (software, help, and documentation). In most cases, the terminology also needs to be consistent across different products. Moreover, please use a consistent style and register, and translate similar phrases consistently.

Formality and Tone

When determining the formality or tone of a Mozilla l10n project in the Ukrainian language, ask yourself these questions:

  • Who is the target user for this project and what is their background?
  • How would a target user for this project expect to interact with this project? For example, would they expect a friendly, casual interaction?
  • Is formal language appropriate for all of Ukrainian language's Mozilla l10n projects or only some of them? Which ones?
  • Is informal language appropriate for all of Ukrainian language's Mozilla l10n projects or only some of them? Which ones?

In fact, localization should not use a level of formality higher or lower than the one required by this community-defined style guideline. An example of this would be using "click here" (not formal) vs. "please click here" (more formal). Also, the tone employed throughout the l10n project(s) should stay consistent within itself.

Natural expression

Using natural expressions make your localization sound natural to a native speaker. If your translation does not follow the community defined language guidelines for translating content that contains local or natural expressions, this results in a mediocre and/or awkward translation. Teams should be careful to address those and keep them in mind while translating, which is why it is an important section to address in a Style Guide. An example of a natural expression in a translation would be translating the Spanish phrase "En ocho días." In English, one might translate this as "in eight days" or "in a week." The latter is a more natural translation, although both could be considered correct.

Handling cultural references, idioms, and slang

Cultural references, idioms, and slang require a full understanding of these references between the cultures of the English and Ukrainian languages. An example of a cultural reference in English would be the phrase "kick-off meeting." This is a reference that uses an American football term. It means a meeting to begin a project. To translate it, you can follow one of two approaches:

  • Find an equivalent reference phrase in the Ukrainian language.
  • Remove the cultural reference and translate the core meaning (e.g., "a commencement meeting").

Style consistency

Finally, adherence to Mozilla and third-party branding and style guides should be respected throughout a localization project.

More information on Mozilla-specific branding rules can be found on Mozilla branding and Firefox branding pages. For example, some brand names should never be translated, such as "Firefox."

Translations of brands and product names for Ukrainian locale are included in the Terminology List.

Terminology

Please follow this link to see the list of terms for Ukrainian locale:

Terminology List.

You should be consistent in the use of term base in the Ukrainian language. Avoid the following:

  • Inconsistent use of terminology within the project.
  • Inconsistent use of terminology with term base.
  • Inconsistent use of terminology across all of the projects.
  • Using terminology from another subject matter (e.g., don't use medical terminology in Firefox).

Tips on translating difficult concepts

Translating terms representing difficult concepts is a tricky task. Here are some ideas to help you translate terms that do not have equivalents in the Ukrainian language:

  • Understand the meaning of the term in English. Here are the Definitions of some key terms that can be helpful.
  • Know your product and understand the function of the feature.
  • Consider similar ideas for those functions in your culture.
  • Associate a culturally specific image with the meaning and function of the term.

Units and Grammar

The translation should strive to achieve proper unit conversions for currency, measurements, etc.

To get an extended information about standard units, measurements, time and date for Ukraine, you can refer to the Microsoft Style Guide.

Date Format

LegendExample
dd.mm.yyyy07.06.2016

Numerals

Name of separatorCharacterDescriptionExample
Decimal Separator,comma2,87; 0,697; 674,4
Thousand Separatorspacespace1 000; 671 235

Capitalization

In English, it is a general practice to capitalize all the first characters of the words in titles, names, etc., and sometimes middle characters in words too. Bear in mind that this may be an error for Ukrainian texts.

General rules:

  • Localized names of protocols, services, packages, technologies, etc., are not capitalized.
  • Not localized names have the same capitalization as in English.
EnglishUkrainian
Language Interface Packмовний пакет інтерфейсу
Net Logon serviceслужба Net Logon

Genitive Case

Genitive Case for nouns of the II declension can be very treacherous. On one hand, the rule itself is very long and has a lot of exceptions, on the other – dictionaries represent contradicting forms of Genitive case.

You can refer to this Online Dictionary. But you should keep in mind that there can be exceptions to the rules.

Pluralization

There are three plural forms in the Ukrainian language.

 Example:
 1. один елемент
 2. три елемента
 3. шість елементів

List of all the rules of plural forms and examples, including Ukrainian, can be found at the following links:

How plurals work in .properties files

Plural forms in Firefox and Firefox for Android are obtained using a hack on top of .properties files. One plural form of the string is separated from the other by a semicolon. For example:

 #1 tab has arrived from #2;#1 tabs have arrived from #2

English has 2 plural forms: one for singular and one for all other numbers. The Ukrainian translation of the above example will be as following:

 #1 вкладка надіслана з #2;#1 вкладки надіслані з #2;#1 вкладок надіслано з #2

You should evaluate and translate each sentence separately. Some locales start the second sentence lowercase because of the semicolon, or with a leading space. Both are errors. You shouldn’t replace the semicolon with a character from your script or another punctuation sign (commas, periods).

The strings using the wrong number of plural forms are now reported on the l10n dashboard (example).

User Interface Elements

Titles

Should be brief and precise. Localizers can assume that source content reaches 2/3 of the total available line space. This allows localization text to expand and not be truncated or resolved through ellipsis. Title on the final page (meaning no more click through) should allow enough room to display full text.

Buttons

Limit to one or two words. Use verbs that precisely describe the button's action. For example, "Cancel", "Clear History", "Add Email", "Select All", etc.

Ellipsis

Ellipsis is often inserted automatically in the UI where strings are truncated. The ellipsis should only be used at the high level of UI pages, but not be on the final page (after a series of click-through) where detailed instruction is given. The ellipsis should not be used as a way to solve truncation issue. Focus on making the UI short and precise. The sequence of the sentence structure in another language may not translate well when a sentence is half finished as such.

Access Keys

Access keys allow a computer to immediately jump to a particular part of a web page by combining keystrokes. They can be adapted to suit the Ukrainian language by selecting a single character to be used in the combined keystroke. Access keys have their own lines within .dtd and .properties files and are identified by being named ".accesskey" in the line.

Access key strings identified as “.accesskey” are always related to the strings identified as “.label”. When you translate the “.label” string, it is very important not to forget to find the related “.accesskey” string and adapt it; otherwise, you will get untranslated access key included into the round brackets next to the translated string for UI element.

If “.label” string is not translated and just copied from English, then “.accesskey” string must be kept in English as well.

Examples:

EnglishUkrainian
reloadTab.label "Reload Tab"reloadTab.label "Оновити вкладку"
reloadTab.accesskey "R"reloadTab.accesskey "О"
----------------
printCmd.label "Print…"printCmd.label "Друкувати…"
printCmd.accesskey "P"printCmd.accesskey "к"

.accesskey letter is one of the letters presented in the .label string

Examples in the UI:

Translated Access KeysUntranslated Access Key
Translated Access Key ImageUntranslated Access Key Image

Accuracy

Meaning-based translation

When it comes to translation, the meaning is everything. A translator needs to understand the source text's meaning exactly. You then find its most closely linked equivalent in your own language, without adding or subtracting meaning in your translation. Finding meaning-based equivalents between languages can be difficult.

To help concentrate your thoughts, ask yourself questions like:

  • What does this word/sentence/string mean in English?
  • What is the message the author is trying to send?
  • How would I express that meaning in my own language?

Sometimes translation memory and machine translation tools can offer bad suggestions for a translation. If you use either as part of your translation workflow, make sure to correct the suggestions before submitting them. Avoid literal translation at all costs. Watch out for words that might sound or look the same between the English and Ukrainian languages, but have a different meaning.

Variables

Variables should never be translated. You can recognize a variable within a string by its beginning with a specific character (e.g., $, #, %, etc.) followed by a combination of words without spacing. For example, $BrandShortName and %S are variables. You can move a variable around within a string if the translation of the string requires it.

Examples:
Перезапустити &brandShortName; для оновлення
Імпортувати початкову сторінку з %S

However, there are some exceptions when variables should be replaced with related words in order to display the whole string in the right case.

Original stringCorrect translationIncorrect translation
Welcome to &syncBrand.shortName.label;Вітаємо в СинхронізаціїВітаємо в &syncBrand.shortName.label;

In this case the variable &syncBrand.shortName.label; is translated by default as Синхронізація.

Translation Вітаємо в &syncBrand.shortName.label; is not correct, because in the user interface it appears in the nominative case as Вітаємо в Синхронізація instead of the genitive case.

This rule does not apply to untranslated variables like Firefox or Mozilla.

Brands, copyright, and trademark

Brand names, as well as copyright and trademarks, should never be translated, nor transliterated into a non-Latin based script.

Brand nameCorrect translationIncorrect translation
MozillaMozillaМозілла
FirefoxFirefoxФайрфокс

The List of Mozilla Trademarks can be helpful.

See the Mozilla branding guide for more details.

Translating culture-specific references

At times there will be English content included in Mozilla products or web projects (e.g., marketing campaigns) that makes references to American culture and concepts. When translating these, it is best to find an equivalent cultural reference within your own culture that accurately conveys the meaning of the English reference. For example, an American might say, "Good job, home run!" A home run is a baseball reference for a successful outcome. An appropriate translation would be an equivalent metaphor within your culture. Using soccer as an example, you might transform "Good job, home run!" into "Good job, nice goal!" in the Ukrainian language.

Legal content

Mozilla projects will often contain legal content in the form of user agreements, privacy statements, etc. When reviewing the translation of legal content, Mozilla localizers should do so according to the criteria concerning accuracy, fluency, style, and terminology found within this style guide and according to Mozilla culture and values.

Style Guide Vietnamese (vi)

Chú ý khi dịch

Chú ý chung

  • Áp dụng tất cả các chú ý của Style Guide chính thức của Mozilla
  • Sử dụng từ vựng phổ thông. Cố giữ cho chuỗi dịch ngắn, xúc tích nhưng không cụt, bất lịch sự.
  • Khi gặp chuỗi phức tạp, cảm thấy tự mình khó có thể dịch đúng thì KHÔNG ĐƯỢC DỊCH. Hãy nhờ một người có kinh nghiệm hơn hoặc hỏi trên mailing list.
  • Thận trọng khi sử dụng số nhiều. VD: "Settings" dịch là "Thiết lập" chứ không phải "Những thiết lập" hay "Các thiết lập".
  • Cố gắng chuyển câu bị động tiếng Anh thành câu chủ động tiếng Việt.
  • Các dấu câu (chấm, phẩy, hai chấm,...) đặt sát với từ đứng trước và đi kèm một dấu cách, trừ khi là dấu chấm hết đoạn.
  • Dấu ba chấm là một ký tự (ellipsis, mã Unicode U+2026), không phải 3 dấu chấm. Nếu dịch bằng Locamotion (chạy Pootle) thì dịch vụ sẽ tô hình chữ nhật quanh dấu ba chấm ở dòng tiếng Anh. Chỉ cần ấn vào hình chữ nhật đó thì nó sẽ được copy sang dòng tiếng Việt.
  • Tránh Viết Hoa Kiểu Title Tiếng Anh. Dịch "System Settings" là "Thiết lập hệ thống" chứ không phải "Thiết lập Hệ thống" hay "Thiết Lập Hệ Thống".
  • Những chuỗi chứa ký tự đặc biệt như {{name}} hay %B là chuỗi template. Các ký tự đặc biệt sẽ được thay thế bằng nội dung khác bởi code. Không dịch ký tự đặc biệt (VD: {{tên}} là sai). Với những chuỗi liên quan đến ngày tháng thì cần xem tài liệu của hàm strftime để dịch đúng cách dùng của người Việt.

Thuật ngữ

  • add-on: tiện ích
  • sidebar: thanh lề
  • blog: nhật ký (hoặc có thể không dịch tùy trường hợp)
  • bookmark: trang đánh dấu (hoặc "đánh dấu trang" nếu là động từ)
    • ("Di sản" của Netscape. "Trang ưa thích" có nghĩa "favorite" của IE.)
  • cancel: hủy
    • (ngắn hơn "hủy bỏ")
    • Trên desktop có đủ khoảng cách để viết "hủy bỏ" đầy đủ. Có lẽ chỉ cần viết tắt "hủy" trên di động phải không? – Minh Nguyễn (talk, contribs) 23:53, 18 February 2014 (PST)
  • clipboard: bảng tạm
  • console: bảng điều khiển
  • done: hoàn tất
    • (ngắn hơn "hoàn thành" và lịch sự hơn "xong")
  • extension: phần mở rộng
  • OK: OK
  • Please ...: Vui lòng ...
    • (không dùng "Làm ơn ..." hay "Xin hãy ...")
  • plugin: phần bổ trợ
  • tab: thẻ
  • tag: nhãn
  • theme: diện mạo
  • Whoops: whoops
  • Cookie: không dịch
  • Ad-free: không có quảng cáo

Tên các ứng dụng đi kèm mặc định

  • Bluetooth (bluetooth): Bluetooth
  • Browser (browser): Trình duyệt
  • Camera (camera): Máy ảnh
  • Calendar (calendar): Lịch
  • Clock (clock): Đồng hồ
  • Email (email): Thư điện tử
  • First Time Use (ftu): Lần sử dụng đầu tiên
  • FM Radio (fm): Đài FM
  • Homescreen (homescreen): Màn hình chính
  • Gallery (gallery): Kho ảnh
  • Marketplace: Kho ứng dụng
  • Music (music): Âm nhạc
  • Settings (settings): Thiết lập
  • SMS (sms): Nhắn tin
  • Usage (costcontrol): Lưu lượng
    • (lưu lượng sử dụng mạng Internet)
  • Video (video): Video
  • Wallpaper (wallpaper): Ảnh nền

Thuật ngữ

Các thuật ngữ gặp riêng trong ngữ cảnh của Firefox OS.

TODO: Di chuyển tới một trang riêng.

  • bookmark: ứng dụng web
    • (FxOS có dạng ứng dụng thực chất là một trang web ở server nào đó, đánh dấu trang thành biểu tượng trên màn hình chính và coi như một ứng dụng bình thường)
  • download: tải về
    • (ngắn hơn 'tải xuống')
  • Home button: nút Home
  • home screen: màn hình chính
  • memory card is in use: thẻ nhớ đang bận
    • (khi cắm phone vào máy tính thì máy tính sử dụng thẻ nhớ của phone; không dịch là "đang được dùng" vì lúc nào thẻ nhớ cũng được dùng, gây khó hiểu)
  • scan network: tìm [kiếm] mạng (Wi-Fi)
  • song: bản nhạc
    • (không dịch là "bài hát" vì có cả nhạc không lời)
  • swipe: vuốt
  • tap: chạm
  • track: xem song

Style Guide Wolof (wo)

Introduction

This style guide is intended for translators working on Wolof Mozilla projects. It provides in-depth information about the quality standards expected by Mozilla for the translation of all product components. All translators should read this guide before commencing any translation work.

This guide addresses general translation issues and specifies certain rules of style and usage specific to your language. It should be used as a guideline to avoid common typographic errors, and to maintain consistent terminology and writing style across a project’s components and indeed a product range. The guide should be used in conjunction with the current and previous product-specific glossaries, glossaries of other products of a product range, and the industry standard platform-specific glossaries, such as those provided by Microsoft.

This document may be updated or completed in the course of translation. Where no specific instruction or recommendation is specified, translators should use the phrasing and style that comply with industry standards.

General Style Considerations

Style guidelines

Follow these basic rules:

Original American English text tends to be rather casual. For Wolof you must adapt your text to the expected audience. It is important to keep sentences as concise and close to the original meaning as possible.

Try to avoid long, nested sentence constructions. If necessary, break up the original sentence and regroup it syntactically.

Use wording that is succinct, unambiguous, and free of jargon.

Produce a translation that sounds as it if was originally written in your language, i.e. avoid following the original source sentence structure too closely.

Always bear in mind who your target audience is (i.e. an experienced computer user, a beginner, or a combination of both groups).

Use a consistent style throughout all product components and across a product range, to ensure that all Wolof Mozilla products can be linguistically identified as part of a group of products.

Style guidelines specific to Mozilla products

Please refer to the reference documentation supplied by Mozilla and any this style guides and make a note of anything significant and specific that should be noted with respect to Mozilla.

Reference terminology

The following terminology sources should be used as reference in the translation:

Product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency across all product components.

Previous version product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency between versions.

Glossaries of other Mozilla products, to ensure cross-product consistency.

Microsoft / Apple glossaries, to ensure adherence to the industry standards. It is your responsibility to make sure that you always have the latest Microsoft and Apple glossaries at your disposal. The glossaries can be found at: http://www.microsoft.com/Language and https://developer.apple.com/download/more/?=Glossaries

Terminology not found in the glossary or style guide

Please make a log of any terms not found in the glossary or style guide that are used frequently in the materials. Return this log to Rubric so that the terms can be incorporated into the glossary. This increases consistency in large projects.

Abbreviations

Common Abbreviations

You might need to abbreviate some words in the UI (mainly buttons or options names) due to lack of space. This can be done in the following ways:

It should be noted that Wolof does not frequently use abbreviations and acronyms and consequently there are very few abbreviations and no acronyms found in Wolof

The few common abbreviations in Wolof include the following examples:

The following table lists common Wolof expressions and their associated, acceptable abbreviations.

ExpressionAcceptable Abbreviation
Màkkaanu bataaxal(+) m-bat.
Ci misaal (for example)(+) cmis.
Gigabyte(+) Go.
Simili(+) sim.
waxtu(+) wxt
Weer(+) wr
Seriñ bi(+) Sñ
Soxna ci(+) Sx

Use the common abbreviations listed in this section, but avoid extensive use of abbreviations. Do not abbreviate such words as “and,” “or,” “something,” “someone,” or any other word that users might not recognize. If you have any doubt, spell out the word rather than using an abbreviation.

Measurements and Numerals

Metric System Commonly Used?: Yes

Temperature: Celsius

CategoryEnglishTranslation
Linear MeasureKilometerKilomeetar
MeterMeetar
DecimeterDecimeetar
CentimeterSàntimeetar
MillimeterMilimeetar
CapacityHectoliterEktomeetar
LiterLiitar
DeciliterDesiliitar
CentiliterSàntiliitar
MilliliterMililiitar
MassTonTon
KilogramKilograam
PoundLiibar
GramGaraam
DecigramDesigraam
CentigramSàntigraam
MilligramMiligraam
English Units of MeasurementInchPuus
FeetTànk
MileMaayil
GallonGalon

Digit Groups

Country/region: Senegal
Decimal Separator: 0,00
Decimal Separator Description: Comma
Decimal Separator Example: 5,6 ; 75,05
Thousand Separator: Space
Thousand Separator Description: Space
Thousand Separator Example: 1 543 672 ; 1 765 234 987
Notes: Wolof follows French in this regard.

Filename Extensions

Filename extensions and graphic formats referenced by filename extensions such as BMP, GIF, HTML, PNG, TIFF must not be translated.

Acronyms

Acronyms are made up of the initial letters of several words that are represented by these letters. Some well-known examples are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory).

The term acronym refers to words that are made up of the initial letters of the major parts of a compound term if they are pronounced as a new word. Some well-known examples of acronyms are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory). .

Localized Acronyms

When acronyms are localized, which does not happen often, they take the gender of the first substantive. Example:

(+) PAO
(+) CAO
(+) SGBD

Unlocalized Acronyms

If an acronym must remain in English throughout a manual or other text, the first time it occurs, write its full name in Wolof in normal style followed in parentheses by the acronym and its full spelling in English in italics.

Example: (+) Budëe doxalinwii moo saytu coppaleek qaralagiy joxe (DDE, Dynamic Data Exchange) wala ak lëkkalëem dëppóo wul ak mbiri (OLE, Object Linking and Embedding),mën ngëen cay yokk batey te mëngalekook qët miñu ci tofal. Sakkoo ak DDE duñu mën neck budul ngeen jëfandekoo pccub 7.0.

Articles

Product Names

As a general rule, all product names are used without definite or indefinite articles. They are treated as proper names.

Copyrights and Trademarks

Product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Before translating any product or component name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way. If in doubt, please contact the Rubric Project Manager.

The same product may be marketed under different names in different countries. One solution is to add a note saying "Marketed as -------- in the UK etc" the first time the product is mentioned, and then continue to use the name as given in the text.

Localized term vs. English term

The preferred language in the computer world is English. Therefore, a translator frequently has to decide whether to use the (correct, but obsolete) translation or simply the English word.

Inflections

The examples below show how English loanwords inflect for number in Wolof.

English exampleWolof examples
Websites(+) Daluwebi
Proxys(+) Proksi yu

Singular & Plural

Be careful when dealing with compounds: there is no real rule about their plural form. Check your dictionary if in doubt.

EnglishWolof, singularWolof, plural
Tool(+) ab jumtukaay(+) ay jumtukaay
Device(+) ab jëfandaay(+) ay jëfandaay

Verbs and Verb Forms

Always use the right verb corresponding to the action that is described.

Continuous operations are usually expressed in English with a gerund, which should be translated into Wolof like this:

English exampleWolof example
The application is loading the file.(+) Jëfekaay baa ngi yab taxañ bi.

Headings

Headings should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly.

Capitalization

For edition names, both words should be capitalized:

English exampleWolof example
Entreprise Edition(+) Jukkib Bërëbu liggéey

Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in commands, dialog box titles, and dialog box options.

English exampleWolof example
Open Save As dialog box.(+) Ubbil denc niki boyetu diisoo
Click on File(+) Kilikeel ci Taxañ bi

In headings, captions, table and figure titles, use initial capitals for only the first noun, and for proper nouns and interface terms that require it.

English exampleWolof example
Using Annotation Command(+) Jëfëndekoo Santaaneb Yëglë
Menus and Submenus(+) Mëni ak Ron-mëni

Hyphenation and Compound formation

General Hyphenation Rules

Hyphen

The hyphen is used to divide words between syllables, to link parts of a compound word, and to connect the parts of an inverted or imperative verb form.

Example: (+) xam-xam…

When a hyphenated compound should not be divided between lines (e.g., MS-DOS), use a non-breaking hyphen (CTRL+SHIFT+HYPHEN). Both parts of the compound will be kept together on the same line.

Compounds

Noun and verb compounds are a frequent word formation strategy in Wolof. Product user interfaces, online help, and documentation contain a number of such examples. However, not all languages use compounding to create complex word meanings.

In Wolof, compounds are derived from:

Noun + noun e.g. gaynde + géej = (+) gaynde-géej
Verb + noun e.g. bëgg + suukër = (+) begg-suukër
Verb + verb e.g. fay + taal = (+) fay-taal

Generally, compounds should be understandable and clear to the user. Overly long or complex compounds should be avoided by verbally expressing the relationship among the various compound components. Keep in mind that unintuitive compounds are ultimately an intelligibility and usability issue.

English examplesWolof example
Internet Accounts(+) Sàqi Internet
Internet News Server Name(+) Turu Cëraakonu Xibaari Internet

Note that English compounds are not necessarily compounds in Wolof. However, English compounds must be translated in a manner that is intelligible to the user and if Wolof translation is narrative in an undesired manner, the English word should be left as it is, with a proper Wolof prefix.

Applications, Products, and Features

Application/product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Occasionally, feature names are trademarked, too (e.g. IntelliSense™). Before translating any application, product, or feature name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way.

Microsoft product names are usually trademarked and remain unlocalized. Product names and non-translated feature names are considered proper nouns and are used without definite or indefinite articles in English. For instance, attaching a genitive “s” to trademarked product names is not feasible as it could be interpreted as a modification of such names. Additions to a product or component name are either added with a hyphen or a periphrastic construction needs to be used. For example, instead of expressing a possessive relationship by using the genitive marker “s” in English, a periphrastic construction should be used:

  1. (-) Microsoft‟s products
  2. (+) Microsoft products
  3. (+) Products by Microsoft

Product names and non-translated feature names should also be treated as proper nouns in Wolof

English exampleWolof example
Windows Mail shares your Internet Connection settings with Internet Explorer(+) Windows Mail dafay séddoo say jekkali Lënku ci Internet ak Internet Explorer
Website addresses will be sent to Microsoft(+) di nanu yónnee dëkkuwaayu daluweb bi Microsoft

By contrast, translated feature names are used with a definite or indefinite article as they are not treated as proper names.

English exampleWolof example
Hide the Task Manager when it is minimized(+) Nëbbal Saytukaayu Waar wi suñ ko tuutalee
Check for updates in your installed Media Player's language(+) Wutal ay yeesal ci sa làkku Media Player bi nga samp

Note that although the two names, Task Manager and Media Player are translatable, it is preferred that they are, in this context, not translated for purposes of clarity because the translated versions of these names will have a potential of losing their meanings since they will be general.

Compounds with Acronyms, Abbreviations or Numerals

The compounds below contain either an abbreviation or a numeral followed by a component name. The abbreviation or numeral is marked in red in the English example. The Wolof example below show how such constructions should be translated.

English exampleWolof example
CD-ROM drive(+) dawalukaayu CD-ROM
2-D gridlines(+) giriyaasu 2-D
24 bit color value(+) soloy melo 24 okte

Note: It is an acceptable principle that when a technical term of the source language does not have a straight equivalent in the target language and all other translation strategies are, for purposes of intelligibility, not applicable, the term should be used as it is in the interest of maintaining the meaning of the term to the user. (Also see the subchapter on English Terminology and the Wolof Terminology for further comments in this respect).

Note also that the translation of the compounds above is similar in every respect with the translation of other compounds in this chapter.

Indexes

Prepositions and Articles

Articles

There is no specific rules concerning articles in Wolof. In singular “ab” (indefinite) and “bi” are used when in doubt of the right article. In plural, “ay” (indefinite) and “yi” are used.

Prepositions

Pay attention to the correct use of the preposition in translations. Influenced by the English language, many translators omit them or change the word order.

US-English expressionWolof expressionComment
Migrate to(+) Toxu jëm“To” is translated as “jëm” when it refers to direction or a destination.
Migrate from(+) Toxoo“from” equals to dubbling the final vowel sound of the verb.
Welcome to…(+) Dalal jàmm ci…The locative applies to products

Key Names

Wolof adopts English versions.

Procedures and Syntax

Descriptors

Use the descriptor (menu, button, command, etc.) only if the source text uses it or if it is needed for clarifying the position of a term in the interface.

Status Bar Messages

Please make sure you adequately capture the meaning of messages when translating.

If you think a source status bar message is ambiguous, query it to make sure you provide the reader with the right information: if you cannot understand it, they are also not certain to. There is nothing more annoying than "help" that doesn't!

Punctuation

Commas and Other Common Punctuation Marks

In Lists and Tables

Do not use a comma after bulleted points.

If the original source entry contains a period, leave it. If the source text does not contain a period, but you split the translation into several independent sentences, put a period at the end of each sentence.

Never put a period after just one word.

The result of this method may be that some entries within one table are with and some entries are without a final period. From a technical point of view this is acceptable. The same convention applies to captions and callouts

Comma vs. Period in Numerals

English uses a period as decimal separator. In Wolof, a comma is used. Do not use a space for this purpose as a space separates the numeral from the abbreviation.

In paper sizes the decimal separator and the abbreviation "in" for inches are kept, since the sizes are US norms and should be represented accordingly.

English exampleWolof example
5.25 cm(+) 5.25 cm
5 x 7.2 inches(+) 5 x 7.2 inches
Letter Landscape 11 x 8.5 in(+) Mod Potare11 x 8.5 in

For thousands, English uses a comma while many other languages use a period (at Microsoft we normally do not use a space for this purpose, but we use a period instead to avoid wrapping problems). In Wolof a comma is used.

English exampleWolof example
1,526(+) 1,526
$ 1,526.75(+) $1,526.75

Special Characters

Wolof adopts English versions.

Typographic Conventions

Consistent use of typographic conventions in documentation helps users locate and interpret information easily. Generally speaking, the source format should be followed as closely as possible, i.e. terms with a particular formatting in the source should have the same formatting in the translation.

If menu, command, option, etc. names are highlighted by bold print in the source, use bold print for the corresponding translated terms. If menu, command, option, etc. names are put in quotes in the source, use quotes for the corresponding terms in the translation.

Note that in software strings, you must use two double quotes (""xxx"") to denote names within a string. If you only use a single double quotes ("xxx"), this will cause problems with the compilation, as strings are generally denoted by double quotes.

Appendix

Guidelines for the Localization of Error Messages

Wolof Style in Error Messages

It is important to use consistent terminology and language style in the localized error messages, and not just translate as they appear in the US product. New localizers frequently ask for help with error messages. The main principles for translation are clarity, comprehensibility, and consistency.

Standard Phrases in Error Messages

When translating standard phrases, standardize. Note that sometimes the US uses different forms to express the same thing.

Examples:

EnglishTranslationExampleComment
Cannot … Could not …(+) Mënul…(+) Mënul a ubbi taxañ biIt is not easy for Wolof to just translate such single terms as they can refer to either a person or thing. As such – in most cases translation refers to a person, and that could be wrong.
Failed to … Failure of …(+) Mujjul…(+) Mujjul ubbi taxañ biSee the comment above
Cannot find … Could not find … Unable to find … Unable to locate …(+) Mënul…(+) Mënul gis sa jëfandaaySee the comment above
Not enough memory Insufficient memory There is not enough memory There is not enough memory available(+) Xel mi doyul(+) Li des ci xel mi doyul ngir mën a yab taxañ biSee the comment above
... is not available ... is unavailable(+) jàppandiwul(+) këmb bi jàppandiwul fimneSee the comment above

Error Messages Containing Placeholders

When localizing error messages containing placeholders, try to find out what will replace the placeholder. This is necessary for the sentence to be grammatically correct when the placeholder is replaced with a word or phrase. Note that the letters used in placeholders convey a specific meaning, see examples below:

  • %d, %ld, %u, and %lu means n/a
  • %c means n/a
  • %s means n/a
  • Examples of error messages containing placeholders:
  • "Checking Web %1!d! of %2!d!" means "Checking Web n/a
  • "INI file "%1!-.200s!" section" means "INI file n/a

When localizing error messages containing placeholders, find out what text will replace the placeholder when the user sees the error message. This process is necessary because you must ensure the resulting sentence will be grammatically correct when the placeholder is replaced with a word or phrase. Most source strings have instructions that detail what text will replace the placeholder.

In the English source string, placeholders are found in the position where they would naturally occur in that language. Since in English numerals typically precede the noun, the numeral placeholders typically precede the noun in the source strings. It will be same in wolof.

English examplesWolof examples
in %d daysci %d fan
%d minutes%d simili

The letters and symbols used in placeholder text convey a specific meaning. Please refer to the following table for examples of placeholder text and corresponding error message text that users will see.

Placeholder textError message text that users will see
%d, %ld, %u, and %luNumber (such as 3 or 512)
%cLetter (such as “f” or “s”)
%sString (such as “Click here to continue.”)
“Checking Web 1!d! of 2!d!"“Checking Web of
“INI file " 1!-.200s!" section”“INI file "" section”
English exampleMessage User will seeWolof example
Replace invalid %s?Replace invalid data? Replace invalid file?(+) Wecci %s bu baaxul bi?
%s already existsFile already exists Name already exists(+) %s bi amna fib a noppi
%s is now set as your personal contact.Regina is now set as your personal contact Mr. Kim is now set as your personal contact(+) %s def nañu ko muy sa xame.
%s stopped working and was closedThe application stopped working and was closed The program stopped working and was closed(+) %s doxatul moo tax ñu tëj ko

Style Guide Xhosa (xh)

Introduction

This style guide is intended for translators working on isiXhosa Mozilla projects. It provides in-depth information about the quality standards expected by Mozilla for the translation of all product components. All translators should read this guide before commencing any translation work.

This guide addresses general translation issues and specifies certain rules of style and usage specific to your language. It should be used as a guideline to avoid common typographic errors, and to maintain consistent terminology and writing style across a project’s components and indeed a product range. The guide should be used in conjunction with the current and previous product-specific glossaries, glossaries of other products of a product range, and the industry standard platform-specific glossaries, such as those provided by Microsoft.

This document may be updated or completed in the course of translation. Where no specific instruction or recommendation is specified, translators should use the phrasing and style that comply with industry standards.

General Style Considerations

Style guidelines

Follow these basic rules:

Original American English text tends to be rather casual. For isiXhosa you must adapt your text to the expected audience. It is important to keep sentences as concise and close to the original meaning as possible.

Try to avoid long, nested sentence constructions. If necessary, break up the original sentence and regroup it syntactically.

Use wording that is succinct, unambiguous, and free of jargon.

Produce a translation that sounds as it if was originally written in your language, i.e. avoid following the original source sentence structure too closely.

Always bear in mind who your target audience is (i.e. an experienced computer user, a beginner, or a combination of both groups).

Use a consistent style throughout all product components and across a product range, to ensure that all isiXhosa Mozilla products can be linguistically identified as part of a group of products.

Style guidelines specific to Mozilla products

Please refer to the reference documentation supplied by Mozilla and any this style guides and make a note of anything significant and specific that should be noted with respect to Mozilla.

Reference terminology

The following terminology sources should be used as reference in the translation:

Product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency across all product components.

Previous version product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency between versions.

Glossaries of other Mozilla products, to ensure cross-product consistency.

Microsoft / Apple glossaries, to ensure adherence to the industry standards. It is your responsibility to make sure that you always have the latest Microsoft and Apple glossaries at your disposal. The glossaries can be found at: http://www.microsoft.com/Language and https://developer.apple.com/download/more/?=Glossaries

Terminology not found in the glossary or style guide

Please make a log of any terms not found in the glossary or style guide that are used frequently in the materials. Return this log to Rubric so that the terms can be incorporated into the glossary. This increases consistency in large projects.

Abbreviations

Common Abbreviations

You might need to abbreviate some words in the UI (mainly buttons or options names) due to lack of space. This can be done in the following ways:

It should be noted that isiXhosa does not frequently use abbreviations and acronyms and consequently there are very few abbreviations and no acronyms found in isiXhosa. In most cases, isiXhosa applies English abbreviations as in the following examples: i-XNLU (isiXhosa National Language Body), i-ANC (African National Congress).

The few common abbreviations in isiXhosa include the following examples:

Njlnjl). (njalonjalo meaning and so on),

okt. (oko kukuthi meaning that is).

The Greater Dictionary of isiXhosa, Vol 3, (pages xxiv – xxv) contains a list of abbreviations. Although these abbreviations were created for purposes of the dictionary, they are widely accepted and are used in any relevant context.

The following table lists common isiXhosa expressions and their associated, acceptable abbreviations.

ExpressionAcceptable Abbreviation
Mnumzana(+) Mnu.
Umzekelo (for example)(+) umz.
Njalonjalo (and so on)(+) (njlnjl).
Oko kukuthi (that is)(+) okt.
Njingalwazi (Professor)(+) Njing.
Gqirha (Doctor)(+) Gqir.
Nkosikazi (Mesdames)(+) Nksk
Nkosazana (Mistress)(+) Nksz

Use the common abbreviations listed in this section, but avoid extensive use of abbreviations. Do not abbreviate such words as “and,” “or,” “something,” “someone,” or any other word that users might not recognize. If you have any doubt, spell out the word rather than using an abbreviation.

Measurements and Numerals

Metric System Commonly Used?: Yes

Temperature: Celsius

| Category | English | Translation | | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Linear Measure | Kilometer | Ikhilomitha | | | Meter | Imitha | | | Decimeter | Idesimitha | | | Centimeter | Isentimitha | | | Millimeter | Imilimitha | | Capacity | Hectoliter | Ihektholitha | | | Liter | Ilitha | | | Deciliter | Idesilitha | | | Centiliter | Isentilitha | | | Milliliter | Imililitha | | Mass | Ton | Ithani | | | Kilogram | Ikhilogrem | | | Pound | Iponti | | | Gram | Igrem | | | Decigram | Idesigrem | | | Centigram | Isentigrem | | | Milligram | Imiligrem | | English Units of Measurement | Inch | I-intshi | | | Feet | Iinyawo | | | Mile | Imayile | | | Gallon | Igaloni |

Notes: The British units of measurement are no longer (officially) used in South Africa, but the names and abbreviations are still known, mainly in a historical context.

Xhosa doesn’t have abbreviations of measurement units, but use the English ones.

Percentages

Percentages are like in English, e.g. 85 %.

Digit Groups

Country/region: South Africa
Decimal Separator: 0,00
Decimal Separator Description: Comma
Decimal Separator Example: 5,6 ; 75,05
Thousand Separator: Space
Thousand Separator Description: Space
Thousand Separator Example: 1 543 672 ; 1 765 234 987
Notes: isiXhosa follows English in this regard.

Filename Extensions

Filename extensions and graphic formats referenced by filename extensions such as BMP, GIF, HTML, PNG, TIFF must not be translated.

Acronyms

Acronyms are made up of the initial letters of several words that are represented by these letters. Some well-known examples are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory).

The term acronym refers to words that are made up of the initial letters of the major parts of a compound term if they are pronounced as a new word. Some well-known examples of acronyms are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory).

Caution: Do not include a generic term after an acronym or abbreviation if one of the letters in the acronym stands for that term. Even though this might occur in the US-English version, it should be “corrected” in the localized version. The following examples show the redundancy in red for English terms.

English termsIncorrect translation of isiXhosaCorrect translation of isiXhosa
(-) RPC call(-) Umnxeba we-RPC(+) I-RPC
(-) HTML language(-) Ulwimi lwe-HTML(+) I-HTML
(-) TCP/IP-Protocol(-) IProtokhol ye-TCP/IP(+) I-TCP/IP
(-) PIN Number(-) Inani le-PIN(+) I-PIN

Localized Acronyms

In online help or documentation, spell out the words that comprise an acronym or abbreviation the first time that acronym is used in the text. You should include the language-specific translation, the US term, and the acronym as in the following example:

  1. I-Dat Access Objects (i-DAO) (Data Access Objects, DAO)
  2. I-ActiveXData Objects (i-ADO) (ActiveX Data Objects, ADO)

In the above examples, isiXhosa follows the English pattern with the prefix i- and a hyphen in the acronym. Note that the hyphen is necessary to avoid confusion and to indicate the English term in the context of isiXhosa. In other words, it indicates that the prefix i- is not part of the English word. In the user interface, there is usually not enough space for all three terms (US term, language-specific translation, and the acronym); only in wizards, the acronym can easily be spelled out and localized on first mention. If there are space constraints or there is no 'first' occurrence, it is up to you to judge to the best of your knowledge whether the acronym or abbreviation can be left as is or should be spelled out and localized.

You should also consider that different users will have different levels of knowledge about a product. For example, an Italian Exchange user will understand “DL,” but the average Italian Windows user might not understand “DL” and would need to see “lista di distribuzione” (distribution list) instead. Try to be consistent within a product with your use of acronyms and initializations.

Unlocalized Acronyms

Many abbreviations and acronyms are standardized and remain untranslated. They are only followed by their full spelling, including their relevant prefixes, in isiXhosa if the acronym needs to be explained to the speakers of a different language. In other cases, where the acronym is rather common, adding the fully spelled-out form will only confuse users. In these cases, the acronym can be used on its own.

The following list contains examples of acronyms and abbreviations that are considered commonly understood; these acronyms and abbreviations should not be localized or spelled out in full in isiXhosa:

  1. ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
  2. ISO (International Standards Organization)
  3. ISDN
  4. DOS
  5. DSL
  6. CD
  7. DVD

The initial prefix i- must precede these acronyms and abbreviations to make them fit in the context of isiXhosa. If you are unsure what an acronym or abbreviation stands for or refers to, please contact the Moderator responsible for this Style Guide.

Articles

Product Names

As a general rule, all product names are used without definite or indefinite articles. They are treated as proper names.

Copyrights and Trademarks

Product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Before translating any product or component name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way. If in doubt, please contact the Rubric Project Manager.

The same product may be marketed under different names in different countries. One solution is to add a note saying "Marketed as -------- in the UK etc" the first time the product is mentioned, and then continue to use the name as given in the text.

Gender-neutral Translation

You should always recognize your audience’s sensitivity to male and female stereotypes. Instead of stressing gender differences or reinforcing stereotypical distinctions between men and women, use language that is as neutral as possible. The neutral approach also applies to the localization of scenarios, comparisons, examples, illustrations, and metaphors.

Create a balance when assigning roles and functions to men and women (active vs. passive roles, leading vs. secondary roles, technical vs. non-technical professions, and so on). Scenarios, pictures, metaphors, and comparisons should be based on areas and attributes common to both genders.

Instead of using phrases which mention the two genders separately, use a general term that includes both genders such as “people,” “users,” or “persons.”

Avoid writing sentences that refer to a single person whose gender is unknown. You can often avoid this situation by rewriting the sentence to make the subject plural. In cases where a reference to a single person is impossible to avoid, do not use “he or she,” “him or her,” or “his or hers.” The language in Microsoft products should sound natural, as if part of a spoken conversation. Also, generally avoid the use of slashes to combine both genders (although sometimes exceptions are made - see table below).

Fortunately, we have no problem in representing he/she; him/her; his/hers in isiXhosa. We simply indicate this by means of a subject concord, viz, u- (singular) ba-/ni- (plural)

Umfazi wam (my wife) sounds impolite and has to be replaced by inkosikazi yam. (-) Unyoko ( your mother) sounds impolite especially when used by a younger person. This can also be regarded as an insult. A more polite way is (+) umama wakho( your mother) or (+) umama wakhe ( his or her mother) depending on the pronoun used.

Use the following strategies to avoid the use of overtly gender-biased expressions:

| Linguistic method | Example | Context | | -- | -- | | Use a Neutral noun | (+) Umntu, inkokeli, inkokeli yeqela, ichule, umsebenzi, umsebenzisi | Concept descriptions, explanations |

Localized term vs. English term

The preferred language in the computer world is English. Therefore, a translator frequently has to decide whether to use the (correct, but obsolete) translation or simply the English word.

Inflections

The examples below show how English loanwords inflect for number in isiXhosa.

English exampleisiXhosa examples
Clients(+) Iiklayenti
Websites(+) Iiwebhusayithi
Proxys(+) (Iiproksi/izimeli)

The above loanwords inflected for class 10 and 2 by adding the class 10 plural prefix ii- and the class 2 prefix aba-.

Singular & Plural

Sometimes an English verb can be used as loan word in the target language, that is, isiXhosa in this case. Such loan words usually follow the syntactic and morphological rules of the target language.

For the sake of exposition, let us assume that the verbs in red below are not translated in isiXhosa.

English exampleIsiXhosa examplesIsiXhosa examplesIsiXhosa examples
Copy(+) Kopa(+) Kopile(+) Ukukopa
Print(+) Printa(+) Printile(+) Ukuprinta
spell(+) Pela(+) Pelile(+) Ukupela

Headings

Headings should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly.

Capitalization

In English headings, all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions (such as “that,” “until,” and “which”) are capitalized. Please do not apply the same principle to isiXhosa headings. Instead, follow the normal isiXhosa capitalization rules.

For example:
Eng: Know Your Rights.
Xho: Wazi amalungelo akho.

Government Departments have responsibility of development. / (+) AmaSebe kaRhulumente anoxanduva lophuhliso.

The same rule applies to software strings.

In Lists and Tables

In English the titles for chapters usually begin with "How to …" or with phrases such as "Working with …" or "Using …". Titles should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly. If in English the heading begins with a gerund, try to use a nominalized form in isiXhosa.

English exampleIsiXhosa example
Sending a file(+) Ukuthumela ifayile
Using Styles(+) Ukusebenzisa iindlela ezithile

Whenever possible, headings of lists and tables should consist of one or two words, preferably active nouns. They should be concise, even if the original heading uses a longer phrase.

US headingIsiXhosa heading
In order to(+) (Khona ukuze u…)
Do this(+) Yenza oku
How to use(+) Indlela yokusebenzisa
First do this(+) Qala wenze oku
Then do this(+) Ukuze wenze oku
How to:(+) Indlela yoku-:
Walkthrough(+) Yihla nayo

Hyphenation and Compound formation

General Hyphenation Rules

In isiXhosa there are no words in which hyphens are used, except for using English words when hyphenation rules are adopted.

Compounds

Noun and verb compounds are a frequent word formation strategy in isiXhosa. Product user interfaces, online help, and documentation contain a number of such examples. However, not all languages use compounding to create complex word meanings.

In isiXhosa, compounds are derived from:

Noun + noun e.g. umnini + ikhaya = (+) umninikhaya
Verb + noun e.g. jonga + ikhaya = (+) Jongikhaya
Verb + verb e.g. khala +baleka = (+) ukhalebaleka
Verb + adverb e.g. tsiba + entla = (+) uTsibentla

The compounds are spelt as one word despite the fact that they are formed from different parts of speech. When a compound refers to a place name which has been derived from two parts of a bigger place name, the word is separated by a hyphen, e.g. uMzantsi-Afrika (South Africa).

Generally, compounds should be understandable and clear to the user. Overly long or complex compounds should be avoided by verbally expressing the relationship among the various compound components. Keep in mind that unintuitive compounds are ultimately an intelligibility and usability issue.

English examplesIsiXhosa example
Internet Accounts(+) Iiakhawunti zeIntanethi
Logon script processing(+) (Isikripthi senkqubo yokuvula)
Workgroup Administrator(+) UMlawuli Weqela Lomsebenzi
Internet News Server Name(+) IGama leSeva yeeNdaba zeIntanethi

Note that English compounds are not necessarily compounds in isiXhosa. However, English compounds must be translated in a manner that is intelligible to the user and if isiXhosa translation is narrative in an undesired manner, the English word should be left as it is, with a proper isiXhosa prefix.

Applications, Products, and Features

Application/product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Occasionally, feature names are trademarked, too (e.g. IntelliSense™). Before translating any application, product, or feature name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way.

Microsoft product names are usually trademarked and remain unlocalized. Product names and non-translated feature names are considered proper nouns and are used without definite or indefinite articles in English. For instance, attaching a genitive “s” to trademarked product names is not feasible as it could be interpreted as a modification of such names. Additions to a product or component name are either added with a hyphen or a periphrastic construction needs to be used. For example, instead of expressing a possessive relationship by using the genitive marker “s” in English, a periphrastic construction should be used:

  1. (-) Microsoft‟s products
  2. (+) Microsoft products
  3. (+) Products by Microsoft

Product names and non-translated feature names should also be treated as proper nouns in isiXhosa

English exampleisiXhosa example
Windows Mail shares your Internet Connection settings with Internet Explorer(+) (IWindows Mail yabelana neInternet Explorer nonxibelwano lwe-Intanethi Yakho)
Website addresses will be sent to Microsoft(+) (Ii-dilesi zewebhusayithi ziya kuthunyelwa kuMicrosoft)

By contrast, translated feature names are used with a definite or indefinite article as they are not treated as proper names.

English exampleisiXhosa example
Hide the Task Manager when it is minimized(+) (Fihla iTask Manager xa icuthiwe)
Check for updates in your installed Media Player's language(+) (Khangela iimpawu ezintsha ezifakwe kulwimi lweMedia Player yakho)

Note that although the two names, Task Manager and Media Player are translatable, it is preferred that they are, in this context, not translated for purposes of clarity because the translated versions of these names will have a potential of losing their meanings since they will be general.

Compounds with Acronyms, Abbreviations or Numerals

The compounds below contain either an abbreviation or a numeral followed by a component name. The abbreviation or numeral is marked in red in the English example. The isiXhosa example below show how such constructions should be translated.

English exampleisiXhosa example
CD-ROM drive(+) Idrayivu ye-CD-ROM
2-D gridlines(+) giriyaasu 2-D
24 bit color value(+) Ibit color value ezingama-24
3.5 Floppy(+) Iflopi eyi-3.5
51/4-inch Floppy(+) Iflopi (ezii-intshi) ezi-51/4

Note: It is an acceptable principle that when a technical term of the source language does not have a straight equivalent in the target language and all other translation strategies are, for purposes of intelligibility, not applicable, the term should be used as it is in the interest of maintaining the meaning of the term to the user. (Also see the subchapter on English Terminology and the isiXhosa Terminology for further comments in this respect).

Note also that the translation of the compounds above is similar in every respect with the translation of other compounds in this chapter.

Indexes

Prepositions and Articles

Prepositions

There are no prepositions in isiXhosa. In terms of their semantic, prepositions in isiXhosa function as locatives. However, prepositional phrases in English need to be translated according to their context; anglicisms should be avoided. The table below contains frequently used verbs and the prepositions that follow them. Please use this table as a reference. Please note that the prepositions which function as locatives in isiXhosa are not written separately from their locative nouns but as part of the nouns.

US-English expressionIsiXhosa expressionComment
Migrate to(+) (fudukela kwi… )The locative formative e- forms part of the succeeding locative noun
Migrate from(+) (fuduka kwi….)
Welcome to…(+) wamkelekile kwi..The locative applies to products

The examples below contain frequently occurring noun phrases that are preceded by a preposition. Please use this table as a reference. Since the prepositions in isiXhosa function as locatives, they must be written as part of the nouns in all cases.

US-English expressionIsiXhosa expression
In the toolbar(+)kwitoolbar
on the tab(+) phezu kwetab

Key Names

isiXhosa adopts English versions.

Procedures and Syntax

Descriptors

Use the descriptor (menu, button, command, etc.) only if the source text uses it or if it is needed for clarifying the position of a term in the interface.

Status Bar Messages

Please make sure you adequately capture the meaning of messages when translating.

If you think a source status bar message is ambiguous, query it to make sure you provide the reader with the right information: if you cannot understand it, they are also not certain to. There is nothing more annoying than "help" that doesn't!

Punctuation

Commas and Other Common Punctuation Marks

In Lists and Tables

Do not use a comma after bulleted points.

If the original source entry contains a period, leave it. If the source text does not contain a period, but you split the translation into several independent sentences, put a period at the end of each sentence.

Never put a period after just one word.

The result of this method may be that some entries within one table are with and some entries are without a final period. From a technical point of view this is acceptable. The same convention applies to captions and callouts

Comma vs. Period in Numerals

English uses a period as decimal separator. In isiXhosa, a comma is used. Do not use a space for this purpose as a space separates the numeral from the abbreviation.

In paper sizes the decimal separator and the abbreviation "in" for inches are kept, since the sizes are US norms and should be represented accordingly.

English exampleisiXhosa example
5.25 cm(+) (ii-cm) ezi-5.25
5 x 7.2 inches(+) ii-intshi ezi-5 x 7.2
Letter Landscape 11 x 8.5 in(+) iLetter Landscape ezii-in ezili-11 x 8.5

For thousands, English uses a comma while many other languages use a period (at Microsoft we normally do not use a space for this purpose, but we use a period instead to avoid wrapping problems). In isiXhosa a comma is used.

English exampleisiXhosa example
1,526(+) 1,526
$ 1,526.75(+) $1,526.75

Special Characters

isiXhosa adopts English versions.

Typographic Conventions

Consistent use of typographic conventions in documentation helps users locate and interpret information easily. Generally speaking, the source format should be followed as closely as possible, i.e. terms with a particular formatting in the source should have the same formatting in the translation.

If menu, command, option, etc. names are highlighted by bold print in the source, use bold print for the corresponding translated terms. If menu, command, option, etc. names are put in quotes in the source, use quotes for the corresponding terms in the translation.

Note that in software strings, you must use two double quotes (""xxx"") to denote names within a string. If you only use a single double quotes ("xxx"), this will cause problems with the compilation, as strings are generally denoted by double quotes.

Appendix

Guidelines for the Localization of Error Messages

IsiXhosa Style in Error Messages

It is important to use consistent terminology and language style in the localized error messages, and not just translate as they appear in the US product. New localizers frequently ask for help with error messages. The main principles for translation are clarity, comprehensibility, and consistency.

Standard Phrases in Error Messages

When translating standard phrases, standardize. Note that sometimes the US uses different forms to express the same thing.

Examples:

EnglishTranslationExampleComment
Cannot … Could not …(+) Awunako(+) Awunako ukucimaIt is not easy for Xhosa to just translate such single terms as they can refer to either a person or thing. As such – in most cases translation refers to a person, and that could be wrong.
Failed to … Failure of …(+) (Akuphumeleli uku-)(+) (Akuphumeleli ukucima)See the comment above
Cannot find … Could not find … Unable to find … Unable to locate …(+) Akunako ukufumana(+) Akunako ukufumana intoSee the comment above
Not enough memory Insufficient memory There is not enough memory There is not enough memory available(+) Imemori ayanelanga(+) Imemori yekhompyutha yakho ayanelangaSee the comment above
... is not available ... is unavailable(+) … ayikho(+) i-intanethi ayikhoSee the comment above

Error Messages Containing Placeholders When localizing error messages containing placeholders, try to find out what will replace the placeholder. This is necessary for the sentence to be grammatically correct when the placeholder is replaced with a word or phrase. Note that the letters used in placeholders convey a specific meaning, see examples below:

%d, %ld, %u, and %lu means n/a
%c means n/a
%s means n/a
Examples of error messages containing placeholders:
"Checking Web %1!d! of %2!d!" means "Checking Web n/a
"INI file "%1!-.200s!" section" means "INI file n/a

When localizing error messages containing placeholders, find out what text will replace the placeholder when the user sees the error message. This process is necessary because you must ensure the resulting sentence will be grammatically correct when the placeholder is replaced with a word or phrase. Most source strings have instructions that detail what text will replace the placeholder.

In the English source string, placeholders are found in the position where they would naturally occur in that language. Since in English numerals typically precede the noun, the numeral placeholders typically precede the noun in the source strings. If the numeral follows the noun it modifies in isiXhosa, you have to move the placeholder after the noun

The letters and symbols used in placeholder text convey a specific meaning. Please refer to the following table for examples of placeholder text and corresponding error message text that users will see.

Placeholder textError message text that users will see
%d, %ld, %u, and %luNumber (such as 3 or 512)
%cLetter (such as “f” or “s”)
%sString (such as “Click here to continue.”)
“Checking Web 1!d! of 2!d!”“Checking Web of
“INI file " 1!-.200s!" section”“INI file "" section”
English exampleMessage User will see
IsiXhosa exampleReplace invalid %s?
%s already existsFile already exists Name already exists
%s is now set as your personal contact.Regina is now set as your personal contact Mr. Kim is now set as your personal contact
%s stopped working and was closedThe application stopped working and was closed

Style Guide Yoruba (yo)

Introduction

This style guide is intended for translators working on Mozilla projects. It provides in-depth information about the quality standards expected by Mozilla for the translation of all product components. All translators should read this guide before commencing any translation work.

This guide addresses general translation issues and specifies certain rules of style and usage specific to your language. It should be used as a guideline to avoid common typographic errors, and to maintain consistent terminology and writing style across a project’s components and indeed a product range. The guide should be used in conjunction with the current and previous product-specific glossaries, glossaries of other products of a product range, and the industry standard platform-specific glossaries, such as those provided by Microsoft.

This document may be updated or completed in the course of translation. Where no specific instruction or recommendation is specified, translators should use the phrasing and style that comply with industry standards.

General Style Considerations

Style guidelines

Follow these basic rules:

  • Original American English text tends to be rather casual. Yoruba language encapsulates both formal and casual texts.
  • Try to avoid long, nested sentence constructions. If necessary, break up the original sentence and regroup it syntactically.
  • Use wording that is succinct, unambiguous, and free of jargon.
  • Produce a translation that sounds as it if was originally written in your language, i.e. avoid following the original source sentence structure too closely.
  • Always bear in mind who your target audience is (i.e. an experienced computer user, a beginner, or a combination of both groups).
  • Use a consistent style throughout all product components and across a product range, to ensure that all products can be linguistically identified as part of a group of products.

Style guidelines specific to Mozilla products

  • Please refer to the reference documentation supplied by Mozilla and any Mozilla style guides and make a note of anything significant and specific that should be noted with respect to Mozilla products.

Reference terminology

The following terminology sources should be used as reference in the translation:

  • Product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency across all product components.
  • Previous version product-specific glossary, to ensure consistency between versions.
  • Glossaries of other Mozilla products, to ensure cross-product consistency.
  • Microsoft / Apple glossaries, to ensure adherence to the industry standards. It is your responsibility to make sure that you always have the latest Microsoft and Apple glossaries at your disposal. The glossaries can be found at: http://www.microsoft.com/Language and https://developer.apple.com/download/more/?=Glossaries

Terminology not found in the glossary or style guide

  • Please make a log of any terms not found in the glossary or style guide that are used frequently in the materials. Return this log to Rubric so that the terms can be incorporated into the glossary. This increases consistency in large projects.

Abbreviations

General Abbreviations

  • Avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations such as min. for minutes. Where no appropriate abbreviation exists, use the whole word. Yoruba language has VERY few words that can be written as abbreviations. For example, e.g. = b.a; etc = abbl

Measurements and Numerals

  • Be careful of the difference in use between periods and commas as decimal markers in different languages.

Filename Extensions

  • Filename extensions and graphic formats referenced by filename extensions such as BMP, GIF, HTML, PNG, TIFF must not be translated.

Acronyms

Acronyms are made up of the initial letters of several words that are represented by these letters. Some well-known examples are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory).

Use recognised translations of acronyms where these exist, but avoid creating new, non-standard acronyms.

If the source text does not do so, and if possible, spell out an abbreviation or acronym the first time it is used in a document, followed by that abbreviation or acronym in parentheses.

Examples: Data Access Objects (DAO) ActiveX data objects (ADO)

Articles

Product Names

  • Mozilla product names are used without definite or indefinite articles. They are treated as proper names. This structure is admissible in Yoruba language; yet the consistency of the concerned term will not be compromised.

Copyrights and Trademarks

Product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Before translating any product or component name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way. If in doubt, please contact the Rubric Project Manager.

The same product may be marketed under different names in different countries. One solution is to add a note saying "Marketed as -------- in the UK etc" the first time the product is mentioned, and then continue to use the name as given in the text.

During Google Nigeria and Sony-Ericsson translation projects, trademarked are not translated. E.g. Bluetooth, Google, etc.

Translation of Version Strings

  • Please use the following guidelines when localizing version strings:

Gender-neutral Translation

All Yoruba nouns and pronouns are neuter. For instance:

  • He/She/It = Ó
  • his/her/its = rẹ̀ etc

Genitive

Since Yoruba language is neuter there are hardly specific consideration in affixations. Except in very rare occasions.

Localized term vs. English term

The preferred language in the computer world is English. Therefore, a translator frequently has to decide whether to use the (correct, but obsolete) translation or simply the English word.

Gender

As stated above.

Inflections

Inflections in Yoruba language do not reflect in the written form

Plural Formation

Plurals are indicated by adding ‘awọn’ to the nouns. e.g.

SINGULAR AND PLURAL – ẸYỌ ÀTI Ọ̀PỌ̀

The article ‘àwọn’ is used to express plurality of Yoruba nouns. For instance:

ẸyọỌ̀pọ̀
ọsàn – orangeàwọn ọsàn - oranges
ẹ̀fọn – mosquitoàwọn ẹ̀fọn - mosquitoes
ọmọ - childàwọn ọmọ - children
ilé – houseàwọn ilé - houses
ènìyàn – personàwọn ènìyàn – persons/people

Verbs and Verb Forms

PRESENT, PAST, AND PARTICIPLE TENSES

Present SimplePast SimpleParticiple
Come = wacame = wahave/has/had come = ti wa
eat = jẹunstood = jẹunhave/has/had = ti jẹun

SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS TENSES

SimpleContinuous
go = lọgoing = n lọ
eat = jẹuneating = n jẹun

Headings

Headings should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly.

Capitalization

  • In English headings all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions (e.g. that, until, which) are capitalized.

In Lists and Tables

  • Whenever possible, headings of lists and tables should consist of one or two words, preferably active nouns. They should be concise, even if the source uses a longer phrase.

Indexes

Capitalization, Prepositions and Articles

  • Avoid starting an entry with a preposition or an article because of their unfavorable effect on the overall sorting order and general legibility of the index.

Key Names

  • On the first mention, use the definite article and "key" in conjunction with the key name, for example, "the ESC key". On all subsequent references, refer to the key only by its name, for example, "Click ESC".
  • As a rule of thumb, be frugal in your use of the word "key". Use it if the key name appears alone in the sentence and the actual key name does not appear on the keyboard.

Prepositions

Translate English prepositions according to their context and not too literally.

Procedures and Syntax

Descriptors

  • Use the descriptor (menu, button, command, etc.) only if the source text uses it or if it is needed for clarifying the position of a term in the interface.

Procedural Syntax

  • In procedural text, which tells the user to perform certain actions in a certain number of steps, the order in which interface terms are to appear in the translation is usually top to bottom (i.e. menu, command, dialog box, dialog box controls). Maintain this sequence unless there are technical reasons preventing it.

Example: In the "Extras" menu, click "Settings" and then "Music files".

Procedural Headings

Status Bar Messages

  • Please make sure you adequately capture the meaning of messages when translating.
  • If you think a source status bar message is ambiguous, query it to make sure you provide the reader with the right information: if you cannot understand it, they are also not certain to. There is nothing more annoying than "help" that doesn't!

Punctuation

In Lists and Tables

  • Do not use a comma after bulleted points.
  • If the original source entry contains a period, leave it. If the source text does not contain a period, but you split the translation into several independent sentences, put a period at the end of each sentence.
  • Never put a period after just one word.
  • The result of this method may be that some entries within one table are with and some entries are without a final period. From a technical point of view this is acceptable.
  • The same convention applies to captions and callouts

Comma vs. Period in Numerals

English uses a period as decimal separator.

Typographic Conventions

Consistent use of typographic conventions in documentation helps users locate and interpret information easily. Generally speaking, the source format should be followed as closely as possible, i.e. terms with a particular formatting in the source should have the same formatting in the translation.

If menu, command, option, etc. names are highlighted by bold print in the source, use bold print for the corresponding translated terms. If menu, command, option, etc. names are put in quotes in the source, use quotes for the corresponding terms in the translation.

Note that in software strings, you must use two double quotes (""xxx"") to denote names within a string. If you only use a single double quotes ("xxx"), this will cause problems with the compilation, as strings are generally denoted by double quotes.

Style Guide Zulu (zu)

Introduction

This style guide is intended for translators working on Mozilla projects. It provides in-depth information about the quality standards expected by Mozilla for the translation of all product components. All translators should read this guide before commencing any translation work.

This guide addresses general translation issues and specifies certain rules of style and usage specific to your language. It should be used as a guideline to avoid common typographic errors, and to maintain consistent terminology and writing style across a project’s components and indeed a product range. The guide should be used in conjunction with the current and previous product-specific glossaries, glossaries of other products of a product range, and the industry standard platform-specific glossaries, such as those provided by Microsoft.

This document may be updated or completed in the course of translation. Where no specific instruction or recommendation is specified, translators should use the phrasing and style that comply with industry standards.

General Style Considerations

Style guidelines

Follow these basic rules:

  • Original American English text tends to be rather casual. In technical texts Zulu tends to adopt the style of the original text because often technical vocabulary is lacking.
  • Try to avoid long, nested sentence constructions. If necessary, break up the original sentence and regroup it syntactically.
  • Use wording that is succinct, unambiguous, and free of jargon.
  • Produce a translation that sounds as it if was originally written in your language, i.e. avoid following the original source sentence structure too closely.
  • Always bear in mind who your target audience is (i.e. an experienced computer user, a beginner, or a combination of both groups).
  • Use a consistent style throughout all product components and across a product range, to ensure that all Mozilla products can be linguistically identified as part of a group of products.

Style guidelines specific to Mozilla products

  • Please refer to the reference documentation supplied by Mozilla and any Mozilla style guides and make a note of anything significant and specific that should be noted with respect to Mozilla.

Reference terminology

These normative sources must be adhered to. Any deviation from them automatically fails a string in most cases. When more than one solution is allowed in these sources, look for the recommended one in other parts of the Style Guide.

  1. Pan South African Language Board, 2008; Imithetho Yokubhala Nobhalomagama LwesiZulu (Spelling and Orthography Rules Manual)
  2. Textbook of Zulu Grammar, Clement M. Doke

The following terminology sources should be used as reference in the translation:

These sources are meant to provide supplementary information, background, comparison, etc.

  1. C. L. S. Nyembezi & G. R. Dent Scholar’s Zulu Dictionary
  2. M. O. Mbatha Isichazamazwi SesiZulu
  3. C. M. Doke et al English – Zulu Dictionary
  4. Oxford School Dictionary English – Zulu

Terminology not found in the glossary or style guide

Please make a log of any terms not found in the glossary or style guide that are used frequently in the materials. Return this log to Rubric so that the terms can be incorporated into the glossary. This increases consistency in large projects.

Abbreviations

General Abbreviations

Avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations such as min. for minutes. Where no appropriate abbreviation exists, use the whole word. There are very few abbreviations, if any, in Zulu, for example, AM and PM are replaced with full words in Zulu, i.e. Ekuseni (morning) and Ntambama (afternoon) respectively. But for easy readability these English abbreviations are also acceptable in Zulu

Measurements and Numerals

Be careful of the difference in use between periods and commas as decimal markers in different languages.

Filename Extensions

Filename extensions and graphic formats referenced by filename extensions such as BMP, GIF, HTML, PNG, TIFF must not be translated.

Acronyms

Acronyms are made up of the initial letters of several words that are represented by these letters. Some well-known examples are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory).

Use recognised translations of acronyms where these exist, but avoid creating new, non-standard acronyms.

If the source text does not do so, and if possible, spell out an abbreviation or acronym the first time it is used in a document, followed by that abbreviation or acronym in parentheses.

Examples:
Data Access Objects (DAO)
ActiveX data objects (ADO)

Articles

Product Names

  • [Mozilla] product names are used without definite or indefinite articles. Because Zulu, is an agglutinative language, it does not have articles standing on their own, articles are incorporated as prefixes, for example the page (ikhasi). Here ‘i’ is ‘the’ and ‘khasi’ is ‘page.’
  • Localized Feature Names
  • Translated feature names are handled to fit the structure of the language through prefixes, locative morphemes and so on.
  • Example ikhompyutha, ehostela, ehhotela etc

### Articles for English Borrowed Terms

When faced with an English loan word previously used in Microsoft products, consider the following options:

Motivation: Does the English word have any formally motivated features that would allow a straightforward integration into the noun class system of IsiZulu language? English words that are loaned to IsiZulu are categorized as noun class 5(a), therefore they take the (i-) prefix.

Analogy: Is there an equivalent IsiZulu term whose article could be used?

Frequency: Is the term used in other technical documentation? If so, what article is used most often?

The internet may be a helpful reference here.

  • Example: (+) i-Microsoft, i-browser, i-firefox etc.

Copyrights and Trademarks

Product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Before translating any product or component name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way. If in doubt, please contact the Rubric Project Manager.

The same product may be marketed under different names in different countries. One solution is to add a note saying "Marketed as -------- in the UK etc" the first time the product is mentioned, and then continue to use the name as given in the text. Copyright protection is granted to any original work of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression from which it can be perceived, reproduced, or communicated. The original author should be credited. Example: Onke amalungelo agodliwe, noma amalungelo okushicilela ngawabakwa-Micro

Translation of Version Strings

  • Please use the following guidelines when localizing version strings:

Please follow structure of the source

Gender-neutral Translation

Sex or gender is not a grammatical feature in IsiZulu, nevertheless there are several ways of conveying gender in the nouns.

(+)CommonfeminineMasculine
Inkomoinkomaziinkunzi
Injainjakaziichalaha

The indication of sex gender with personal nouns, these nouns are followed by the descriptive possessives formed form the Class 4 nouns, „isilisa‟ (male) and „isifazane‟ (female person).

Isibonelo:
Umuntu wesilisa
Umuntu wesifazane

Genitive

A possessive is a word which qualifies a noun. In Zulu possessives are small words that conform to concordial agreement, i.e. the prefix of a noun class determines the form that the possessive assumes. Consider the following examples:

Umshanelo wami (my broom)
Umkhumbi kaHulumeni (a ship of the Government)
Amadoda abo (their husbands)

The possessive relates to the noun, i.e. something that is possessed to that which possesses it.

Localized term vs. English term

The preferred language in the computer world is English. Therefore, a translator frequently has to decide whether to use the (correct, but obsolete) translation or simply the English word.

  • Gender : Sex or gender is not a grammatical feature in IsiZulu.
  • Inflections: Inflections can be translated in the Zulu structure and does not follow English grammatical rules
  • Plural Formation: Unlike in English where plural form is indicated by a suffix, Zulu indicates plural form by a prefix. This is directed by which noun class the word falls into. Most English loan words are in noun class 5 and their plurals are in noun class 6. For example, ikhamera, amakhamera.
  • Verbs and Verb Forms: Consistency is key in the translation of verbs. If it is grammatical to omit the predicate “be” in Zulu, you can omit it in error messages, but you should be consistent in your usage across all error messages. Be concise without changing the meaning of the source string. Many technical verbs have no equivalents and are often transliterated, for example, download dawuniloda.

Headings

Headings should convey as much information as possible about the ensuing text to help readers locate information quickly.

Capitalization

In English headings all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions (e.g. that, until, which) are capitalized. The same applies in Zulu, words at the beginning of a sentence are capitalized, pronouns (names of people, surnames, places, languages, months, names of God and gods, days of the week, organizations, headings and titles , books in the bible etc

In Lists and Tables

Whenever possible, headings of lists and tables should consist of one or two words, preferably active nouns. They should be concise, even if the source uses a longer phrase.

Hyphenation and Compound formation

General Hyphenation Rules The hyphen is used to divide words between syllables, to link parts of a compound word, and to connect the parts of an inverted or imperative verb form. Example: (+) Nkosazane Dlamini-Zuma

En Dash

The en dash is used as a minus sign, usually with spaces before and after.

The en dash is also used in number ranges, such as those specifying page numbers. No spaces are used around the en dash in this case.

Em Dash

The em dash should only be used to emphasize an isolated element or introduce an element that is not essential to the meaning conveyed by the sentence. When a speaker trails away from a certain idea and eventually comes back

Example: (+) Uthe uMongameli Zuma – ngenkathi ethula iNkulumo yeSizwe – asiqikelele ukuba sisebenzise ugesi ngokucophelela.

Ellipses (Suspension Points)

This means that certain words have been omitted Example: (+) Lala sithandwa … uphumule

English Compounds

If there is an equivalent it is used, or else the closest equivalent is used following Zulu grammatical rules.

Product Names

Compounds with Acronyms, Abbreviations or Numerals

Acronyms

Acronyms and abbreviations are very rare in Zulu. The words are normally spelt out. The acronyms that have been accepted in isiZulu do not follow the rule of “first letters of a set of other words”. A generalization is that acronyms that have become part of the everyday lexicon take an initial upper case with the rest of the letters in lower case, for example:

uMzukazwe - where uM is taken from UMkhandlu
- zu from wesiZulu
-kazwe from kazwelonke.

Caution: Do not include a generic term after an acronym or abbreviation if one of the letters in the acronym stands for that term. Even though this might occur in the US-English version, it should be “corrected” in the localized version. The following examples show the redundancy in red for English terms.

(-) RPC call i-RPC
(-) HTML language i-HTML
(-) TCP/IP-Protocol i-TCP
(-) PIN Number i-PIN
Numerals

Zulu spells out numbers, time etc. Therefore digits are adopted into the language and the source text is followed. Although that is the case, numbers often cannot stand on their own, a prefix will be needed. For example, you have 8 new message will be” Unemiyalezo eyisi-8 emisha. In the case of an unidentified number, for example: You have {{value}} new message, because groups of numbers take different prefixes, it is best to use the neutral prefix ‘ngu’, rather than a prefix that is specifically used for 8, 10, 50 etc. ‘Unemiyalezo engu-{{value}} emisha’. This will be appropriate for any number.

Indexes

Capitalization, Prepositions and Articles

Avoid starting an entry with a preposition or an article because of their unfavorable effect on the overall sorting order and general legibility of the index.

Key Names

  • On the first mention, use the definite article and "key" in conjunction with the key name, for example, "the ESC key". On all subsequent references, refer to the key only by its name, for example, "Click ESC".
  • As a rule of thumb, be frugal in your use of the word "key". Use it if the key name appears alone in the sentence and the actual key name does not appear on the keyboard.

Prepositions

Pay attention to the correct use of prepositions in translations. Influenced by the English language, many translators omit them or change the word order. In Zulu there are no prepositions. The idea of the so-called prepositions in English is incorporated into the verb or as an adverb or locative.

Pronouns

There are four types of pronouns in Zulu, namely, Absolute, Demonstrative, Quantitative and Qualificative.

Example:

(+) Absolute: This indicates a certain noun, it does not describe, or limit it but it is rather a „concord‟ converted into a complete word. Abantu = bona, (bona banamanga)

Demonstrative: There are three positional types of demonstratives, „this or these,‟ „that or those, and that „yonder and those yonder‟ (+) Ngiyabathanda laba (+) Ngiyabathanda labo (+) Ngiyabathanda labaya

Quantitative: There are three main types of quantitative pronouns, all, only, and the numeral roots with a special pronominal prefix in each case. -nke, -dwa, -bili, thathu, ne, hlanu njll (+) Wonke umuntu uyahamba (+) Ufuna ukudla yedwa (+) Bakhuluma bobabili

Qualificative pronouns: there is no inherent change in the adjective, relative or numerative to form qualificative pronouns. Adjective: (+) Omkhulu ufikile Relative: (+) Ngifuna lo obomvu Enumerative: (+) Ufuna ziphi?

Procedures and Syntax

Syntax and register differ between IsiZulu and English in the following ways: IsiZulu has a basic SVO word order, relative clauses and possessive phrases follow the head noun and auxiliaries precede the verb.

Example: Ingane yami enhle iya esikole okokuqala namuhla.

Descriptors

  • Use the descriptor (menu, button, command, etc.) only if the source text uses it or if it is needed for clarifying the position of a term in the interface.

Procedural Syntax

  • In procedural text, which tells the user to perform certain actions in a certain number of steps, the order in which interface terms are to appear in the translation is usually top to bottom (i.e. menu, command, dialog box, dialog box controls). Maintain this sequence unless there are technical reasons preventing it.
  • Example:
  • In the "Extras" menu, click "Settings" and then "Music files".

Procedural Headings

Status Bar Messages

  • Please make sure you adequately capture the meaning of messages when translating.
  • If you think a source status bar message is ambiguous, query it to make sure you provide the reader with the right information: if you cannot understand it, they are also not certain to. There is nothing more annoying than "help" that doesn't!

Punctuation

Commas and Other Common Punctuation Marks: Please refer to the official Pan South African Language Board, 2008; Imithetho Yokubhala Nobhalomagana LwesiZulu (Spelling and Orthography Rules Manual)

In Lists and Tables

  • Do not use a comma after bulleted points.
  • If the original source entry contains a period, leave it. If the source text does not contain a period, but you split the translation into several independent sentences, put a period at the end of each sentence.
  • Never put a period after just one word.
  • The result of this method may be that some entries within one table are with and some entries are without a final period. From a technical point of view this is acceptable.
  • The same convention applies to captions and callouts

Comma vs. Period in Numerals

English uses a period as decimal separator. Please follow source text.

Version Numbers

  • Please follow source text.

Typographic Conventions

Consistent use of typographic conventions in documentation helps users locate and interpret information easily. Generally speaking, the source format should be followed as closely as possible, i.e. terms with a particular formatting in the source should have the same formatting in the translation.

If menu, command, option, etc. names are highlighted by bold print in the source, use bold print for the corresponding translated terms. If menu, command, option, etc. names are put in quotes in the source, use quotes for the corresponding terms in the translation.

Note that in software strings, you must use two double quotes (""xxx"") to denote names within a string. If you only use a single double quotes ("xxx"), this will cause problems with the compilation, as strings are generally denoted by double quotes.

Wizard Names

Should be translated accordingly, if necessary.